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The Grid : Grids for Worldwide Science Vicky White Head, Computing Division, Fermilab May 21, 2003 May 21, 2003 Fermilab Colloquium.

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Presentation on theme: "The Grid : Grids for Worldwide Science Vicky White Head, Computing Division, Fermilab May 21, 2003 May 21, 2003 Fermilab Colloquium."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Grid : Grids for Worldwide Science Vicky White Head, Computing Division, Fermilab May 21, 2003 May 21, 2003 Fermilab Colloquium

2 Acknowledgements for Materials possibly stolen from talks by Fran Berman(Director SDSC), Harvey Newman(Caltech), Miron Livny(U.Wisc), Ian Foster(U.Chicago), Doug Olson(LBNL), Tony Hey (UK e-science), John Taylor (UK), Fabrizio Gagliardi (CERN), Federico Carmenati(CERN), Lee Lueking(FNAL), Ruth Pordes(FNAL), Lothar Bauerdick (FNAL), Irwin Wladavsky-berger(IBM), DaSilva (EU), Igor Terakhov(FNAL)

3 Grid Computing in the News FEATURE ARTICLE Scientific American April 2003 issue INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY The Grid: Computing without Bounds By linking digital processors, storage systems and software on a global scale, grid technology is poised to transform computing from an individual and corporate activity into a general utility By Ian Foster Scientists Giddy About the Grid By Randy Dotinga | Also by this reporter Page 1 of 1Randy Dotinga Also WIRED NEWS 02:00 AM Jan. 20, 2003 PT SAN DIEGO, California -- One pesky word has doomed many collaborative supercomputer projects to the purgatory of the suggestion box: feasible. Sure, universities could conceivably link their most powerful machines. But just like back in the kindergarten sandbox, differing standards prevented everyone from playing well with others.

4 Wired News articles last year Grid Computing Good for Business Jan. 16, 2003 Grid Computing Good for Business Tackling Breast Cancer on a Grid Oct. 14, 2002 Tackling Breast Cancer on a Grid Library of Congress Taps the Grid Oct. 02, 2002 Library of Congress Taps the Grid Open Sourcers Say Grid Is Good Aug. 15, 2002 Open Sourcers Say Grid Is Good Time to Hop on the Gridwagon Jul. 26, 2002 Time to Hop on the Gridwagon Supercomputing: Suddenly Sexy Jul. 08, 2002 Supercomputing: Suddenly Sexy The Grid Draws Its Battle Lines Feb. 20, 2002 The Grid Draws Its Battle Lines

5 Nature : April 2003 Article about CERN and the LHC Computing Grid (and US Grid projects)

6 What is GRID computing : Coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations. [Ian Foster] A virtual organization is a collection of users sharing similar needs and requirements in their access to processing, data and distributed resources and pursuing similar goals. A virtual organization is a collection of users sharing similar needs and requirements in their access to processing, data and distributed resources and pursuing similar goals. Key concept : –ability to negotiate resource-sharing arrangements among a set of participating parties (providers and consumers) and then to use the resulting resource pool for some purpose. [Ian Foster]

7 Who is this guy Ian Foster? Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman, editors, “The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure,” Morgan Kaufmann, 1999, com/grids Computer Scientist at University of Chicago and Argonne National Lab Leader of sequence of efforts in distributed computing  Globus Project Globus is a toolkit of software that helps do some of the things you need to do to make Grid Computing a reality It is not the only software offering

8 And what is he talking about? Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman, editors, “The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure,” Morgan Kaufmann, 1999, com/grids An idea of how to work using distributed computers and storage devices and disks and networks in a global way based on emerging standards for interoperability Based on the metaphor of the Power Grid – you just plug into the wall and get power wherever you go! (but its not quite as simple as that)

9 The Grid Vision The GRID: networked data processing centres and ”middleware” software as the “glue” of resources. Researchers perform their activities regardless geographical location, interact with colleagues, share and access data Scientific instruments and experiments (and simulations) provide huge amount of data

