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BR-main Before Reading 2. A Talk about Machine Translation 3. Discussion 4. Topic-related Prediction 1. About Machine Translation Definition Why Bother.

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Presentation on theme: "BR-main Before Reading 2. A Talk about Machine Translation 3. Discussion 4. Topic-related Prediction 1. About Machine Translation Definition Why Bother."— Presentation transcript:

1 BR-main Before Reading 2. A Talk about Machine Translation 3. Discussion 4. Topic-related Prediction 1. About Machine Translation Definition Why Bother MT and Others Listen to the Talk Questions about the Talk 5. Background Information

2 BR1- About Machine Translation1 Definition What is machine translation? Machine translation is the application of computers to the translation of texts from one natural language into another.

3 BR1- About Machine Translation2 What do you think are the main reasons that people attempt machine translation? practical reasons idealism motives Why Bother

4 BR1- About Machine Translation3 military purpose pure scientific curiosity commercial and economic motives

5 BR1- About Machine Translation2.1 practical reasons The principal reason is a severely practical one: scientists, technologists, engineers, economists, agriculturalists, administrators, industrialists, businessmen, and many others have to read documents and have to communicate in languages ■ they do not know; and there are just not enough translators to cope with the ever increasing volume of material which has to be translated. Machine translation would ease the pressure.

6 BR1- About Machine Translation2.1._2 idealism motives Many researchers have been motivated by idealism: the promotion of international cooperation and peace, the removal of language barriers, the transmission of technical, agricultural and medical information to the poor and developing countries of the world. ■

7 BR1- About Machine Translation3 military purpose Some sponsors of machine translation activity have seen its importance in military and intelligence contexts: to help them find out what the “enemy” knows. ■

8 BR1- About Machine Translation3_2 pure scientific curiosity There are “pure research” reasons: to study the basic mechanisms of language and mind, to exploit the power of the computer and to find its limitations. ■

9 BR1- About Machine Translation3_3 commercial and economic motives There are simple commercial and economic motives: to sell a successful product, or to maintain a high standard of living in a competitive world. ■

10 BR1- MT and Others MT and Others What do you think the following have to do with the development of machine translation? the launch of the first sputnik in 1957 In the United States during the 1950s and 1960s fear of Soviet technological prowess (particularly after the launch of the first sputnik in 1957) stimulated much governmental and military support for Russian-English translation. ■

11 BR1- Listening Comprehension2.2 the European Communities In the 1970s the multilingual problems of the European Communities encouraged research on translation systems to deal with administrative, economic and technical documentation within the languages of the communities. ■

12 BR1- Listening Comprehension2.3 the Japanese “fifth generation” project In the 1980’s the Japanese “fifth generation” project, in which machine translation plays an important role, has been launched to establish for Japan a major position in the future world economy. ■

13 BR2- A Talk about1 Ever wish you had a machine that would relieve you of the burden of learning foreign languages? Well, there is some help at hand, but machine translation still has a long way to go before you can safely throw away your English books. The talk you are about to listen to will explain just what machine translation can and cannot do. Listen to the Talk ■

14 BR2- A Talk about2 Computer-based translation systems will probably never produce great literature in fact. Expecting the results to resemble Shakespeare is like expecting monkeys to paint the “Mona Lisa.” But although the results of machine translation programs aren’t exactly a “good read,” they are enough to provide the gist of a document’s And as amusing as the rough-and-ready translations are, they can prove valuable to people doing research on a desktop PC in that they can provide them instantly with references they need. contents. Another redeeming feature of even a somewhat poor translation is that it saves money. The services of skilled translators are expensive, and a professional translator may average no more than 6 to 8 pages (perhaps 3,000 words) a day.

15 BR2- A Talk about3 Machine translation programs deliver understandable if not eloquent translations of documents written in a foreign language at a fraction of the cost of a human translator, and they do the job a lot quicker as well. The quality of any translation — whether by a computer or by a person — depends on the quality of the original material, and documents on the Web pose a challenge: The Web is notorious for containing misspelled words, poor grammar and incorrect syntax. This not only makes translation difficult but also can thwart search efforts.

16 BR2- A Talk about4 Machine translation programs generally work better within a sharply defined glossary of known words and phrases, as opposed to the open-ended documents that a desk­top PC user would encounter on the Internet. For example, machine translation of legal or medical texts has a much higher success rate than machine translation of a foreign city’s newspaper Web site.

17 BR2- Questions about the Talk1 Questions about the Talk 1. How does the speaker compare the results of computer-based translation with Shakespeare? Expecting the results to resemble Shakespeare is like expecting monkeys to paint the “Mona Lisa”. 2. Why is computer-based translation valuable despite its obvious poor quality? Because it is enough to instantly provide people doing research on a desktop PC with the gist of a document’s contents and references they need.

