Presentation on theme: "INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL."— Presentation transcript:
INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL KUALITAS UDARA KOTA
SISTEM LINGKUNGAN 1.Kualitas udara perkotaan 2.Kuantitas air 3.Kualitas air 4.Biodiversitas 5.Lahan Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, …………… diunduh 28/11/2012
KUALITAS UDARA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Air quality is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species or to any human need or purpose. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. The AQI can go up (meaning worse air quality) due to a lack of dilution of air pollutants. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone, temperature inversion, or low wind speeds lets air pollution remain in a local area, leading to high concentrations of pollutants and hazy conditions. An agency might encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high.
Atmosphere sbg Sumberdaya Komposisi Atmosferik – Nitrogen 78.08% – Oxygen 20.95% – Argon 0.93% – Carbon dioxide 0.04% Jasa-jasa Ecosystem – Blocks UV radiation – Moderates the climate – Redistributes water in the hydrologic cycle Diunduh dari sumber:
Tipe & Sumber Polusi Udara Polusi Udara – Chemicals added to the atmosphere by natural events or human activities in high enough concentrations to be harmful Dua Kategori Polutan Udara – Primary Air Pollutant Harmful substance that is emitted directly into the atmosphere – Secondary Air Pollutant Harmful substance formed in the atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with substances normally found in the atmosphere or with other air pollutants Diunduh dari sumber:
Major Air Pollutants Diunduh dari sumber:
Polutan Udara 1.Particulate Material 2.Nitrogen Oxides 3.Sulfur Oxides 4.Carbon Oxides 5.Hydrocarbons 6.Ozone Diunduh dari sumber:
Particulate Material Thousands of different solid or liquid particles suspended in air – Includes: soil particles, soot, lead, asbestos, sea salt, and sulfuric acid droplets Berbahaya karena dua alasan: – May contain materials with toxic or carcinogenic effects – Extremely small particles can become lodged in lungs Diunduh dari sumber:
Nitrogen & Sulfur Oxides Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) – Gases produced by the chemical interactions between atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature – Problems Gas rumah-kaca Menyebabkan sulit bernafas Sulfur Oxides – Gases produced by the chemical interactions between sulfur and oxygen – Menyebabkan hujan asam Diunduh dari sumber:
Carbon Oxides & Hydrocarbons Carbon Oxides – Gases carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) – Gas rumah-kaca Hydrocarbons – Diverse group of organic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon (ex: CH 4 - methane) – Some are related to photochemical smog and greenhouse gases Diunduh dari sumber:
Ozone – O3 Ozon Troposfir – Man- made pollutant in the lower atmosphere – Secondary air pollutant – Component of photochemical smog Ozon Stratosfir – Essential component that screens out UV radiation in the upper atmosphere – Man- made pollutants (mis: CFCs) can destroy it Diunduh dari sumber:
Sumber polusi udara Outdoor Dus sumber utama: – Transportasi – Industri Kebakaran hutan juga besar sumbangannya pada polusi udara Diunduh dari sumber:
Polusi Udara Kota Photochemical Smog – Brownish-orange haze formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbons Diunduh dari sumber:
Pembentukan Smog Fotokimia Diunduh dari sumber:
Efek Polusi Udara Paparan tingkat rendah – Irritates eyes – Causes inflammation of respiratory tract Can develop into chronic respiratory diseases Diunduh dari sumber:
Polusi Udara - Efek Kesehatan Sulfur Dioxide and Particulate material – Irritate respiratory tract and impair ability of lungs to exchange gases Nitrogen Dioxides – Causes airway restriction Carbon monoxide – Binds with iron in blood hemoglobin – Causes headache, fatigue, drowsiness, death Ozone – Causes burning eyes, coughing, and chest discomfort Diunduh dari sumber:
Anak-anak & Polusi Udara Greater health threat to children than adults – Air pollution can restrict lung development – Children breath more often than adults Children who live in high ozone areas are more likely to develop asthma Diunduh dari sumber:
Pengendalian Polusi Udara di USA Smokestacks with electrostatic precipitator (right) With Electrostatic precipitator Diunduh dari sumber: Without Electrostatic precipitator
Smokestacks with scrubbers (right) Particulate material can also be controlled by proper excavating techniques Diunduh dari sumber: Pengendalian Polusi Udara di USA
Memperbaiki Kualitas Udara Reduce sulfur content in gasoline from its current average of 330 ppm to 30 ppm – Sulfur clogs catalytic converters Require federal emission standards for all passenger vehicles – Including SUVs, trucks and minivans Require emission testing for all vehicles – Including diesel Diunduh dari sumber:
Ozon melindungi bumi dari bahaya radiasi UV – Part of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths just shorter than visible light Diunduh dari sumber: Deplesi Ozon di Stratosphere
Ozone thinning/hole – First identified in 1985 over Antarctica Disebabkan oleh: – human-produced bromine and chlorine containing chemicals – misalnya: CFCs Diunduh dari sumber:
Hole over Antarctica requires two conditions: – Sunlight just returning to polar region – Circumpolar vortex- a mass of cold air that circulates around the southern polar region Isolates it from the warmer air in the rest of the planet Polar stratospheric clouds form – Memungkinkan Cl dan Br merusak ozon Diunduh dari sumber: Deplesi Ozon di Stratosphere
Efek Deplesi Ozon Higher levels of UV-radiation hitting the earth – Eye cataracts – Skin cancer (right) – Weakened immunity Dapat merusak ekosistem Dapat merusak tanaman dan hutan Diunduh dari sumber:
Recovery Lapisan Ozon Montreal Protocol (1987) – Reduksi emisi CFCs – Mulai menggunakan HCFC (greenhouse gas) Phase out of all ozone destroying chemicals is underway globally Satellite pictures in 2000 indicated that ozone layer was recovering Full recovery will not occur until 2050 Diunduh dari sumber:
Deposisi Asam Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions react with water vapor in the atmosphere and form acids that return to the surface as either dry or wet deposition Sekala pH Diunduh dari sumber:
Bagaimana proses Deposition Asam Diunduh dari sumber:
Efek Deposisi Asam Declining Aquatic Animal Populations Thin-shelled eggs prevent bird reproduction – Because calcium is unavailable in acidic soil Kerusakan Hutan – Ex: Black forest in Germany (50% is destroyed) Diunduh dari sumber:
Deposisi Asam & Kerusakan Hutan Diunduh dari sumber:
Polusi Udara di Penjuru Dunia Air quality is deteriorating rapidly in developing countries Shenyang, China – Residents only see sunlight a few weeks each year Developing countries have older cars – Still use leaded gasoline Lima kota dunis yang tercemar udaranya – Beijing, China; Mexico City, Mexico; Shanghai, China; Tehran, Iran; and Calcutta, India Diunduh dari sumber:
Transport polutan udara – Jarak Jauh Diunduh dari sumber:
Polusi udara dalam ruangan (Indoor ) Pollutants can be 5-100X greater than outdoors Most common: – Radon, cigarette smoke, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde pesticides, lead, cleaning solvents, ozone, and asbestos Diunduh dari sumber:
Polusi udara dalam ruangan (Indoor Air Pollution) - Radon Diunduh dari sumber:
INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air is currently or how polluted it is forecast to become. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. Different countries have their own air quality indices which are not all consistent. Different countries also use different names for their indices such as Air Quality Health Index, Air Pollution Index and Pollutant Standards Index.