10 What does Grid Computing involve? Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman, editors, “The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure,” Morgan Kaufmann, 1999, com/grids some specific Grid software that is evolving. Often called “Grid Middleware” Funding opportunities and some hype Many funded grid projects all over the world An opportunity for Computer Scientists and Scientists with a job to do (e.g. Physicists) to get together and make something work Potential broad benefit to society. Vendor interest has peaked. Is this what comes after the web? Lots and lots of buzzwords to learn

11 1995 – 2000+: Maturation of Grid Computing “Grid book” gave a comprehensive view of the state of the art “Grid book” gave a comprehensive view of the state of the art Important infrastructure and middleware efforts initiated Important infrastructure and middleware efforts initiated –Globus, Legion, Condor, NWS, SRB, NetSolve, AppLes, etc : Beginnings of a Global Grid 2000+: Beginnings of a Global Grid –Evolution of the Global Grid Forum –Some projects evolving to de facto standards (e.g. Globus, Condor, NWS)

12 The Condor Project (Established ‘85) Distributed Computing research performed by a team of 30 faculty, full time staff and students who –face software engineering challenges in a UNIX/Linux/NT environment, –are involved in national and international collaborations, –actively interact with users, –maintain and support a distributed production environment, –and educate and train students. Funding – DoD, DoE, NASA, NIH, NSF,AT&T, INTEL, Microsoft and the UW Graduate School Microsoft and the UW Graduate School Distributed batch system with many features for high throughput computing across clusters spread worldwide..

13 What’s different about Grids and are they useful now? Lots of production quality Distributed Applications in real life Lots of production quality Distributed Applications in real life Much work in High Energy Physics and much progress on building early grids, prototypes, testbeds, even spanning continents Much work in High Energy Physics and much progress on building early grids, prototypes, testbeds, even spanning continents –Our Virtual Organizations are our Experiments

14 –Satellite technology used to track every item Bar code information sent to remote data centers to update inventory database and cash flow estimates Bar code information sent to remote data centers to update inventory database and cash flow estimates Satellite networking used to coordinate vast operations Satellite networking used to coordinate vast operations –Inventory adjusted in real time to avoid shortages and predict demand Data management, prediction, real-time, wide-area synchronization Data management, prediction, real-time, wide-area synchronization Real-world example - Walmart Inventory Control

15 More Real World Distributed Applications –3.8M users in 226 countries –1200 CPU years/day –38 TF sustained (Japanese Earth Simulator is 40 TF peak) –1.7 ZETAflop over last 3 years (10^21, beyond peta and exa …) –Highly heterogeneous: >77 different processor types

16 Grid for Science Walmart – controlled/owned distributed computing system Walmart – controlled/owned distributed computing system SETI - other end of the spectrum SETI - other end of the spectrum –Same “job” run on anyone’s desktop Science using the GRID – Science using the GRID – –Focus on standards and interfaces, not all resources owned and controlled –Sharing with other disciplines –Opportunistic use of resources for ever-changing jobs and investigations

17 The Grid and the Web As the Web became an everyday tool for “everyone,” the Grid concept has become much easier to explain As the Web became an everyday tool for “everyone,” the Grid concept has become much easier to explain –Web users are familiar with accessing remote resources –typically the resources accessed are static documents but some are dynamic. –Consequently, the idea of harnessing major remote computational and data resources is no longer quite so foreign.

18 Global Grid Forum International Working Group on Grid Computing International Working Group on Grid Computing Has grown from first meeting in Amsterdam (Mar 2001) with 200 registrants to 4 th meeting in Toronto (Feb 2002) with 450 registrants Has grown from first meeting in Amsterdam (Mar 2001) with 200 registrants to 4 th meeting in Toronto (Feb 2002) with 450 registrants Strong participation by developers, application users, industry Strong participation by developers, application users, industry Promote Grid technologies via "best practices," implementation guidelines, and standards Promote Grid technologies via "best practices," implementation guidelines, and standards Meetings three times a year Meetings three times a year –International participation, hundreds of attendees Many Physics participants contributing to GGF Many Physics participants contributing to GGF –Working group chairs, document production, etc. Mature Physics technologies should transition to GGF Mature Physics technologies should transition to GGF

19 Vendors and the Grid Sun1 Grid Engine When you move from network computing to grid computing, you will notice reduced costs, shorter time to market, increased quality and innovation and you will develop products you couldn't do before. Sun Grid Computing solutions are ideal for compute-intensive industries such as scientific research, EDA, life sciences, MCAE, geosciences, financial services, and others.