18 BR2- Questions about the Talk2 3. What are, according to the speaker, the two advantages of machine translation? The provision of references is cheaper and quicker. 4. What kind of text does machine translation work better with? The kind of text within a sharply defined glossary of known words and phrases.

19 BR3- 1 Discussion 1.Describe the following situations and discuss which should be applied to them respectively, machine translation, human translation or collaboration between man and machine. The Public Security system monitors the radio broadcasting of a foreign country.

20 BR3-2 An English speaker wants to appreciate Jin Yong’s Martial Arts Novels.

21 BR3-3 A Chinese businesswoman tries to negotiation with her French business partner.

22 BR3- 4 You enter a crowded German chat-room and want to gain a quick understanding of what people there are talking about.

23 BR3- 5 2. Give some examples of poor machine translation work and discuss what makes machine translation unsuccessful in achieving good results. 3. Do you believe that MT will eventually replace human translators and help people get over language barriers in their communication? Why or why not?

24 BR4 1. The title of the text “tongues of the web”. What does it mean? 2. How does it relate to machine translation? 3. What do you think are most probably discussed in the passage? Topic-related Prediction

25 BR5_1 1. Rockefeller Foundation Background Information Rockefeller Foundation is a large US public trust (organization providing money for projects that help society). It was established in 1913 by John D. Rockefeller and supports research in medical science, agriculture and social issues. These include problems of hunger, education, social equality and the environment. ■

26 BR5_2 2. Shannon, Claude Elwood (1916~2001) Shannon is an American applied mathematician and electrical engineer, noted for his development of the theory of communication now known as information theory. Born in Gaylord, Michigan, Shannon attended the University of Michigan and in 1940 obtained his doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he became a faculty member in 1956 after working at Bell Telephone Laboratories. In 1948 Shannon published “A Mathematical Theory of Communication,” an article in which he presented his initial concept for a unifying theory of the transmitting and processing of information. ■

27 BR5_3 3. IBM International Business Machines is a US company that was the first to develop computers successfully. IBM computers created an international system that most other computers now relate to. The company began in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. It developed the first electric typewriter in the 1930s, the first computer in the 1950s and the first personal computer (PC) in 1980. ■

28 BR5_4 4. European Commission European Commission is one of the main institutes of the European Union. It consists of 20 members who make proposals for new laws, deal with the administrative work of the European Union and make sure that agreements are kept. It is based in Brussels. ■

29 BR5_5 5. Babel Babel was an ancient city in the land of Shinar where Noah’s descendants (who spoke one language) tried to build a tower (the tower of Babel) reaching up to heaven to make a name for themselves. But the project had to stop because of the confusion caused by the different languages used by the builders, as willed by God. The story was perhaps originally a tale explaining the diversity of languages and cultures. ■

30 BR5_5_pop1 5. Babel Babel was an ancient city in the land of Shinar where Noah’s descendants (who spoke one language) tried to build a tower (the tower of Babel) reaching up to heaven to make a name for themselves. But the project had to stop because of the confusion caused by the different languages used by the builders, as willed by God. The story was perhaps originally a tale explaining the diversity of languages and cultures. The story of the tower of Babel is told in Genesis (《圣经》创 世纪) xi. It begins thus: Now the whole earth had one language and few words. And as men migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen (沥青) for mortar (灰浆). Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth." ■

31 ■ BR5_5_pop2 5. Babel Babel was an ancient city in the land of Shinar where Noah’s descendants (who spoke one language) tried to build a tower (the tower of Babel) reaching up to heaven to make a name for themselves. But the project had to stop because of the confusion caused by the different languages used by the builders, as willed by God. The story was perhaps originally a tale explaining the diversity of languages and cultures. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the sons of men had built. And the Lord said, "Behold (看), they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do; and nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. Come, let us go down, and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another's speech." So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of the earth, and they left off building the city. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them from abroad over the face of the earth. — Genesis 11

32 BR5_6 6. IDC (International Data Corporation) IDC is the world’s leading provider of technology intelligence, industry analysis, market data, and strategic and tactical guidance to builders, providers, and users of information technology. ■

33 GR-MAIN Global Reading 2. Part Division of the Text 1. True or False 3. Further Understanding Table Completion Rearrange the Order Subtitles

34 GR-True or False1 According to the text, the democratisation of Internet has made the process of MT easier than before. The Internet has democratized MT. But the process of translation is not, at least on the face of it, made any easier. F ( ) 1. True or False Internet has changed the way MT systems are used and people’s expectations of them rather than the quality of the MT output. 2. According to the text, the Internet has lifted MT out of its difficult situation by greatly improving the demand and the quality of MT at the same time. F ( )

35 GR-True or False2 According to the text, Babel Fish offers not only online translation but also popular games producing enormous amusement. Babel Fish offers online translation. The studies conducted by Aberdeen Group and IDC both proved the great need from the Internet for MT system to provide immediate translations. F ( ) T 5. 4. According to Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation, the basis of MT system is Claude Shannon’s new “information theory”. Warren Weaver suggested that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with the electronic computers and Claude Shannon’s new “information theory” might form the basis of MT system. F ( ) 3.

