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Establishments of Learning Intellectual movement in the late Middle Ages Movement produces world’s first Universities Movement called Scholasticism From.

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Presentation on theme: "Establishments of Learning Intellectual movement in the late Middle Ages Movement produces world’s first Universities Movement called Scholasticism From."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Establishments of Learning Intellectual movement in the late Middle Ages Movement produces world’s first Universities Movement called Scholasticism From Greek skholastikos Distinguish between Academic (theoretical) and practical education

3 The Rise of Scholasticism Various factors led to scholasticism: Peace in Europe, Catholic Church at the Zenith of its power, Crusades Need for a restructuring of education institutions Schools start putting more emphasis on philosophy and reason Modelled after feudal trade guilds Pope Innocent III Arguably the most powerful (worldly) pope in history

4 A New Education Model Greater demands for education among nobles and clergy Structure in which apprentice student studies under Master (Teacher) Northern Europe, Masters formed corporation In Southern Europe, students banned together George Lucas provides a similar framework in Star Wars to the University model: “Always two there are, a Master and an Apprentice.”

5 Education in France 1175, University of Paris Where the term University comes from Part of the Latin motto “universitas magistrorum et scholarium” Other notable schools in France include Palatine, Notre-Dame, and Sainte-Genevieve University of Paris

6 Education in Italy University of Bolgona became centre of Jurisprudence Students studied rhetoric, grammar, legal documentation University in Salerno focused on ancient botanical and medical works Formed a close relationship with Muslims Where would the fiction be without court drama…all thanks to the hardworking Legal scholars of the Middle Ages

7 University Curriculum program called Studium generale Students studied Theology, Law, Medicine, Physics, and the arts Two levels of the arts Trivium Quadrium

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9 Overview Lived in the 11 th century Born in Northern Italy Three major works: Monologian, Proslogian, Cur Deus Homo Concerned with the relationship between faith and reason Believed that if one starts with faith, one can properly reason credo ut intelligum St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury Saint and Doctor of the Church

10 Aristotelian Invasion Western world influenced by Ancient thinkers Augustine influenced by Philosopher Plato Crusaders discover another thinker, preserved by Muslim scholars, Aristotle Initially skepticism in the west about Aristotle Anselm embraces Aristotle Aristotle B.C.

11 Anselm’s Two Major Arguments Argument for the existence of God Satisfaction theory of Atonement

12 Monologian Begins by arguing for the existence of God Arguments for God based off the presences of varying degrees of good in nature After establishing existence of God, goes onto argue what God must be like (i.e. the characteristics of God) God is: Simplicity. Eternity. Omnipresence. Immutable. Natural World contains degrees of the good (ex. The above image), which is the starting point for Anselm’s argument

13 Proslogian Develops the ontological argument for the existence of God “That, which nothing grater can be conceived”

14 Objections Italian Monk, Gaunilio “A Plea for a fool” Argued that one can imagine the greatest island, does not make one’s imagined island true.

15 Anselm’s Response Gaunilo’s objection can be applied to islands, and anything else that has a beginning, an end, and is composition of parts Objection does not apply to God The argument applies to Being itself, not particular parts of being

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17 Background Both Faith and Reason have harmony in God Dominican Friar Studied under Albert the Great Chair of the Department of Theology at University of Paris Summa Theologica

18 Thee Popular Views During Aquinas’ Time Reason will reveal what humans need to know Reason (especially Aristotle) is dangerous, prioritize the Bible over reason Reason and the Bible are both important, but are completely separate and have nothing to do with one another

19 Transubstantiation Application of Aristotelian logic to Sacraments Mystery of Sacramentum (sacraments) Church had always believed something happening during consecration Aquinas provided language to explain this phenomenon Accidents remain, but the substance changes

20 Five Proofs of God’s Existence Argument from Motion Argument from Efficient Cause Argument from Possibility and Necessity Argument from Gradation of Being Argument from Design

21 Animals, Humans, and Angels Animals gain information from senses Angels gain information from intellect This predisposes Angels to have direct access to metaphysical knowledge Humans are situated between Animals and Angels, with senses and intellect Unlike Angels, do not possess perfect intellect


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