20 Vendors and the Grid Vendors and the Grid IBM Says Its Grid Services Contributions Will Be Royalty-Free By Paul Shread The Open Grid Services Architecture vision for the convergence of Web services and Grid computing received a big boost today when IBM announced that its contributions to the core Grid Services Specification will be royalty-free. Paul ShreadPaul Shread "IBM is pleased to announce that any essential patent claims, held by IBM, that are necessary to implement the 'Grid Services Specification' document submitted to the Global Grid Forum, will be licensed on a royalty-free basis," IBM Grid Computing General Manager Tom Hawk wrote in a letter to Charlie Catlett, chair of the standard-setting Global Grid Forum. "The 'Grid Services Specification' is built upon both Grid and Web Services technologies, referred to as the Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA)," Hawk wrote. "Like Web Services and XML before it, this foundational Grid work will be an essential part of the Web and network infrastructure for businesses, as well as for governments and scientific institutions."

21 Next generation Grids will include new technologies New devices New devices –PDAs, sensors, cars, clothes, smart dust, smart bandaids, … Wired and Wireless

22 Many BioGrid Projects EUROGRID BioGRID EUROGRID BioGRID Asia Pacific BioGRID Asia Pacific BioGRID NC BioGrid NC BioGrid Bioinformatics Research Network Bioinformatics Research Network Osaka University Biogrid Osaka University Biogrid Indiana University BioArchive BioGrid Indiana University BioArchive BioGrid

23 Why GRIDs for HEP and other sciences The scale of the problems human beings have to face to perform frontier research in many different fields is constantly increasing. The scale of the problems human beings have to face to perform frontier research in many different fields is constantly increasing. Performing frontier research in these fields already today requires world-wide collaborations (i.e. multi domain access to distributed resources). Performing frontier research in these fields already today requires world-wide collaborations (i.e. multi domain access to distributed resources).

24 Farms (Production Processing resources) CMS 1U  Run I   Fixed Target   Run II 

25 Feynman Computing Center Run2 and CMS require massive PC computing clusters Run2 and CMS require massive PC computing clusters –Very high physical density –~200 Watts per CPU chip (similar for SMP and PC)

26 One Gigantic Computing Center? At Fermilab for Run II expts, MINOS, BTeV, CKM, SDSS ? At Fermilab for Run II expts, MINOS, BTeV, CKM, SDSS ? At CERN for LHC ? At CERN for LHC ? Makes no sense technically, politically, socially Makes no sense technically, politically, socially –Changing role for Fermilab Computing

27 Getting to the Vision Democratization of Science Democratization of Science –Not just a question of computers and disks and tapes and access to them all –Seeds a way of working that puts emphasis on equal access for all and standardization of the way things are done –Computer Scientists’ focus is on the technology –Our focus is on enabling Scientists to work by creating a massive “virtual” environment Long way to go to get to the vision Long way to go to get to the vision

28 How close to the Vision? State of the art today for “The Grid” is State of the art today for “The Grid” is –Moving data files between institutions, across continents, (almost) seamlessly and automatically Almost here today is Almost here today is –submitting jobs from your desktop and having them run somewhere at one of the “centers” of your “virtual organization” Seamless Seamless You don’t care where You don’t care where Choice of where to run the job optimized for you Choice of where to run the job optimized for you All the errors/resubmits handled for you All the errors/resubmits handled for you

29 How do the economics work? So we need massive amounts of CPU, disk, tape to do analysis So we need massive amounts of CPU, disk, tape to do analysis –The more we have the more we can explore our data quickly explore our data quickly reprocess multiple times reprocess multiple times let every grad student sift through masses of data let every grad student sift through masses of data How does getting tied up with Grid help to make more How does getting tied up with Grid help to make more –Aren’t there only so many $$s in total? –Doesn’t distributing all the computing make it all more complicated? –Isn’t this all nonsense because the real scarce resource for scientific discovery is brainpower?