36 GR-True or False3 It can be inferred from paragraph 11 that MT systems work better with documents of technical terms than those full of colloquial language. T ( ) 7. According to paragraph 10, the proportion of English speaking Internet users is expected to fall by the end of 2002 because the diversity of Internet users increases. T ( ) 6.

37 GR- Part Division of the Text PartsLinesMain Ideas 1 2 3 1~22 23~70 71~112 Part Division of the Text A brief introduction to MT The chronological development of MT The need for MT and its current state

38 Table Completion GR-Table Completion1 Part 2 of Text A develops mainly in a chronological order. Complete the following table by writing down the words or phrases that indicate the time when the following events unfolded and the words or sentences that indicate the public response to the events. Words or phrases that indicate the time of happening Events Words, phrases or sentences that indicate the public response to the events back to the late 1940s (L.24) Conceiving and developing the idea of automating the process of translation This prompted research… (L.28)

39 GR-Table Completion2 Words or phrases that indicate the time of happening Events Words, phrases or sentences that indicate the public response to the events First public demonstration of MT in 1954 (L.31) a surge of enthusiasm and funding (L.32) MT researchers making efforts to overcome the limitations of simple dictionary-based systems for the next decade (L.33) optimism (L.38)

40 GR-Table Completion3 Words or phrases that indicate the time of happening Events Words, phrases or sentences that indicate the public response to the events Drawing the conclusion that MT systems were slower, less accurate, and twice as expensive compared with human translators in 1964 … two years later (L.40) American funding for pure MT research dried up. (L.44) Systran’s Russian- to-English translation system sold to the United States Air Force in 1970 (L.49) Demand for translation systems began to emerge in the business community. (L.50)

41 GR-Table Completion4 Words or phrases that indicate the time of happening Events Words, phrases or sentences that indicate the public response to the events A revival of interest in MT during the 1980s (L.52) …spurring renewed research. (L.54) The emergence of new approaches in the 1990s (L.59) over the past three decades (LL.64- 65) Making little improvement in the quality of MT Not mentioned

42 GR- Rearrange the Order of the Sentences The following are MT systems in different periods of time. Rearrange them according to the order of development. the system which worked by analysing the source text using grammatical rules the simple dictionary-based system the statistical-translation system and example-based system the system which worked by translating the source into an intermediate language or symbolic representation A. B. C. D. 3 ( ) 2 1 4 Rearrange the Order

43 GR_Subtitles Subtitles Give a subtitle for each paragraph in part 3. Para. 9 Para. 10 Para. 11 Para. 12 how Internet boosted demand for MT some well known online MT systems the limitations of online MT system people’s new outlook on MT system

44 With its growing number of tongues, the Internet is giving MT — the use of computers to translate languages — a much needed shot in the arm. TEXT_1_S

45 Tongues of the Web Since its earliest days, machine translation — the use of computers to translate documents from one language to another automatically — has suffered from exaggerated claims and impossible expectations. One characteristic (but apocryphal) tale tells of Anonymous tells of an American military system designed to translate Russian into English, which is said to have rendered the famous Russian saying "The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak" into "The vodka is good but the meat is rotten." TEXT_1_S

46 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_S

47 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum TEXT_4_S suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding.

48 For the next decade, MT researchers tried to overcome the limitations of simple dictionary-based systems using more complex approaches which analysed the source text using grammatical rules. "Today, the computer, or electronic brain, is well along toward picking up the burden of machine translation," declared the Atlantic Monthly in 1959. But despite such optimism, progress was slow, and in 1964 the American government established a committee to examine the prospects for MT. Its report, issued two years later, concluded that, compared with human translators, MT systems were slower, less accurate, and twice as expensive. Instead, the committee recommended that research should concentrate on devising systems to assist human translators, rather than trying to replace them altogether. As a result, American funding for pure MT research dried up. TEXT_5_S

49 In some fields, however, it was recognised that even a rough- and-ready translation was better than none at all. Systran, a company established by Peter Toma, a researcher at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, sold a Russian-to-English translation TEXT_6_S translation system to the United States Air Force in 1970, and the same system was subsequently adopted by the European Commission. During the 1970s, demand for translation systems began to emerge in the business community.

