Presentation on theme: "WHAP: WARM UP FOR THURSDAY, DECEMBER 4 Americas Review Questions: Answer on a sheet of paper. Use your notes from yesterday to answer. This will be collected."— Presentation transcript:
WHAP: WARM UP FOR THURSDAY, DECEMBER 4 Americas Review Questions: Answer on a sheet of paper. Use your notes from yesterday to answer. This will be collected for a grade 7 minutes after the tardy bell rings. 1. What overall effect did geography have on the settlement of the Americas? How did this affect the size and span of civilizations? 2. What were some major similarities between the Aztec and the Inca? List them. 3. What were some major differences between the Aztec and the Inca? List them. 4. Write a direct comparison statement regarding economic policy between the Aztec and the Inca. Remember: Direct comparisons are 1 sentence long. They highlight either a similarity OR a difference. They also are specific and name the societies/civilizations/cultures/regions they compar.
CHAPTER 13: WORLDS OF THE 15 TH CENTURY Unit/Period 3: Age of Accelerating Connections
AMERICAS: AZTEC & INCA Part I
EARLY AMERICAN SOCIETIES Distribution of human societies in the Americas differed from those of Eurasia. Fewer separate civilizations – more area occupied by hunting/gathering peoples or agricultural village societies
IROQUOIS Iroquois Confederacy: Historically powerful & important northeast Native America confederacy The Great Peace: 15 th cent. or earlier, bringing together 5 distinct nations in southern Great Lakes areas into “Great League of Peace” Historians have suggested that the Iroquois system of government influence development of the Articles of Confederation & the U.S. Constitution, but there is not a consensus The Iroquois also expressed a value of limited government, social equality, and personal freedom – concepts that some European colonists found highly attractive
AZTEC & INCA DISTINCTIONS Inca Empire was much larger than its Aztec counterpart. Aztec Empire controlled only part of Mesoamerican cultural region, while at its height the Inca state encompassed nearly all Andean civilization. Aztec realm: Mexica rulers largely left their conquered peoples alone & there was no elaborate administrative system to integrate conquered territories or to assimilate peoples. Incas built a more bureaucratic empire. Most more of a “state- controlled” economy.
AZTEC & INCA DISTINCTIONS Aztec Empire extracted substantial TRIBUTE: goods from its subject populations, while Inca primarily extracted labor services from their subjects. Aztec Empire: system of commercial exchange that was based on merchants & free markets. Inca government played a major role in both production & distribution of goods. Authority of the state penetrated & directed Incas’ society & economy far more than that of the Aztecs.
AZTEC RELIGION & EMPIRE Ideology of state gave human sacrifice great religious importance & shaped techniques of Aztec warfare This put a premium on capturing prisoners rather than on killing the enemy Priests & rulers became interdependent with human sacrifices carried out for political ends. Massive sacrificial rituals served to impress enemies, allies, & subjects alike with immense power of their Gods. Believed the sun may not rise without such sacrifices. It was elemental to their survivals (from their POV).
INCA AUTHORITIES Emperor: absolute & regarded as divine In theory the state owned all land & resources. Subjects organized, as least in the central regions of the empire into hierarchical units: 10, 40, 150, 500, 1000, & 10,000 people Unit headed by local officials, supervised by an Inca governor or by the emperor. Imperial inspectors check on provincial authorities. Births, deaths, marriages, & other population data were carefully recorded. A resettlement program moved more than ¼ or more of the population to new locations.
QUIPUS: TALKING KNOTS Incan record-keeping devices Usually consisted of colored, spun, & piled thread or strings System aided in collecting data & keeping records, ranging from monitoring tax obligations, properly collecting census records, calendrical information, & military organization No one has been able to decode the system completely
SOCIAL Inca & Aztec practiced “gender parallelism” Men & women in “separate but equivalent spheres” Parallel religious cults Parallel hierarchies of female & male political officials among the Incas Women’s household tasks were not regarded as inferior Aztecs: sweeping was a powerful, sacred act Men held top positions in political & religious life Glorification of military probably undermined gender parallelism Inca ruler & his wife governed jointly, were descended from sun & moon, respectively Aztec Women: Cooked, cleaned, spun/wove cloth, raised children & ritual activities Officials in palaces, priestesses in temples, traders, teachers, & members of craft workers’ organizations.
