Presentation on theme: "Present subjunctive with noun clauses. This is fancy grammar talk for a sentence with at least 2 clauses; the verb in the first (or main) clause determines."— Presentation transcript:
Present subjunctive with noun clauses
This is fancy grammar talk for a sentence with at least 2 clauses; the verb in the first (or main) clause determines whether or not the verb in the second (or dependent, subordinate etc.) clause is subjunctive. If the verb in the first clause fits into any of several categories such as doubt, emotion, will/wish/want/desire, judgment/opinion, negation and several more (just deal with it), then the verb in the second clause is subjunctive. ◦ Ejemplo: I want you to learn. Quiero que aprendas. The second clause is called the noun clause because it functions like a noun; it is the object of the first verb (what you hope, wish, doubt etc.)
If the verb in the second clause has the same subject (yo, tú, ellos, Juan) as the verb in the first clause, you don’t use que and you don’t conjugate the second verb. ◦ Ejemplo: Juan wants to learn Juan quiere aprender.
Again, whenever you want to say that someone or something wants or wishes or hopes or doubts or doesn’t believe or doesn’t think or it’s not possible or it is possible or etc. that someone or something else does or is something.
If the verb in the main clause falls into one these categories the second verb is subjunctive: NecessityJudgmentWishes UncertaintyEmotionEmotion DesireDesireDesire EmotionInfluenceDoubt Impersonal expressions (“es necesario que…”) Negation God grant (“ojalá…”)
“Ojalá vengas a la fiesta.” “Quiero que Marcos me llame.” “Yo dudo que salgas tan temprano.” “Es posible que no me gusten.”
Aprendes = You learn Aprendas = You learn ◦ Say what? Then how is it different? ◦ Answer: it just feels different to a native speaker.
Put the verb in the yo form of the present Take off the –o Add these endings: -ar -er / -ir -a-amos -as -a-an -e-emos -es -e-en
Boot verbs in the present are also boot verbs in the present subjunctive ◦ poder puedapodamos puedas puedapuedan
It’s an –ir boot verb; in this case the nosotros form gets the same change as the él and ellos (3rd person) forms in the preterit: ◦ dormir duermadurmamos duermas duermaduerman
These verbs get the same spelling change as with the preterit, but no accent ◦ tocar → toque etc. ◦ pagar → pague etc. ◦ empezar → empiece etc.
Dar → dé, des, dé, demos, den Ir → vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayan Ser → sea, seas, sea, seamos, sean Haber → haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan Estar → esté, estés, esté, estemos, estén Saber → sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepan
The subjunctive still lives in English, although it’s hanging on for dear life, and we may just put it out of its misery soon enough. It uses the infinitive form of the verb for the 3rd person singular subject (he, she, it) after clauses with similar meanings to the ones in Spanish that introduce the subjunctive: ◦ It’s necessary that he learn the lesson. ◦ It’s important that Juan be here on time. Sound weird? That’s because we are in the process of murdering the subjunctive in English. You still have to learn it in Spanish, though.
THESE WORDS ALWAYS INTRODUCE THE SUBJUNCTIVE aconsejar que-to advise that alegrarse de que -to be happy that dejar que-to let/allow that desear que-to wish that dudar que-to doubt that (me) emociona que -(I’m) excited that (me) encanta que – (I) love that (me) enfada que - (I’m) angry that (me) enoja que – (I’m) angry that esperar que- to hope that estar orgulloso de que – to be proud that exigir que-to demand that (me) extraña que – It seems strange that (me) gusta que – (I) like that
impedir (i) que-to impede insistir en que-to insist on (me) irrita que – (I’m) irritated that lamentar que- to lament that mandar que-to order that (me) molesta que – (I’m) bothered that necesitar que-to need negar que - to deny that ojalá que -hopefully oponerse a que-to oppose pedir (i) que-to ask that permitir que-to permit that preferir (ie) que-to prefer that prohibir que- to prohibit querer (ie) que-to want recomendar (ie) que -to recommend that rogar (ue) que-to beg that sentir (ie) que – to regret that (me) sorprende que – (I’m) surprised that sugerir (ie) que-to suggest that suplicar que-to beg that temer que – to fear that tener miedo de que – to be scared that
THESE IMPERSONAL EXPRESSIONS ALWAYS INTRODUCE THE SUBJUNCITVE es absurdo que - it’s absurd that es agradable que- it’s agreeable that es bueno que- it’s good that es dudoso que- it’s doubtful that es escandaloso que- it’s scandalous that es importante que- it’s important that es imposible que- it’s impossible that es improbable que- it’s improbable that es indispensable que- it’s indispensable that es inútil que- it’s useless that es justo que- it’s right / just that es malo que- it’s bad that es mejor que- it’s better that es necesario que- it’s necessary that es peor que- it’s worse that es posible que- it’s possible that es probable que- it’s probable that es raro que- it’s rare that es ridículo que- it’s ridiculous that es sorprendente que- it’s surprising that es triste que- it’s sad that es una lástima que- it’s a shame that es útil que- it’s useful that más vale que- it’s better that no es que- it’s not that no es cierto que- it’s not certain that no es evidente que- it’s not evident that no es obvio que- it’s not obvious that no es verdad que- it’s not true that ojalá que- hopefully
THESE WORDS ALWAYS INTRODUCE THE INDICATIVE aprender que-to learn that comprender que-to understand that creer que-to believe that darse cuenta de que-to realize that entender que-to understand that estar cierto que -to be certain that estar seguro que-to be sure that oír que-to hear that opinar que-to think (opine) that parecer que-to seem that pensar que- to think that saber que-to know that ver que-to see that