50 During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. TEXT_7_S

51 Even so, the quality of MT has not really improved very much over the past three decades, says John Hutchins, an expert on the history of machine translation at the University of East Anglia, in Britain. "If you look at quality of output now, compared with 1970, in many cases you can't see much improvement," he says. What has changed is that MT systems have now been plugged into the Internet. That changes the way they are used, and the expectations of them. TEXT_8-9_S

52 TEXT_10_S The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel

53 Arguably the best known online MT system is Babel Fish, which relies on Systran software to translate pages retrieved by the AltaVista search engine. Anyone who has used Babel Fish will be familiar with the TEXT_11_S the unintentional hilarity of the results; one popular game involves scrambling the lyrics of pop songs by translating them from English into another language and then back again (a "round-trip" translation). Other MT systems are also in use online, providing rough-and-ready translations of chat-room conversations and messages e-mail messages. Demand for such services is likely to increase as the diversity of Internet users increases. At the end of 2000, 48% of Internet users were English speakers, but this figure is expected to fall to 32% by the end of 2002.

54 Unfortunately, MT systems work best when they have been customised for a particular subject area, such as microbiology, aerospace or particle physics. This involves analysing typical documents and adding common words and technical terms to the system's dictionary. Using MT to translate Internet pages, which can be about anything at all, therefore produces terrible results, since no customisation is possible. To make matters worse, most MT systems were designed for use with high quality documents, whereas many web pages, chat-rooms and e-mails tend to involve slang, colloquial language and ungrammatical constructions. Even so, Steve McClure, an analyst at IDC, notes that the Internet has "refocused" MT from being a tool that provides a first draft for translators to becoming a general tool "for gaining a quick, partial understanding of perishable texts in high-volume environments without human involvement in the translation process." The Internet changes the game for machine translation: users want speed, rather than quality, and are more likely to accept poor results. TEXT_12-13_S

55 Since its earliest days, machine translation — the use of computers to translate documents from one language to another automatically — has suffered from exaggerated claims and impossible expectations. One characteristic (but apocryphal) tale tells of TEXT_1_W Anonymous Tongues of the Web tells of an American military system designed to translate Russian into English, which is said to have rendered the famous Russian saying "The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak" into "The vodka is good but the meat is rotten."

56 Since its earliest days, machine translation — the use of computers to translate documents from one language to another automatically — has suffered from exaggerated claims and impossible expectations. One characteristic (but apocryphal) tale tells of tells of an American military system designed to translate Russian into English, which is said to have rendered the famous Russian saying "The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak" into "The vodka is good but the meat is rotten." Anonymous TEXT_1_S_POP 1. Understand the definition of “machine translation”. 这里的定义是通过 “—…—” 给出的 : “the use of computers to translate documents from one language to another automatically” 。 2. What can we infer from the sentence? From the very beginning, machine translation suffered a lot. Some made overstatements while others expected impractically. Tongues of the Web

57 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_W

58 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_S_POP_1 Paraphrase the sentence. Those who undertake the machine translation have nothing to do but only a forced and cynical laugh when hearing this kind of joke.

59 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_S_POP_2 What does this sentence mean? MT business has made little progress for a long time, whereas, now the Internet has boosted its spirits greatly and given an impetus to it in this difficult situation.

60 TEXT_4_W The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding.

61 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_S_POP 1. Analyze the structure of the sentence. 该句是一个复合句。主句: Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum 。 suggesting that 引导的从句在句中作 memorandum 的定语,在此 从句中 , the code-breaking successes of the second world war 为主语。在翻译成中文时,要注意分句译法。 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 纽约洛克菲勒基金会的沃伦 韦弗写了一份备忘录,说若能将第二次 世界大战中成功的密码破译技术与电子计算机以及克劳德 香农提出 的新 “ 信息理论 ” 相结合,即能构成自动翻译系统的基础。

62 For the next decade, MT researchers tried to overcome the limitations of simple dictionary-based systems using more complex approaches which analysed the source text using grammatical rules. "Today, the computer, or electronic brain, is well along toward picking up the burden of machine translation," declared the Atlantic Monthly in 1959. But despite such optimism, progress was slow, and in 1964 the American government established a committee to examine the prospects for MT. Its report, issued two years later, concluded that, compared with human translators, MT systems were slower, less accurate, and twice as expensive. Instead, the committee recommended that research should concentrate on devising systems to assist human translators, rather than trying to replace them altogether. As a result, American funding for pure MT research dried up. TEXT_5_W

63 In some fields, however, it was recognised that even a rough- and-ready translation was better than none at all. Systran, a company established by Peter Toma, a researcher at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, sold a Russian-to-English translation TEXT_6_W translation system to the United States Air Force in 1970, and the same system was subsequently adopted by the European Commission. During the 1970s, demand for translation systems began to emerge in the business community.

64 In some fields, however, it was recognised that even a rough- and-ready translation was better than none at all. Systran, a company established by Peter Toma, a researcher at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, sold a Russian-to-English translation translation system to the United States Air Force in 1970, and the same system was subsequently adopted by the European Commission. During the 1970s, demand for translation systems began to emerge in the business community. TEXT_6_S_POP What’s the implied meaning of this sentence? Machine translation was badly needed in some fields at that time, even if it could only offer a not exact translation version.

