Presentation on theme: "US Civil War 1861-1865. A. Fort Sumter 1.One of 2 federal forts still in south. 2.Supplies at Ft. Sumter running low – Lincoln had 2 choices – both bad."— Presentation transcript:
US Civil War
A. Fort Sumter 1.One of 2 federal forts still in south. 2.Supplies at Ft. Sumter running low – Lincoln had 2 choices – both bad a.No supplies to fort=surrender and ruin his reputation. b.Send in reinforcements = act of war and North would be seen as the aggressor. c.SOLUTION= Lincoln sent supplies ONLY, let SC know there were no weapons or troops.
3. Fort bombarded 3 days later (April 12, 1861) with 70 cannon for 34 hrs. – no casualties 4. April 15 – Lincoln calls for blockade of Southern ports – seen as act of war.
B. Border States (MD, MO, KY and DE) 1.Slaves states that stayed with Union because they were not the aggressors. 2.Crucial to Union cause – contribute 300,000 troops. 3.West Virginia secedes from VA to join Union in mid Contained over 50% of South’s white population and the fewest slaves. 5.Lincoln promises that main purpose of the war is to preserve the Union, not free the slaves.
C. Confederate Assets 1.Needed only a stalemate to “win” 2.On the defense; north had to invade and conquer 3.Had the stronger moral cause (initially) of self – determination, culture and homeland. 4.Superb military leaders a.Robert E. Lee b.Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson 5.Strong cavalry and infantrymen
D. Confederate Drawbacks 1.South still very agricultural – lacked industrial capacity to wage war. 2.Border states did not secede. 3.Did not get much needed foreign support. 4.Only 9 million ppl in South (3.5 mil of which were enslaved) 5.Slaves not enlisted to fight until 1 mo. before end of war. 6.Union blockade devastated southern economy.
E. Northern Advantages 1.22 million people – 3:1 advantage over South. 2.Possessed ¾ of nation’s wealth. 3.Possessed ¾ of nation’s railroads. 4.Controlled sea though blockade of Southern ports. 5.Border states
F. Northern Disadvantages 1.Ineffective generals. 2.“Copperheads” in north supported South. 3.Robber barons becoming wealthy off of war at expense of war effort.
G. Union War Strategy 1.Union originally thought war would be over in 90 days. 2.Union suffers major losses in 1861 – early a.First Bull Run b.Peninsula Campaign c.Vicksburg d.Chancellorsville 3.Initial losses a wake-up call for the North – this was going to be a long, hard fought war.
4. War develops into 4 Stages: a.Strangle the south with blockade – “Anaconda Plan” b.Control the Mississippi and divide the South in 2. c.Destroy the South by cutting a swath through Georgia and turn northward. d.Capture Richmond
H. Antietam and Emancipation Proclamation 1.Sept 17, 1862 – arguably the most important battle of the war – and the bloodiest 2.Lee invades MD hoping to take it from the Union and gain foreign support. 3.Ended in stalemate, Lee retreats 4.McClellan should have won or pursued Lee in retreat – did neither and was removed as commander of Union Army. 5.25% of southern troops died in battle, yet never so close to victory. 6.Foreign gov’ts decide NOT to intervene on South’s behalfForeign gov’ts decide NOT to intervene on South’s behalf 7.52:20 on Ep 3
7. Lincoln got the victory he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation a.Issued on Sept 22, 1862 but to go into effect on Jan b.Only frees slaves in “states in rebellion”, not the 4 border states that fought for the Union and still had slavery. c.North had new moral purpose and needed boost in morale. d.Some northerners thought it went too far, others thought it did not go far enough.
I. War Rages On 1.Western Theater a.Led by US Grant, Lincoln’s most able general. b.Wins at Fts Henry and Donelson c.Wins at Shiloh in April Eastern Theater a.South more successful b.Lincoln goes through string of generals – Burnside, Hooker, Meade…
c. Gettysburg i.July 1-3, 1862 ii.Lee moves into North again in hopes of peace settlement OR foreign support. iii.3 days of fighting ends in Lee retreating, Meade allows him to retreat – war could have been over. d. Vicksburg i.South surrenders the following day (July 4 th ) after 7 mo. Siege at Vicksburg, TN ii.North gains control of Mississippi - South split in two iii.Grant promoted to General of the East iv.Boost in Union morale v.Ep 5Ep 5
J. Sherman’s March 1.William T. Sherman pushed his way through Georgia and captured Atlanta in Sept Cut 60 mi wide swath and got to Savannah by Dec. 3.Determined to inflict horrors of war on civilians to break its will to fight = TOTAL WAR. 4.Despite brutality of campaign, it probably shortened the war.
K. Election of Elected to 2 nd term vs. Geo B. McClellan (former general). 2.Cites “with malice towards none and charity for all” in his 2 nd inaugural address – showing mercy for reconstruction of south. 3.His election a crushing blow to south – total war would continue.
L. Appomattox 1.South tried to negotiate a “peace between two countries” – Lincoln would accept nothing but “unconditional surrender”. 2.Confederate Army surrounded near Appomattox Court House in VA 3.Lee surrenders April 9, 1865 – 30,000 captured allowed to go home and keep horses for spring planting.
M. Assassination 1.5 days after surrender, Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth in Ford’s Theater. 2.Died at the height of his popularity. 3.South cheered initially but soon realized that it spelled disaster for them a.Lincoln’s Reconstruction moderate compared to what radical Republicans had in mind b.North now more bitter towards South after Lincoln’s death – wanted them to pay.
Questions for Discussion Why did the South lose? Was it because of a loss of will or something more? What was the turning point of the war? Lincoln is perennially ranked as the best (or second best) President of the 43 we’ve had – is this deserved or is his reputation inflation because he was assassinated?