30 Does Grid Computing make more Computing and more capabilities ? Information technology is now accepted as an essential enabling infrastructure Information technology is now accepted as an essential enabling infrastructure –For a University –For a Region –For a Country –For a Business –For Global competitiveness The “GRID” word has captured the vision for a new way of using computers (and so has captured the $$s) The “GRID” word has captured the vision for a new way of using computers (and so has captured the $$s)

31 Funding for Grid Projects

32 HENP Related Grid Projects Projects –PPDG IUSADOE$2M –GriPhyNUSANSF$11.9M + $1.6M –EU DataGridEUEC€10M –PPDG II (CP)USADOE$9.5M –iVDGLUSANSF$13.7M + $2M –DataTAGEUEC€4M –GridPP UKPPARC>$15M –LCG Phase1CERN MS30 MCHF Many Other Projects of interest to HENP –Initiatives in US, UK, Italy, France, NL, Germany, Japan, … –US and EU networking initiatives: AMPATH, I2, DataTAG –US Distributed Terascale Facility: ($53M, 12 TeraFlops, 40 Gb/s network) –Storage Resource Manager (Fermilab participating with LBL and others) – gaining acceptance as a standard

33 The Particle Physics Data Grid

34 GriPhyN: PetaScale Virtual Data Grids Virtual Data Tools Request Planning & Scheduling Tools Request Execution & Management Tools Transforms Distributed resources (code, storage, computers, and network ) è Resource è Management è Services Resource Management Services è Security and è Policy è Services Security and Policy Services è Other Grid è Services Other Grid Services Interactive User Tools Production Team Individual Investigator Workgroups Raw data source

35 There is funding for Grid projects worldwide European Commission and many individual European countries European Commission and many individual European countries –And for Network infrastructure – e.g GEANT and Netherlands Asia – coordinated and individual countries Asia – coordinated and individual countries Australia, Brazil, and many others… Australia, Brazil, and many others…

36 UK e-Science Initiative £120M Programme over 3 years £120M Programme over 3 years £75M is for Grid Applications in all areas of science and engineering £75M is for Grid Applications in all areas of science and engineering £35M ‘Core Program’ to encourage development of generic ‘industrial strength’ Grid middleware £35M ‘Core Program’ to encourage development of generic ‘industrial strength’ Grid middleware  Require £20M additional ‘matching’ funds from industry

37 e-Science ‘e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science, and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it.’ ‘e-Science is about global collaboration in key areas of science, and the next generation of infrastructure that will enable it.’ John Taylor John Taylor (Director General of Research Councils Office of Science and Technology Dept of Trade and Industry, UK )

38 In flight data Airline Maintenance Centre Ground Station Global Network eg: SITA Internet, , pager DS&S Engine Health Center Data centre DAME is an e-Science pilot project, demonstrating the use of the GRID to implement a distributed decision support system for deployment in maintenance applications and environments. It is funded by the EPSRC under the UK e-Science programme, and is one of six EPSRC projects launched in the first phase of e-Science funding.e-Science programme, DAME will demonstrate how the GRID and web services (based on OGSA) can facilitate the design and development of systems for diagnosis and maintenance applications which combine geographically distributed resources and data within a localised decision support system.

39 European Union Funds Projects – next round of funding – for the 6 th Framework Program I NTEGRATING E UROPEAN R ESEARCH P RIORITY T HEMATIC A REAS A NTICIPATING S / T NEEDS Research for policy support Frontier research, unexpected developments Specific SME activities Specific international Co-operation activities Genomic and biotechnology for healthInformation society technologiesNanotechnologies, intelligent mat., new production processes Aeronautics and space Food safety and health risks Sustainable development and global changeCitizens and governance in the knowledge society JRC activities S TRUCTURING THE ERA S TRENGTHENING THE FOUNDATIONS OF ERA Research and innovation Human resources & mobility Research infrastructures Science and society Coordination of research activities Development of research/ innovation policies Specific international Co-operation activities Integrating European Research Structuring the ERA Strengthening the foundation of ERA