65 TEXT_7_W During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known.

66 TEXT_7_S_POP_1.1 1. Analyze the structure of the sentence. “to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules” 和 “and to example- based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known” 为并列成分,都做 led 的宾语, 在这两个并列成分中,又各自带了 which 引导的定语从句,前一个定 语从句短,译成中文时可考虑前置;后一个定语从句长,译成中文时 要考虑分句。

67 During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. TEXT_7_S_POP_1.2 2. Translate the three terms into Chinese and notice the different ways to give definition. parallel texts 平行文本 statistical-translation systems 基于统计的翻译系统 example-based systems 基于例句的翻译系统 3. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 对平行文本的分析(用两种语言表达的同一文本)产生了不依赖任 何基本语法规则的基于统计的机器翻译新系统,还产生了基于例句 的翻译系统,即通过在数据库中搜索已有现成翻译的类似例句一次 翻译一句句子。

68 Even so, the quality of MT has not really improved very much over the past three decades, says John Hutchins, an expert on the history of machine translation at the University of East Anglia, in Britain. "If you look at quality of output now, compared with 1970, in many cases you can't see much improvement," he says. What has changed is that MT systems have now been plugged into the Internet. That changes the way they are used, and the expectations of them. TEXT_8-9_W

69 TEXT_10_W The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel

70 The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel TEXT_10_S_POP Paraphrase the sentence. The Internet made MT widespread and badly needed because so many foreign users want to understand the foreign web pages.

71 TEXT_11_W Arguably the best known online MT system is Babel Fish, which relies on Systran software to translate pages retrieved by the AltaVista search engine. Anyone who has used Babel Fish will be familiar with the the unintentional hilarity of the results; one popular game involves scrambling the lyrics of pop songs by translating them from English into another language and then back again (a "round-trip" translation). Other MT systems are also in use online, providing rough-and-ready translations of chat-room conversations and messages e-mail messages. Demand for such services is likely to increase as the diversity of Internet users increases. At the end of 2000, 48% of Internet users were English speakers, but this figure is expected to fall to 32% by the end of 2002.

72 Arguably the best known online MT system is Babel Fish, which relies on Systran software to translate pages retrieved by the AltaVista search engine. Anyone who has used Babel Fish will be familiar with the the unintentional hilarity of the results; one popular game involves scrambling the lyrics of pop songs by translating them from English into another language and then back again (a "round-trip" translation). Other MT systems are also in use online, providing rough-and-ready translations of chat-room conversations and messages e-mail messages. Demand for such services is likely to increase as the diversity of Internet users increases. At the end of 2000, 48% of Internet users were English speakers, but this figure is expected to fall to 32% by the end of 2002. TEXT_11_S_POP What does the phrase “a round-trip translation” mean both in English and Chinese? Translating something from one language into another and then back again. 来回翻译

73 Unfortunately, MT systems work best when they have been customised for a particular subject area, such as microbiology, aerospace or particle physics. This involves analysing typical documents and adding common words and technical terms to the system's dictionary. Using MT to translate Internet pages, which can be about anything at all, therefore produces terrible results, since no customisation is possible. To make matters worse, most MT systems were designed for use with high quality documents, whereas many web pages, chat-rooms and e-mails tend to involve slang, colloquial language and ungrammatical constructions. Even so, Steve McClure, an analyst at IDC, notes that the Internet has "refocused" MT from being a tool that provides a first draft for translators to becoming a general tool "for gaining a quick, partial understanding of perishable texts in high-volume environments without human involvement in the translation process." The Internet changes the game for machine translation: users want speed, rather than quality, and are more likely to accept poor results. TEXT_12-13_W

74 Unfortunately, MT systems work best when they have been customised for a particular subject area, such as microbiology, aerospace or particle physics. This involves analysing typical documents and adding common words and technical terms to the system's dictionary. Using MT to translate Internet pages, which can be about anything at all, therefore produces terrible results, since no customisation is possible. To make matters worse, most MT systems were designed for use with high quality documents, whereas many web pages, chat-rooms and e-mails tend to involve slang, colloquial language and ungrammatical constructions. Even so, Steve McClure, an analyst at IDC, notes that the Internet has "refocused" MT from being a tool that provides a first draft for translators to becoming a general tool "for gaining a quick, partial understanding of perishable texts in high-volume environments without human involvement in the translation process." The Internet changes the game for machine translation: users want speed, rather than quality, and are more likely to accept poor results. TEXT_12-13_S_POP_1 What does “no customisation is possible” mean? It is impossible to change something to make it more suitable for you, or to make it look special or unusual.

