Presentation on theme: "This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Cartoon group - Chamberlain and Appeasement 1938 (Teacher) This group."— Presentation transcript:
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Cartoon group - Chamberlain and Appeasement 1938 (Teacher) This group of 5 cartoons has been chosen with two purposes in mind. One is to provide students with an opportunity to work with cartoon sources from the time of the crisis in Europe in 1938 (and a little earlier) and to provide guidance on how they might interrogate and interpret these sources. The second purpose is to encourage students to put these sources into a wider context. Low's cartoons have become the dominant image of Chamberlain and British foreign policy in the 1930s. To a great extent this is because history was rewritten during the wartime period, when many who supported Chamberlain's policies subsequently distanced themselves from him. The Strube cartoon in this collection is a reminder that the situation is 1938 was far from simple, and that the bumbling character in the Low cartoons was not one which many British people recognised at the time. A further aim is to address a wider question, using the sources as a body of evidence alongside other knowledge and sources which students may have accumulated and in the process build up students' understanding of the very nature of the work of the historian. The suggested way to use this collection is to divide the class into five groups and ask each group to analyse one or perhaps two cartoons. They should then report back to the rest of their class on their cartoon(s). Hopefully this will generate discussion, particularly if other groups do not follow or agree with a group's interpretation. The questions which accompany each cartoon are designed to guide discussion, not to be answered as written tasks. In this teacher version of the group the annotations provide a guide to the cartoons and the context in which they were created. After the students have reported back on their cartoon, encourage other groups to ask questions or even question the group’s analysis. Once the groups have all reported, encourage the class to formulate their own ideas about what this collection tells them as historians. Try to give the students space to formulate their own ideas and then construct their case and support it using the cartoons. Hopefully this should generate debate on the issue of whether Chamberlain is represented fairly in these cartoons. However, if they are faltering, you could introduce one or two of the following propositions for them to consider and debate: The sources prove that Chamberlain was weak. Chamberlain has been treated unfairly by history. Low was never a supporter of Chamberlain and so his cartoons on Appeasement cannot be trusted. Strube's portrayal of Chamberlain is completely unrealistic. Strube's portrayal of Chamberlain is representative of British public opinion at the time.
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: LSE2463 Nazi hunting exhibition. Low; David ( ) : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive This is arguably one of the strongest arguments in favour of Low's view of appeasement. He was arguing back in 1937 that Hitler could not be trusted and that British policy was helping and encouraging him. We can see that he has already shot the democractic Weimar Republic and mounted its head and has done the same for the Treaty of Versailles. There is a nice detail that Versailles is the most formidable prize. The spindly and feeble looking Halifax and the cowardly looking British lion set out clearly that Low thinks the British government is being weak and cowardly in its dealings with Germany. Hitler is a menace and he needs to be stopped.
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: LSE2494 Increasing pressure. Low; David ( ) : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive There are echoes of the origins of the First world War in this cartoon, with a distant event triggering off a war. However, Low is arguing the exact opposite viw, that Britain and France should act over Austria even though it seems distant. Low argues that if the Nazi war machine is allowed to take Austria, it will take over every neighbouring state one by one. France seems to be prepared to act but not without Britain. Chamberlain is clear that he feels the issue is not his business. It is interesting to note that Chamberlain looks quite dashing in this image, compared to the bumbling character Low draws him as in later pieces.
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: DL1371 No caption Low; David ( ) : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive The message is crystal clear in this source although modern students may not be familiar with the expression 'eating humble pie'. Despite this the idea that Chamberlain has been humbled or humiliated should be recognisable. The fact that the pie is filled with discarded treaties and that the bird in the pie looks rather unappetising is also revealing. Finally we see Low's classic portrayal of Chamberlain as the out of touch old man who is out of his depth in these matters.
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: GS0496 No caption Sidney 'George' Strube : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive This cartoon is strikingly different from the portrayal of chamberlain we see in Low's cartoons of the same period. Chamberlain is upright, determined and with a steely gaze he faces down the spirit of war. Strube is very clear that his Chamberlain is not the bumbling fool Low sees him as.
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - Record code: DL1374 Our new defence Low; David ( ) : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive Low's biting sarcasm carries an unmistakeable message. Hitler has duped the innocent Chamberlain and his allies. The piece of paper is nothing more than that and the childish 'I will be good' is an attack on both Hitler's integrity and on Chamberlain's alleged naivety.