40 European Union Funded, CERN led, Data Grid Project

41 1. To deliver production level Grid services, the essential elements of which are manageability, robustness, resilience to failure and a consistent security model, as well as the scalability needed to rapidly absorb new resources as these become available, while ensuring the long-term viability of the infrastructure. 2. To carry out a professional Grid middleware re-engineering and development activity in support of the production services. This will support and continuously upgrade a suite of software tools capable of providing production level Grid services to a base of users which is anticipated to rapidly grow and diversify. 3. To ensure outreach and training effort which can proactively market Grid services to new research communities in academia and industry, capture new e-Science requirements for the middleware and service activities, and provide the necessary education to enable new users to benefit from the Grid infrastructure. 1. To deliver production level Grid services, the essential elements of which are manageability, robustness, resilience to failure and a consistent security model, as well as the scalability needed to rapidly absorb new resources as these become available, while ensuring the long-term viability of the infrastructure. 2. To carry out a professional Grid middleware re-engineering and development activity in support of the production services. This will support and continuously upgrade a suite of software tools capable of providing production level Grid services to a base of users which is anticipated to rapidly grow and diversify. 3. To ensure outreach and training effort which can proactively market Grid services to new research communities in academia and industry, capture new e-Science requirements for the middleware and service activities, and provide the necessary education to enable new users to benefit from the Grid infrastructure. EGEE is the new EU proposal just submitted

42 The LHC Computing Grid Project Structure The LHC Computing Grid Project LHCC Project Overview Board RTAG Reports Reviews Common Computing RRB Resource Matters Other Computing Grid Projects EU DataGrid Project implementation teams Other HEP Grid Projects Other Labs Project Manager Project Execution Board Requirements, Monitoring Software and Computing Committee (SC2) Launch Workshop March 11-15

43 DOE/NSF Partnership for Global Infostructure Physics + Computer Science/Information Technology Funding Agencies Physics + Computer Science/Information Technology Funding Agencies I.Gaines, 4-Agency meeting at CERN March 21st, 2003 I.Gaines, 4-Agency meeting at CERN March 21st, 2003 Physics + Computer Science/Information Technology Funding Agencies

44 Closer to home – what are we doing at Fermilab? SAM for Run II Experiments SAM for Run II Experiments Grid-enabled storage systems using standards like SRM (Storage Resource Manager) Grid-enabled storage systems using standards like SRM (Storage Resource Manager) Partipating in Grid projects and submitting proposals in the areas of Partipating in Grid projects and submitting proposals in the areas of –Grid, Cyber Security, Network Research, Collaborative Tools, Global Analysis, Lattice QCD, Sloan Digital Sky Survey US-CMS Software and Computing leadership US-CMS Software and Computing leadership –Building US-CMS production Grid for Data Challenges Playing a big role in coordination of Grid Projects Playing a big role in coordination of Grid Projects –Trillium - joining together 3 US HEP Grid Projects (Ruth Pordes ) –HICB – international coordination body

45 Dzero has a prototype Grid SAM - data handling system SAM - data handling system Now also being used by CDF offsite Now also being used by CDF offsite Also working to incorporate defacto Grid standards – Globus, Condor, GridFTP, SRM, etc Also working to incorporate defacto Grid standards – Globus, Condor, GridFTP, SRM, etc –UK Grid funding as well at DOE funded PPDG project is supporting this effort

46 What’s SAM? SAM Sequential data Access via Meta-data is a data handling system with a Grid job management services (JIM) being added SAM Sequential data Access via Meta-data is a data handling system with a Grid job management services (JIM) being added Joint project between D0 and Computing Division started in 1997 to meet the FNAL Run II data handling needs Joint project between D0 and Computing Division started in 1997 to meet the FNAL Run II data handling needs Globally distributed system Globally distributed system Provides high-level collective services of reliable data storage and replication Provides high-level collective services of reliable data storage and replication –Arguably the most functional “Grid” in HEP currently

47 SAM Data Handling System at D0 Registered Users 600 Number of Stations 56 Registered Nodes 900 Total Disk Cache 40 TB Number of Files 1.5M Regional Center Analysis site Summary of Resources (DØ)Integrated Files Consumed vs Month (DØ) Integrated GB Consumed vs Month (DØ) 4.0 M Files Consumed 1.2 PB Consumed 3/02 3/03