75 Unfortunately, MT systems work best when they have been customised for a particular subject area, such as microbiology, aerospace or particle physics. This involves analysing typical documents and adding common words and technical terms to the system's dictionary. Using MT to translate Internet pages, which can be about anything at all, therefore produces terrible results, since no customisation is possible. To make matters worse, most MT systems were designed for use with high quality documents, whereas many web pages, chat-rooms and e-mails tend to involve slang, colloquial language and ungrammatical constructions. Even so, Steve McClure, an analyst at IDC, notes that the Internet has "refocused" MT from being a tool that provides a first draft for translators to becoming a general tool "for gaining a quick, partial understanding of perishable texts in high-volume environments without human involvement in the translation process." The Internet changes the game for machine translation: users want speed, rather than quality, and are more likely to accept poor results. TEXT_12-13_S_POP_2 What can you infer from the sentence? MT can’t satisfy us because it can work best only for a particular subject area.

76 Since its earliest days, machine translation — the use of computers to translate documents from one language to another automatically — has suffered from exaggerated claims and impossible expectations. One characteristic (but apocryphal) tale tells of tells of an American military system designed to translate Russian into English, which is said to have rendered the famous Russian saying "The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak" into "The vodka is good but the meat is rotten." Tongues of the Web Anonymous TEXT_1_W_pop_anonymous anonymous: adj. of unknown or undeclared source or authorship 收到匿名信是件不愉快的事。 It is unpleasant to receive an anonymous letter. The gifts were donated by an anonymous benefactor.

77 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_W_pop_storage1 storage: n. 1) the process of storing information in a computer's memory 快把货物贮藏起来以免被偷。 Place the goods in storage quickly in case it may be stolen. 2) the act of storing or the state of being stored We have to build a warehouse to give us more storage space. Information theory can be applied to both the transmission and the storage of messages.

78 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_W_pop_storage2 NB: a storage closet 小贮藏室 storage facilities 贮藏设备 storage battery 蓄电池 ( 组 ) storage 可用作名词定语用来修饰别的名词。例如:

79 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_W_pop_a shot in the arm a shot in the arm: sth. that boosts one's spirits or encourages, esp. in a difficult situation 这宗大生意对这家破落的厂是一个兴奋剂。 The big sale was a shot in the arm to the failing factory. The new findings of the research have given the scientists concerned a shot in the arm.

80 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_W_pop_ transmit transmit: vt. pass along (news or information); send an electronic signal, radio or television broadcast, etc. Computer telecommunications take advantage of existing telephone connections to transmit digital data. The survivors of the shipwreck transmitted a distress signal every hour.

81 This sort of joke prompts a hollow laugh from those in the machine-translation (MT) business. It does so because it demonstrates both the difficulty of getting computers to understand human languages, and the high expectations that must be met if MT is to be taken seriously. Over the years, there have been a number of promising new approaches in the field, and ever-cheaper processing and storage technology have helped improve things. But progress has been painfully slow, and the decisive breakthrough that will transform the fortunes of MT has never appeared. Now the Internet has given MT a much needed shot in the arm. This is odd because the ability to transmit information quickly and cheaply would not, on the face of it, appear to make the process of translation any easier. Yet, although the underlying technology of MT is still the same as it ever was, the rise of the Internet changes the way in which technology is perceived and the way it is used. And there are signs that, in future, it could improve the way it works as well. TEXT_2-3_W_pop_ on the face of it on the face of it: from appearances alone On the face of it, the document seemed genuine. 从表面看,这文件像是真的。 It looks, on the face of it, like a minor change in the regulations.

82 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_go back to go back to: date from (used in active voice) The root of this family goes back to the 16th century. Many phrases in the language go back to early religious writings.

83 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_memorandum1 memorandum: n. a proposal or report on a particular subject for a person, an organization, a committee, etc. 经理将给全体职员发个公务便条,概述一下新的章程。 Manager will send a memorandum/memo to the staff outlining the new rule. The delegation submitted a memorandum to the committee on the new technology.

84 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_memorandum2 The professor wrote a memorandum to the Dean of the Department making his suggestions about the subject. 那位教授给系主任写了个便笺,就这门课程提了些建议。 NB: 1 . memorandum 的复数形式是 : memorandums 或 memoranda 。 2 . 当非正式情况时可用其缩写形式 memo 。 CF: memorandum, letter, massage & note 这些词都可用作名词,都可以表示 “ 书信,便签 ” 的意思 。 memorandum 在表示信件时,多用于商业方面的非正式的信息传递, 或用于任何其他公务方面的信息传递的便函或外交的备 忘录。例如:

85 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_memorandum3 I haven’t got his letter for half a year. 我有半年没收到他的信了。 letter 是个常用词,一般指个人、团体寄给(多以邮寄方式)对方的书写 的、打印的或印刷的信件。该词含义与信件内容性质无关,也不分 公事或私事。例如: This Monday he received a letter from the bank. 周一他收到了银行的一封信。