KUALITAS UDARA DI KANADA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012. Air quality in Canada has been reported for many years with provincial Air Quality Indices (AQIs). Significantly, AQI values reflect air quality management objectives, which are based on the lowest achievable emissions rate, and not exclusively concern for human health. The Air Quality Health Index or (AQHI) is a scale designed to help understand the impact of air quality on health. It is a health protection tool used to make decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity levels during increased levels of air pollution. The Air Quality Health Index provides a number from 1 to 10+ to indicate the level of health risk associated with local air quality. On occasion, when the amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed 10. The AQHI provides a local air quality current value as well as a local air quality maximums forecast for today, tonight, and tomorrow, and provides associated health advice Risk:Low (1-3) Moderate (4- 6) High (7-10) Very high (above 10)
Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Health Risk Air Quality Health Index Health Messages At Risk population*General Population Low1-3 Enjoy your usual outdoor activities. Ideal air quality for outdoor activities Moderate4-6 Consider reducing or rescheduling strenuous activities outdoors if you are experiencing symptoms. No need to modify your usual outdoor activities unless you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. High7-10 Reduce or reschedule strenuous activities outdoors. Children and the elderly should also take it easy. Consider reducing or rescheduling strenuous activities outdoors if you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. Very highAbove 10 Avoid strenuous activities outdoors. Children and the elderly should also avoid outdoor physical exertion. Reduce or reschedule strenuous activities outdoors, especially if you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. Air quality in Canada
INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA DI USA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed an index which they use to report daily air quality.United States Environmental Protection Agency This AQI is divided into six categories indicating increasing levels of health concern. An AQI value over 300 represents hazardous air quality whereas if it is below 50 the air quality is good Air Quality Index (AQI) Values Levels of Health Concern Colors 0 to 50GoodGreen 51 to 100ModerateYellow 101 to 150Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Orange 151 to 200UnhealthyRed 201 to 300Very UnhealthyPurple 301 to 500HazardousMaroon
INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 The AQI is based on the five pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards for all of these pollutants to protect public health. An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the standard for the pollutant. The air quality index is a piecewise linear function of the pollutant concentration. At the boundary between AQI categories, there is a discontinuous jump of one AQI unit. To convert from concentration to AQI this equation is used: where: I = the (Air Quality) index, C = the pollutant concentration, Clow = the concentration breakpoint that is ≤, Chigh = the concentration breakpoint that is ≥, Ilow = the index breakpoint corresponding to, Ihigh = the index breakpoint corresponding to.
BAKU MUTU PM 2.5 DI USA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 EPA's table of breakpoints for PM 2.5 is: Category Good Moderate Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Hazardous Hazardous
KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANGAN INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) Diunduh dari: … …………… 28/11/2012 Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. IAQ can be affected by gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds), particulates, microbial contaminants (mould, bacteria) or any mass or energy stressor that can induce adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces and computer modelling of air flow inside buildings.
Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Common pollutants 1.1 Second-hand smoke 1.2 Radon 1.3 Moulds and other allergens 1.4 Carbon monoxide 1.5 Volatile organic compounds 1.6 Legionella 1.7 Other bacteria 1.8 Asbestos fibres 1.9 Carbon dioxide 1.10 Ozone INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) Second-hand smoke Second-hand smoke is tobacco smoke which affects other people other than the 'active' smoker. Second-hand tobacco smoke includes both a gaseous and a particulate phase, with particular hazards arising from levels of carbon monoxide (as indicated below) and very small particulates (at PM2.5 size) which get past the lung's natural defences. The only certain method to improve indoor air quality as regards second-hand smoke is the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws.
SENYAWA ORGANIK YANG MUDAH MENGUAP Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Volatile organic compounds Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (up to ten times higher) than outdoors. VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands. Examples include: paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions. Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints, varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning, disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of organic chemicals. All of these products can release organic compounds during usage, and, to some degree, when they are stored.
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ): Diunduh dari: ……………… 4/12/2012 For additional support visit our client service page.client service Before “indoor environmental quality” or “IEQ” has completely lost its meaning, we want to bring attention to its definition which is a comprehensive term from the field of indoor climate engineering representing the collective influence from the indoor environment on all the physiological sensory systems of the human body which can be represented by; IEQ = IAQ +ITQ + ILQ + ISQ + IOQ + IVQ where I = Indoor, Q = Quality and, A = Air T = Thermal L = Lighting S = Sound O = Odour (odor) V = Vibrations
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 A paint job that leaves you lightheaded, or new upholstery that has a funny scent- these are VOCs at work. These insidious chemicals are emitted, at room temperature, from many common household materials, paints, finishes, furnishings, and textiles. Examples of VOCs include benzene, formaldehyde, and methylene chloride. Some occur naturally in the materials; others are added during the manufacturing process.formaldehyde The offgassing of VOCs can have both short- and long-term adverse health effects, ranging from nausea and eye irritation to nervous system damage and cancer. These days, it's getting easier and easier to find no-VOC and low-VOC products such as paints, adhesives, and fabrics.offgassing Concentrations of VOCs in the air are considerably higher indoors than out, and VOCs in poorly ventilated buildings are a major cause of sick building syndrome (SBS). Look for products that are free of these chemicals whenever possible; otherwise, when using paints, varnishes, cleaning solvents, or any other products that contain them, take care to ventilate the work area well and dispose of the leftovers and waste properly afterward.sick building syndrome (SBS)