AFRO-EURASIA Part II
CHINA: MING DYNASTY After a century of Mongol rule, the Ming rise to control China.
ZHENG HE: CHINESE MARINER Admiral Zheng He (jung huh) commanded fleet of 300+ ships carrying 27,000+ people. They sailed as far as the East African coast. 1405 – 1433: Each voyage lasted 2 years; visited 37 countries around rim of Indian Ocean Muslim, a eunuch, & an outsider to the Chinese dynasty. He was chosen because he was less a “threat” to become powerful. Ship tech was 500 years ahead of the West. Hull technology similar to that used on the Titanic. Advanced navigational technology able to calculate speed, direction, latitude, & longitude Chinese already understood the difference between true & magnetic north. Think About It: Why is Columbus remembered more?
CHINA – MING DYNASTY By 1430, politicians persuaded emperor to abandon global ambitions. Emperor Yongle’s successors viewed expansion as a waste of time & resources. After Zheng He dies, new emperor decides to turn attention inward, returning to “Middle Kingdom” & Confucian principles of self-reliance – isolation. “Barbarian kings should be greeted like harmless seagulls. The outside world has nothing to offer China.” – Chinese scholar All records were destroyed, & today Zheng He & his voyages are virtually unknown to China.
WHAT IF THE CHINESE DID NOT END THE VOYAGES IN 1433? This could have had a profound impact on the course of world history. China was the richest, most prosperous, & most technologically advanced civilization in the world at that time. Likely would have prevailed as the preeminent maritime power in the world. Most likely limited influence of Western Europe & of Christianity on other regions of the world. Chinese cultural, economic, & political influences beyond East Asia would have flourished.
CHINA – MING DYNASTY After the death of Zheng He & the destruction of the fleet, China turned attention towards securing their northern border. Money that would have been spent exploring instead went to securing.
MING MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS China recovered from disruption caused by Mongol rule & ravages of the plague to become perhaps the best-governed & most prosperous major civilization at the time. Most impressive maritime expeditions world had ever seen Efforts to eliminate all signs of foreign rule Promotion of Confucian learning Emperor Yongle (r – 1422) sponsored an 11,000 volume encyclopedia summarizing all the wisdom of the past & Zheng He’s expeditions Reestablished the civil service examination system
COMPARING CHINA & WESTERN EUROPE: POLITICAL & CULTURAL DIFFERENCES Political consolidation occurred in both China: unitary & centralized government – encompassed almost the whole of its civilization Europe: fragmented system of many separate, independent, & competitive states – sharply divided Christendom Both experience cultural flowering European Renaissance: very different from its own recent past Ming dynasty China: returned to pre-Mongol glory Both sent out ships to explore the wider world, but their purposes in doing so were very different
COMPARING CHINA & WESTERN EUROPE: 15 TH CENTURY MARITIME VOYAGES China: enormous fleet composed of several 100s large ships Not motivated by a need for military allies, required little in the way of trade, & had not desire to convert foreigners to Chinese culture or religion Did not seek to colonize or conquer new territories Ended abruptly after 1433 European: handful of small ships Motivations: desire for wealth & trade, search for converts to Christianity, & recruitment of possible Christian allies against Muslim powers Sought to monopolize by force the commerce of the Indian Ocean Violently carved out empires in the Americas Continued and escalated for hundreds of years
COMPARING CHINA & WESTERN EUROPE: 15 TH CENTURY MARITIME VOYAGES WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THESE DIFFERENCES? Europe’s political authority was fragmented. China was a unified empire. European rivalries alone would provide a driving for exploration Europe’s elite, including merchants, monarchs, the clergy, & nobles, had an interest in overseas expansion. China’s emperor Yongle was the primary supporter of Chinese voyages and exploration. When Yongle died those opposed to the voyages prevailed. China believed strongly that they were absolutely superior to other cultures & did not need anything from abroad. Europeans believed themselves unique but were seeking out greater riches of the East. Muslim power blocked easy access to these treasures & posed a military & religious threat to Europe itself.
THE MEETING OF TWO WORLDS This famous 16 th century engraving by Flemish artist Theodore de Bry shows Columbus landing in Hispaniola (Haiti), where the Taino people bring him presents, while the Europeans claim the island for God and queen. In light of its long-rang consequences, this voyage is arguably the most important single event of the 15 th century.
RENAISSANCE Focused on the affairs of this world rather than the spiritual realm.