86 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_memorandum4 Would you please give him a message for me? 请你为我向他捎个信好吗? message 不仅指书写的、打印的或印刷信件,而且还可指以口头方式传 递的信息或电报、电话等传递的信息。例如: Wireless messages told us that the ship was attacked by storm. 无线电报消息告诉我们,那船遇到了暴风雨。

87 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_memorandum5 He left a note to tell her to visit his home. 他留下条子要她到他家去。 note 一般指简明扼要的信函,既可以是正式的,也可以是非正式的,在 外交方面指两国政府间的正式公文。 Notes were exchanged between the two countries. 两国政府互换了照会。

88 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_lay out: The manager listened closely as I laid out my plan. lay out: plan in detail, provide (a detailed plan or design) He wrote a report about how he laid out merchandise. Collocation: lay down 放下;发布,制定 lay off (临时)解雇,停止 lay over 作短暂停留 lay up 贮存;使卧病在床

89 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_automatic 旅馆里的取暖系统是自动调温的。 automatic: adj. The movements needed to ride a horse soon become automatic. 1) self-operating, working by itself The heating system in the hotel has an automatic temperature control. 2) done without thought ATM stands for automatic teller machine. It seems difficult at first, but shortly it becomes automatic.

90 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_collaboration1 警察和军队紧密合作逮捕了恐怖分子。 collaboration: n. the act of working jointly with other people The police caught the terrorists in close collaboration with the army. Collocation: in collaboration with 与 … 合作 / 合著;与 … 勾结 Mary once composed a piece of pop music in collaboration with another musician.

91 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_collaboration2 The two firms are working in collaboration with each other. CF: collaboration, cooperation & assistance 这三个词都是名词,都有 “ 合作 ” 之意。 collaboration 指与某人合作、协作,有指创造或生产某物,有时用作贬 义,指与敌人勾结。例如: 这两家公司互相合作。 The young woman was suspected of collaboration. 这个年轻女人被怀疑与敌人勾结。

92 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_collaboration3 The PLA worked out a plan with the cooperation of the villagers. cooperation 通常指与任何一方的相互合作以达成某一任务,亦指事件 之间的配合。例如: 人民解放军与村民合作定出一项计划。 Your cooperation means a great deal to us. 你们的协作对我们有很大的意义。

93 The idea of automating the process of translation using computers goes back to the late 1940s. Warren Weaver of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York wrote a memorandum suggesting that the code-breaking successes of the second world war, combined with electronic computers and the new "information theory" laid out by Claude Shannon, might form the basis of an automatic translation system. This prompted research at several American universities, and the first public demonstration of MT — the result of a collaboration between IBM and Georgetown University — took place in 1954. This early system, based on a simple bilingual dictionary with a few rules to determine word order, caused a surge of enthusiasm and funding. TEXT_4_W_POP_collaboration4 Can I be of any assistance to you? assistance 表示帮助一些人和群体,含有 “ 帮忙 ” 的意思,即被帮助者能 做部分工作,需要别人的帮忙。例如: 我能帮你什么忙吗 ? I’m willing to come to your assistance whenever there is an opportunity. 有机会我随时愿意帮忙。

94 For the next decade, MT researchers tried to overcome the limitations of simple dictionary-based systems using more complex approaches which analysed the source text using grammatical rules. "Today, the computer, or electronic brain, is well along toward picking up the burden of machine translation," declared the Atlantic Monthly in 1959. But despite such optimism, progress was slow, and in 1964 the American government established a committee to examine the prospects for MT. Its report, issued two years later, concluded that, compared with human translators, MT systems were slower, less accurate, and twice as expensive. Instead, the committee recommended that research should concentrate on devising systems to assist human translators, rather than trying to replace them altogether. As a result, American funding for pure MT research dried up. TEXT_5_W_pop_be (well) along toward be (well) along toward: go in the direction of, come near The negotiations are well along toward reaching an agreement. The project is well along toward reaching its goal.

95 For the next decade, MT researchers tried to overcome the limitations of simple dictionary-based systems using more complex approaches which analysed the source text using grammatical rules. "Today, the computer, or electronic brain, is well along toward picking up the burden of machine translation," declared the Atlantic Monthly in 1959. But despite such optimism, progress was slow, and in 1964 the American government established a committee to examine the prospects for MT. Its report, issued two years later, concluded that, compared with human translators, MT systems were slower, less accurate, and twice as expensive. Instead, the committee recommended that research should concentrate on devising systems to assist human translators, rather than trying to replace them altogether. As a result, American funding for pure MT research dried up. TEXT_5_W_pop_monthly monthly: 1. n. a magazine published once a month A magazine that is published once a month can be called a monthly. 2. adj. & adv. (happening) once a month or every month 月刊是每月印刷的,我们按月读它。 A monthly paper is printed every month. We read it monthly. The mortgage is payable in monthly installments. They meet monthly to share their ideas.

