Presentation on theme: "Aeschylus 524?—456 BCE The Creator of the second actor to the Greek drama The creation of possible conflict Beginning his career before the Persian."— Presentation transcript:
Aeschylus 524?—456 BCE The Creator of the second actor to the Greek drama The creation of possible conflict Beginning his career before the Persian War, in the first days of the Athenian democracy Having fought in the Persian War at Marathon (probably also Salamis)
Aeschylus’s Works About 90 pieces in total Only 7 of them survived
The Survivals of Aeschylus’s Plays Persians Oresteia (trilogy) Suppliants The Seven against the Thebes Prometheus Bound (arguably) of the trilogy (Prometheus Unbound, Prometheus the Fire Bringer)
Oresteia: A Trilogy Agamemnon The Libation Bearers The Eumenides
Question for Discussion Do you believe in law for upholding justice or straightening the wrong things out? Can you give some examples of its working and non-working parts? What other measures might you resort to? Example: the conviction of innocence in touching a woman’s breast for under 10 sec.
A Question to Ponder on Is a person guilty of murder if s/he accidently caused someone to die due to his/her urgent attempt to save the one’s life? Is the person guilty of murder if s/he ignores the one’s urgent need of help?
The Plot of Agamemnon 1 1. The beacon lighting up one after another, Agamemnon is on his way home from the Trojan war 2. a sinister mood permeates his palace. 3. The watchman is expecting his master, with worrying and fearful emotions though. He was bribed to keep silent against his will.
The Plot of Agamemnon 2 1. Clytemnestra lights the altar-fire for a ritual dedicated to gods for Agamemnon’s safe return. 2. The seer Calchas’s mysterious words. 3. Agamemnon arrives home, bringing Cassandra with him, favoring her over his wife.
The Plot of Agamemnon 3 1. Casandra’s disturbance upon arriving at the gate. 2. Clytemnestra’s humiliation of Cassandra. 3. the assassin of Agamemnon (Clytemnestra for A.’s sacrificing her daughter to Artemes) and Aegisthus for A.’s father’s killing his brothers.
The Significance of Oresteia Theme: justice Socio-historical meaning: ---kin (individual) avenge and its deadlock ---the role of the Furies ---the replacement of kin avenge by juristic (communal) justice: the first court of law set up by Athena at Athens
Religious Interpretation of Social Progress Progress painfully won: (the rule set up by Zeus) (the rule set up by Zeus) ---from suffering come understanding & progress ---“ the Helmsman lays it down as law that we must suffer, suffer into truth.” that we must suffer, suffer into truth.”
A Comparison with the Greek Value in Homer: 1 More positive and profound understanding about the chaotic universe ---suffering into truth (emphasis on humanity rather than on gods) (a. Why are there sufferings in this world?) (a. Why are there sufferings in this world?) (b. Why do innocent people suffer? Ex. Job) Ex. Job)
A Comparison with the Greek Value in Homer: 2 Similarity: gender asymmetry A: acknowledging the power of women in association with Earth’s natural process association with Earth’s natural process B: validating the exclusion of women from the civic processes of the democracy— the civic processes of the democracy— the dominance of patriarchal principle the dominance of patriarchal principle
The Dominance of Patriarchal Principle: 1 ---Clytemnestra: a woman out of control (Homer: women as potential danger) (Homer: women as potential danger) ---justifying women’s subjugation
The Dominance of Patriarchal Principle: 2 The role of goddess in this text ---Athena: representing the female as an ally of patriarchal order of patriarchal order (“No mother gave me birth, (“No mother gave me birth, I honor the male, in all things I honor the male, in all things but marriage.” but marriage.”
The Dominance of Patriarchal Principle: 3 The role of goddess in this text ---the Furies: at first speaking for the mother Their incorporation into Athens represents Their incorporation into Athens represents the appropriation and taming of female the appropriation and taming of female power and it validates the exclusion of power and it validates the exclusion of women from the civic processes of the women from the civic processes of the democracy democracy
The Significance of Cassandra Cutting off from the ordinary human being (represented by chorus) Clarity of vision & the terrible burden of her knowledge Timeless unity: a mysterious vision that combines cause, effect, and result
The Imagery of the Intricate Tapestry The Shakespearean poetic power An image, once introduced, recurs and reappears again, to run its course verbally and visually through the whole length of the trilogy, richer in meaning with each fresh appearance. The net imagery
The Net Imagery 1. The net of the dark night: An image of Zeus’s justice (on Troy’s paying for taking Helen) 2. The dragnet of Agamemnon’s wounds: Clytemnestra’s deepest desire 3. The gashed robes: the robes of doom 4. Cassandra as a wild animal in a net: all of them are caught in the system of justice