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Neutrinos Louvain, February 2005 Alan Martin Arguably the most fascinating of the elementary particles. Certainly they take us beyond the Standard Model.

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Presentation on theme: "Neutrinos Louvain, February 2005 Alan Martin Arguably the most fascinating of the elementary particles. Certainly they take us beyond the Standard Model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neutrinos Louvain, February 2005 Alan Martin Arguably the most fascinating of the elementary particles. Certainly they take us beyond the Standard Model !

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13 = E = mc 2

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23 Solar Neutrino Problem (circa 2000) either Solar models are incomplete/incorrect or Neutrinos undergo flavor-changing transformation

24 Sudbury Neutrino Observatory 1700 tonnes of inner shielding H 2 O 12.01m dia. acrylic vessel 17.8m dia. PMT Support Structure cm dia. PMTs 56% coverage 5300 tonnes of outer shielding H 2 O Urylon liner 1006 tonnes D 2 O Nucl. Inst. Meth. A449, 127 (2000) 2 km to surface

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26 Detecting at SNO NC xx    npd ES --    e e xx CC - epd  e p Low Statistics  ( e )  6  (  )  6  (  ) Strong directionality: Measurement of e energy spectrum Weak directionality: Measure total 8 B flux from the sun  e     

27 See : Phys.Rev.Lett. 89 (2002) Phys.Rev.Lett. 89 (2002) Solar Model predictions are verified: [in 10 6 cm -2 s -1 ] Missing Solar ’s Found 8 B  shape constrained fit: No 8 B  shape constraint: Null hypothesis of no flavour transformation rejected at 5.3 

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30 If CPT is conserved…(and LMA…) Solar e Predicts deficit in Reactor e ~100 to 200 km Complementary!

31 Why Kamioka? 51 reactors in Japan, 80% of flux (or 68.5 GW of reactor power) from baseline of ~140 to 210 km

32 Is Oscillation Really the Solution? Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) (Kamioka, Gifu Prefecture, Japan)  reactor “right” baseline for directly testing the currently favoured LMA region 2x coincidence 1 kt liquid scintillator as target (inverse  decay)

33 Reactor Anti-Neutrino Flux N obs /N no oscillation N observed – N BKG N no oscillation = ± (stat) ± (syst) First observation of reactor anti-neutrino deficit LMA prediction:  m 2 = 5.5x10 -5 eV 2 sin 2 2  = 0.833

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47 Electron neutrinos as expected. Evidence of mu-tau neutrino oscillations. Should see evidence of upgoing tau neutrinos Atmospheric neutrinos

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52 56 events seen---80 expected

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61 t b  c s  d u e Log 10 m/eV (  m 2 atm ) 1/2 (  m 2 sol ) 1/2 Upper limit on m Neutrino masses are really special! m t /(  m 2 atm ) 1/2 ~10 12 WMAP & LSS KamLAND Massless ’s? no R L conserved Small  masses? R very heavy L not conserved

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64  /  dm  dm

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71 6p  4 He + 2p +2e Twice 

72 4p + e -  4 He + e + +2

73 Solar neutrino mixing

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