Presentation on theme: "Can you name any groupings of countries?"— Presentation transcript:
1Can you name any groupings of countries? Can countries at different levels of development be grouped? Why? What impact does this have?Can you name any groupings of countries?
2Objectives for three lessons All will be able to describe how countries at different levels of development can be grouped and give some reasons for this groupingMost will analyse the impact of these groupings and apply these concepts to one real world example.Some will apply the concepts to a range of contrasting real world examples.STRIPE: Innovative learner
3Look at the following map, which shows the GNP per capita for most countries in 2006. To what extent does this map justify the division of the world into ‘Rich North/Poor South’? (7 marks)How would we answer this in the exam?
4Mark schemeLevel 1 Basic material with regard to pattern. Says only that it reflects a development gap, with high GNP countries to the north and low GNP countries to the south. (1–4 marks)Level 2 Recognises that there are aspects of the pattern other than simply rich areas/poor areas, e.g. great variety within Africa/Middle East. Attempts to answer question by addressing ‘to what extent’, seeing the more negative points given above. (5–7 marks)
5How many of these acronyms do you recognise? What do they stand for? Stands for:EUNAFTAASEANOPECIMFEuropean UnionNorth American Free Trade AssociationInternational Monetary Fund
9TaskYou need to find out the purpose and consequences of one of the organisation below, producing an information sheet/poster.Choose from:EUG8OPECIBRD
10Reflection…What do you already know about your allocated organisation?What do you need to find out?How will they do this?
11How many countries can you name which are in the EU?
12Objectives for three lessons All will be able to describe how countries at different levels of development can be grouped and give some reasons for this groupingMost will analyse the impact of these groupings and apply these concepts to one real world example.Some will apply the concepts to a range of contrasting real world examples.STRIPE: Innovative learner
13TaskYou need to find out the purpose and consequences of one of the organisation below, producing an information sheet/poster.Choose from:EUG8OPECIBRD
14Reflection… What information has been easy to find? What is difficult? Why?How have you avoided bias?
15Can countries at different levels of development be grouped. Why Can countries at different levels of development be grouped? Why? What impact does this have?Share your posters/information sheets as a class. What have you done well? What could be improved?
16Objectives for three lessons All will be able to describe how countries at different levels of development can be grouped and give some reasons for this groupingMost will analyse the impact of these groupings and apply these concepts to one real world example.Some will apply the concepts to a range of contrasting real world examples.STRIPE: Innovative learner
17Answer this exam question: ‘With reference to one or more specific examples, discuss the reasons for the groupings of nations.’ 10 marks.Share your answers as a class and mark using the AQA mark scheme in your pack.Produce a model answer for this question, working as a class.
18Assess the role of social and economic groupings of nations in the world today. (40 marks) An answer to this question is included in your pack – read it through once.Use the marking grid to decide on a level for each element, then on an overall level.Your teacher will show you how it was actually marked by the examiner (see next slides)
19How was this answer marked? Social and economic groupings can provide substantial benefits for their members: political unity and strength, greater economic security, and wider cultural integration. It is therefore unsurprising that many countries seek membership to these organisations. However some economists note that there can often be clear power disparities between their members, and inequalities in the actual benefit gained from inclusion into the groupings. Furthermore, many external organisations, including the World Trade Organisation (WTO) claim that the activities and biases of some economic groupings have been influential in the creation of economic and development issues in countries outside the groupings. This essay will explore the role of social and economic groupings from numerous perspectives to suggest whether these groupings have had any predominantly positive or negative implications on the global society.[Clear sense of assessment stated in this introduction – a range of views on this topic is recognised]
20The WTO governs world trade aiming to make trade fairer for everyone The WTO governs world trade aiming to make trade fairer for everyone. However, in similarity to the governing of the EU, there is a lack of proportional representation – Malawi has one member, France has 165.[Knowledge, and critical understanding, but could/should have been developed]
21One of the most prominent and powerful economic groupings is the European Union (EU), originally founded as a trade union between 6 European countries including West Germany, France and Italy to improve trade links for coal, iron ore and other natural resources need to fuel repair and redevelopment of urban areas after WW2. Since its conception, the majority of western European countries have joined the EU which has now grown to integrate the countries beyond the trade of natural resources. [Knowledge] Today, as an economic union, the EU allows free movement of labour, trade and capital. This provides greater economic interdependence between the member countries and therefore greater economic security, key to sustainable growth. Furthermore, the EU shares common economic and political policy. This can be seen as both beneficial, and as a hindrance to economic growth. Shared policy makes it clear as to what economic activity is deemed appropriate for member countries; although external countries all have their own economic policies, established policy in the EU gives greater trade consistency, aiding and facilitating free trade (tariff free) trading within the EU and for external countries wishing to trade with multiple EU members. [Strong evidence of critical understanding]
