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1 Ray D. Bollman, Rural Research Group, Statistics Canada Peter Murphy, Geography Division, Statistics Canada How many Canadians live in a city? Conceptualization, definition and proposed dissemination for alternative standards Presentation to the 2011 International Methodology Symposium: Strategies of Standardization of Methods and Tools Ottawa, November 2 - 4, 2011

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2 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization 3. How many Canadians live in a “city”?

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3 How many Canadians live in a city? 1. Introduction Data users ask Statistics Canada: How many Canadians live in cities? Statistics Canada does not publish levels and rates of urbanization for: alternative definitions of a “city” alternative size cut-offs to be a “city Our objective is to describe and document the levels and rates of urbanization for: alternative definitions of a “city” alternative size cut-offs to be a “city

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4 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization

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5 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres This is the “built-up area” of a settlement. It corresponds to the windshield view when you leave the settled area and drive into the unsettled or countryside area. Arguably, this is the target clientele for an urban transportation planner. Within Statistics Canada, built-up areas are population centres with a population density of 400 inhabitants per km 2 or more and with a total population of 1,000 more) (formerly known as “census urban” areas). Following: Puderer, Henry A. (2009) Urban Perspectives and Measurement (Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Geography Working Paper, Catalogue no. 92F0138M — No. 2009001).

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6 How many Canadians live in a city?

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7 Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization

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8 How many Canadians live in a city? Q: Where do people prefer to live? Most of the change will be due to net migration (“voting with one’s feet”) Q: What is the change DUE TO RECLASSIFICATION in the number of people living in a certain urbanization size class of population centre? Q: What is the TOTAL change in the number of people living in a certain urbanization size class of population centre?

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9 How many Canadians live in a city?

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10 How many Canadians live in a city?

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11 How many Canadians live in a city?

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12 How many Canadians live in a city?

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13 How many Canadians live in a city?

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14 How many Canadians live in a city? Census rural was the geographic group with the second fastest population growth, 1991 to 1996

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15 How many Canadians live in a city?

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16 How many Canadians live in a city?

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17 How many Canadians live in a city? Summary Varying rates of population growth across size classes of population centres (within fixed boundaries -- due to demographic factors: births, deaths, net migration). The biggest population centres do not always grow the fastest in terms of demographic factors. However, the total change in the population living in a given population centre size class is also determined by re-classification. Re-classification might be due: to demographic change causing the locality to go above the lower limit; or to go below the lower limit; or two population centres may be merged which may cause the population of the new population centre to be re-classified to another size class. Thus, between “t” and “t+1”, there is a change in the number of localities and a change in the number of Canadians enjoying the benefits and costs of a living in a locality of a given size.

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18 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions

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19 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions This concept represents the view of the mayor. How many people live in my incorporated city or town? From the point of view of the resident – to whom do I pay my taxes and which administration is responsible for delivering local services. On your Sunday afternoon drive, you usually cannot see the boundary of the administrative city – although there is often a sign at the boundary that says “Welcome to our city of X thousand residents.”

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20 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Within Statistics Canada, a census subdivision is defined for each incorporated town or city and each incorporated municipality.

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21 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization

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22 How many Canadians live in a city?

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23 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization

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24 How many Canadians live in a city? In general, from 1981 to 2006, CSDs of 250-499K reported the largest rate of demographic growth. In general, from 1981 to 2006, smaller CSDs lost population due to demographic factors.

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25 How many Canadians live in a city?

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26 How many Canadians live in a city?

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27 How many Canadians live in a city?

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28 How many Canadians live in a city?

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29 How many Canadians live in a city?

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30 How many Canadians live in a city?

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31 How many Canadians live in a city?

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32 How many Canadians live in a city?

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33 How many Canadians live in a city?

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34 How many Canadians live in a city?

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35 In general, larger CSDs have a larger demographic growth than smaller CSDs. In the case of census subdivisions, most of the increased in urbanization is due to re- classification. Summary How many Canadians live in a city?

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36 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs

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37 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs This concept is based on the idea that “We are all in this together.” Thus, from the point of view of citizens and from the point of view of investors, we all share in the outcomes of good development projects and we all share in the outcomes of bad development projects. In this sense, the agglomerated population operates together as a functional area, regardless of form and regardless of administrative boundaries.

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38 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs Within Statistics Canada, Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and Census Agglomerations (CAs) are delineated for any built-up core of 10,000 or more and includes all neighbouring census subdivisions where 50% or more of the employed residents commute to the built-up core. Thus, commuting rates are used to measure or proxy the areas around the built-up core that “function together.”

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39 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs Level of urbanization

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40 How many Canadians live in a city?

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41 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization

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42 How many Canadians live in a city?

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43 How many Canadians live in a city?

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44 How many Canadians live in a city?

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45 How many Canadians live in a city?

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46 How many Canadians live in a city?

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47 How many Canadians live in a city?

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48 How many Canadians live in a city?

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49 How many Canadians live in a city?

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50 How many Canadians live in a city?

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51 How many Canadians live in a city?

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52 How many Canadians live in a city?

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53 How many Canadians live in a city?

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54 How many Canadians live in a city?

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55 How many Canadians live in a city?

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56 How many Canadians live in a city?

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57 How many Canadians live in a city?

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58 How many Canadians live in a city?

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59 In general, larger functional areas have a larger demographic growth than smaller functional areas. In the case of functional areas, most (½ to ¾) of the increased in urbanization is due to demographic growth. Summary How many Canadians live in a city?

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60 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization 3. So

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61 To summarize the situation, we will concentrate on the 100,000 and over size class because: Mendelson and Lefebvre (2003) have shown that localities with a total population of 100,000 or more have most of the “functions” expected of a metropolitan centre Mendelson, Robert and Janet Lefebvre. (2003) Reviewing Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA) and Census Agglomerations (CA) in Canada According to Metropolitan Functionality (Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Geography Working Paper Series No. 2003-001, Catalogue no. 92F0138MIE) However, the charts above have shown various city size classes so that you can choose: your preferred definition of a “city”; your preferred size cut-off to be a “city” How many Canadians live in a city?

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62 Understanding the “rural” in Rural Canada How many Canadians live in a city?

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63 Understanding the “rural” in Rural Canada How many Canadians live in a city?

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64 Understanding the “rural” in Rural Canada How many Canadians live in a city?

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65 Understanding the “rural” in Rural Canada How many Canadians live in a city?

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66 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1. Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization 3. How many Canadians live in a city? If you define a “city” as having 100,000+ inhabitants, the answer is (in 2006): 59% in population centres 100,000+ ; 52% in census subdivisions of 100,000+ ; and 68% in CMAs of 100,000+. The answer depends upon to whom you are talking: 59% if you are talking to public transit planners; 52% if you are talking to mayors; and 68% if you are talking to economic development analysts.

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67 How many Canadians live in a city?

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68 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization 3. How many Canadians live in a “city”? 4. Summary

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69 How many Canadians live in a city? Summary a)Which definition shows a higher level of urbanization? 1.Functional areas (CMAs & CAs) 2.Population centres (built-up areas) 3.Census subdivisions (incorporated towns and cities) b)What definition shows a higher rate of urbanization? (i.e. a higher change in the level of urbanization) 1.Census subdivisions (due to amalgamation); 2.Population centres & functional areas

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70 How many Canadians live in a city? Outline 1.Introduction 2. Three ways of describing a city a)Form or Morphology – Population Centres Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization b)Administrative units – Census Subdivisions Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization c)Functional areas – CMAs and CAs Level of urbanization Rate of urbanization 3. Summary – Questions and Discussion

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