48 LHC Physics Discoveries at Universities and Labs! U.S. CMS is Committed to Empower the CMS Scientists at U.S. Universities and Labs to do Research on LHC Physics Data This is why we are pushing Grids and other Enabling Technology Lothar Bauerdick – U.S. CMS Software and Computing Project Manager Lothar Bauerdick – U.S. CMS Software and Computing Project Manager This is why we are pushing Grids and other Enabling Technology This is why we are pushing Grids and other Enabling Technology

49 Grid Testbeds for Research, Development and Dissemination! Grid Testbeds for Research, Development and Dissemination! –USCMS Testbeds real-life large Grid installations, becoming production quality –Strong Partnership between Labs, Universities, with Grid (iVDGL, GriPhyN, PPDG) and Middleware Projects (Condor, Globus) –Strong dissemination component, together with Grid Projects –Caltech, UCSD, U.Florida, UW Madison, Fermilab, CERN MIT Rice Minnesota Iowa Princeton Grid Testbeds becoming Production Grids 1.5 Million Events Delivered to CMS Physicists! (nearly 30 CPU years) 1.5 Million Events Delivered to CMS Physicists! (nearly 30 CPU years) Now joining: Brazil South Korea

50 Facility-Centric Components View Peta Scales!!

51 ... Towards The Environment View: DAWN (Recent proposal to NSF) Communities of Scientists Working Locally within a Global Context Communities of Scientists Working Locally within a Global Context Infrastructure for sharing, consistency of physics and calibration data, software Infrastructure for sharing, consistency of physics and calibration data, software Communities!!

52 Transition to Production-Quality Grid LHC is Starting a Production Grid Service Around the World LHC is Starting a Production Grid Service Around the World

53 DOE/NSF Partnership for Global Infostructure Physics + Computer Science/Information Technology Funding Agencies Physics + Computer Science/Information Technology Funding Agencies I.Gaines, 4-Agency meeting at CERN March 21st, 2003 I.Gaines, 4-Agency meeting at CERN March 21st, 2003 Physics + Computer Science/Information Technology Funding Agencies

54 Fermilab role – what’s next From participting in iVDGL (International Virtual Data Grid Laboratory ) –NSF funded project that provides the $$s for the prototype “Tier 2” University based computing centers in the US for LHC (shared with SDSS and Ligo) To helping “WorldGrid” demonstrations of interoperability and broader participation  Playing a leading role in a proposed Open Science Grid  come together in the US to build a persistent Grid Infrastructure for our Science, driven by LHC experiments, used by Run II experiments, open more broadly and “matching” the EGEE goals in Europe.

55 LHC Computing – a driver for Global Science LHC is visible, strongly international, pushed by CERN, supported by funding agencies worldwide, aligned with “Grid” vision and motivation LHC is visible, strongly international, pushed by CERN, supported by funding agencies worldwide, aligned with “Grid” vision and motivation We can either use this fact and build on it - or go in a corner and “just do a physics experiment” We can either use this fact and build on it - or go in a corner and “just do a physics experiment” We can either build on this opportunity to explain our science to other scientists, to those with $$s, and to the public – or let it pass us by We can either build on this opportunity to explain our science to other scientists, to those with $$s, and to the public – or let it pass us by We can either capitalize on the perception that we may be leading the way in working in a high-tech way across global “virtual organizations” – showing the way for the future for corporations as well as for other sciences that are not yet at that scale – or we can hide. We can either capitalize on the perception that we may be leading the way in working in a high-tech way across global “virtual organizations” – showing the way for the future for corporations as well as for other sciences that are not yet at that scale – or we can hide.

56 Will the Grid help us with Global Science projects I think it can and it is. High Energy Physics is prime example and a real driving force for global scale science projects with massive data and huge data processing needs The promise of the Grid has been not been oversold but the difficulty of developing the requisite Grid infrastructure has been underestimated. It is a new way of working – a bit less focused on HEP but with a greater chance to see and be seen and have an impact more broadly than our science and more aligned with the long-term standards and developments in Information Technology

57 The End

58 A few URLs – to start from …….. These contain many links to Globus, Condor, SRM, Network and Security projects that Fermilab and Fermilab experiments are involved with. …….. These contain many links to Globus, Condor, SRM, Network and Security projects that Fermilab and Fermilab experiments are involved with.


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