Presentation on theme: "Short Sell in the Stock Market Mr. Henry AP Economics."— Presentation transcript:
Short Sell in the Stock Market Mr. Henry AP Economics
What does “short sell” mean? When an investor goes long on an investment, it means that he or she has bought a stock believing its price will rise in the future. Conversely, when an investor goes short, he or she is anticipating a decrease in share price.
Short Selling Short selling starts with borrowing a stock from your broker You sell the borrowed stock hoping to buy it back at a lower price and return (short cover) it to your broker for a profit Short selling is the selling of a stock that the seller doesn't own. More specifically, a short sale is the sale of a security that isn't owned by the seller, but that is promised to be delivered. That may sound confusing, but it's actually a simple concept.
When you short sell a stock, your broker will lend it to you. The stock will come from the brokerage's own inventory, from another one of the firm's customers, or from another brokerage firm. The shares are sold and the proceeds are credited to your account. Sooner or later, you must "close" the short by buying back the same number of shares (called covering) and returning them to your broker. If the price drops, you can buy back the stock at the lower price and make a profit on the difference. If the price of the stock rises, you have to buy it back at the higher price, and you lose money.
Example: Short Selling and Covering I borrow the stock from the broker (2% brokerage fee) I sell it. Now I’ve got cash. I short cover by buying the stock back in the stock exchange at a lower price I feel that IBM stock is going to go down and want to short sell the stock.
Example: Short Selling and Covering I return the stock to the broker (2% brokerage fee). I get the difference between the high price and the low price minus the brokerage fees. Note: it’s important to remember that you borrow the stock from a broker and return the stock. You do not give the broker any money (except for brokerage fee).
Splits? Say you had a $100 bill and someone offered you two $50 bills for it. Would you take the offer? This might sound like a pointless question, but the action of a stock split puts you in a similar position.
A stock split is a corporate action that increases the number of the corporation's outstanding shares by dividing each share, which in turn diminishes its price. The stock's market capitalization, however, remains the same, just like the value of the $100 bill does not change if it is exchanged for two $50s. For example, with a 2-for-1 stock split, each stockholder receives an additional share for each share held, but the value of each share is reduced by half: two shares now equal the original value of one share before the split.
The first reason is psychology. As the price of a stock gets higher and higher, some investors may feel the price is too high for them to buy, or small investors may feel it is unaffordable. Splitting the stock brings the share price down to a more "attractive" level. The effect here is purely psychological. The actual value of the stock doesn't change one bit, but the lower stock price may affect the way the stock is perceived and therefore entice new investors. Splitting the stock also gives existing shareholders the feeling that they suddenly have more shares than they did before, and of course, if the prices rises, they have more stock to trade. Another reason, and arguably a more logical one, for splitting a stock is to increase a stock's liquidity, which increases with the stock's number of outstanding shares.