22However, common policy can also threaten industries However, common policy can also threaten industries. The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU restricts the production of some goods, and has for example, forced the UK to share fishing grounds with France and Spain. Shared cultural preferences for cod and haddock have resulted in overfishing and therefore have threatened coastal ecosystems. Such policies can be seen to lead to environmentally unsustainable operations. Furthermore the cultural integration created by the EU has led to market separation of goods which are deemed popular (dubbed ‘butter mountains’ and ‘wine lakes’). This suggests that the EUs shared policies have had negative economic implications.[Strong knowledge, and critical understanding. Clear link to theme of assessment throughout this section]
23Membership to the EU is highly sought after although there are economic restrictions. These are perhaps outweighed by the potential benefits of joining the EU with free movement of labour being a particularly attractive incentive. Many eastern European countries, such as Croatia, have not experienced the same growth experienced by more western economies such as the UK and France. This is probably both physical and political in nature – global positioning. Croatia therefore is at a lower stage of development ranking in the ‘Take off’ or creeping into the ‘Drive to maturity’ stage of Rostow’s model.[References to theory – knowledge – but not developed strongly. Disappointing]
24Countries at Stage 5 of Rostow’s model, such as the G8 countries, typically have careers available in higher paid industries and also labour deficits in industries that are seen as unwanted or comparatively low paid for jobs in these countries. With the free movement of labour, it is possible for workers to migrate to these countries and send wealth back to the donor country in the form ofremittance, therefore encouraging an upward spiral of economic growth (higher consumer spending, ability to invest more heavily in services). This suggests that for these countries, there are predominantly positive economic implications which can consequently have social benefits.[G8 is a grouping – not commonly referred to, but candidate has managed to link it to the question. Some evidence of critical understanding]
25Arguably however, this is a pragmatic and overly idealistic view Arguably however, this is a pragmatic and overly idealistic view. In reality, disproportional representation in the EU blights opportunity for economic growth; the shared policy is often tailored in favour of the older members, such as trade agreements between member countries. These are enforced before countries can even gain membership to the EU and therefore countries seeking admission to the EU can often find themselves tailoring policy in favour of western members for years without gaining the benefits. For these countries, EU membership may therefore not have predominantly positive social and economic implications.[Strong evidence of critical understanding and synopticity – role of decision makers]
26The G8 countries are a form of social organisation The G8 countries are a form of social organisation. They aim to make society and quality of life equal around the world, whereby the rich will assist the poor. The G8 sets targets for aid, environmental practices, which they say can be met because of their economic power, perhaps facilitated by their roles in economic unions.[Could have been developed]
27Other free trade unions such as NAFTA (consisting of Canada, the USA and Mexico) have suffered economic losses due to the activity of the EU. For example, the ‘banana wars’ of the 1990s was argued to be a result of the EU’s violation of the WTOs global trade policies. As a former British colony, the EU dropped the tariffs on the trade of bananas with some Caribbean countries but kept them enforced for Latin American producers (owned by North American corporations). The EU’s favouring of the Caribbean, despite their absence from an established trade union with the EU had severe economic implications on the Latin American economies reliant on this trade. This suggests that economic groupings such as the EU play a substantial role in the global economy.[Clear assessment; clear synopticity; more knowledge and use of exemplification, plus critical understanding]
28K - 4↓, C/U – 4, C/S - 3↑, Syn – 4↓, Q – 4. Overall Level 4 = 34 marks Arguably, social and economic groupings dominate global affairs. It could even be argued that in the case of some socio-political debates, such as the ‘banana wars’, they are both the cause and the solution to the problem. Perhaps the benefits of membership to social and economic groupings are only fully held by the most powerful members of these organisations, such as the G8 countries? For others, membership is seen as the way forward – but perhaps this is not truly realised.[Brief conclusion – repeats earlier ideas and themes. Last sentence not entirely clear]K - 4↓, C/U – 4, C/S - 3↑, Syn – 4↓, Q – 4.Overall Level 4 = 34 marks
29Reflection… What challenges did the exam questions present? How were these overcome? What can we learn from this?
30To what extent have we achieved our objectives To what extent have we achieved our objectives? How can we build upon this?All will be able to describe how countries at different levels of development can be grouped and give some reasons for this groupingMost will analyse the impact of these groupings and apply these concepts to one real world example.Some will apply the concepts to a range of contrasting real world examples.STRIPE: Innovative learner