96 For the next decade, MT researchers tried to overcome the limitations of simple dictionary-based systems using more complex approaches which analysed the source text using grammatical rules. "Today, the computer, or electronic brain, is well along toward picking up the burden of machine translation," declared the Atlantic Monthly in 1959. But despite such optimism, progress was slow, and in 1964 the American government established a committee to examine the prospects for MT. Its report, issued two years later, concluded that, compared with human translators, MT systems were slower, less accurate, and twice as expensive. Instead, the committee recommended that research should concentrate on devising systems to assist human translators, rather than trying to replace them altogether. As a result, American funding for pure MT research dried up. TEXT_5_W_pop_dry up dry up: disappear as if by draining or cutting off of a source of supply 太阳把土地都烤干了,庄稼即将枯死。 The project is finishing because the money’s dried up. The sun has completely dried up the soil and the crops are drying.

97 translation system to the United States Air Force in 1970, and the same system was subsequently adopted by the European Commission. During the 1970s, demand for translation systems began to emerge in the business community. In some fields, however, it was recognised that even a rough- and-ready translation was better than none at all. Systran, a company established by Peter Toma, a researcher at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, sold a Russian-to-English translation TEXT_6_W_pop_better than none better than none/nothing: having less than one expects is better than having nothing What's the use of spending ten minutes doing exercises every morning? After all it's better than nothing. We originally wanted $100, but compromised on $80. Anyway, it's better than none.

98 TEXT_7_W_pop_multinational During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. multinational: adj. involving or operating in several countries The UN has sent a multinational peace-keeping force. The government is making great efforts to attract multinational investment.

99 TEXT_7_W_pop_revival During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. revival: n. the coming again into activity and prominence (followed by of) 我们亲眼目睹了一个溺水者的苏醒。 An economic revival is sweeping the country. We are witnessing a revival of a drowned man.

100 TEXT_7_W_pop_spur1 During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. spur: His parents' remarks spurred him into taking part in the contest. 自尊心刺激那人去决斗。 Pride spurred the man to fight. 1. vt. urge or incite to act Patterns: spur sth. spur sb. (on) to do sth. spur sb. into sth./doing Your encouragement spurred him on and he later achieved even greater results.

101 TEXT_7_W_pop_spur2 During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. Did your uncle’s success act as a spur when you started in your business? On the spur of the moment she rushed out and shouted. 2. n. something that serves as a goad or an incentive Collocation: on/upon the spur 飞快地,火急 on the spur of the moment 一时冲动之下;意气用事 put/set spurs to 用靴刺踢,激励 win/gain one's spurs 得到荣誉,出名 with whip and spur (=with spur and yard) 快马加鞭地,立刻

102 TEXT_7_W_pop_intermediate During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. Intermediate technology is a practical science which is suitable for use in developing countries because it is cheap and simple. 灰色介于黑色和白色之间。 Gray is intermediate between black and white. intermediate: adj. being between two extremes or in a middle position or state

103 TEXT_7_W_pop_analysis During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. Chemical analysis of the woman's dress revealed traces of blood. analysis: n. work done to find facts and solutions to problems 对谋杀现场样本的分析为警察提供了一些有价值的线索。 The analysis of the samples on the murder spot showed some valuable clues to the police. NB: 其复数形式是 analyses 。 Collocation: in the final/last analysis 最终,归根结底 In the final analysis, profit is the motive.

104 TEXT_7_W_pop_symbolic During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. The snake is symbolic of evil. symbolic: adj. consisting of symbols; containing or being used as a symbol (often followed by of) The Oval Office in the White House has come to be regarded as symbolic of the presidency.

105 TEXT_7_W_pop_database During the 1980s, the combination of rapid falls in the cost of computing power and increasing demand from governments and multinational companies caused a revival of interest in MT, spurring renewed research. New systems were developed. Many of them worked by translating the source text into an intermediate language or symbolic representation, from which it could be translated into any of several other languages. As computers became more powerful and storage became cheaper, other new approaches emerged in the 1990s: analysis of parallel texts (the same text in two languages) led to new statistical-translation systems, which did not rely on any underlying grammatical rules, and to example-based systems which translated one sentence at a time by searching a database for examples of similar sentences whose translations were known. He made a database of the employees in the multinational corporation. database: n. a large collection of information that is stored in a computer system in such a way that it can easily be found by a computer user We're linked to the online database at our head office.

106 Even so, the quality of MT has not really improved very much over the past three decades, says John Hutchins, an expert on the history of machine translation at the University of East Anglia, in Britain. "If you look at quality of output now, compared with 1970, in many cases you can't see much improvement," he says. What has changed is that MT systems have now been plugged into the Internet. That changes the way they are used, and the expectations of them. TEXT_8-9_W_pop_output The network of Babel output: n. information or data produced by a computer; an amount produced or manufactured The factory happily found the output was 20% on last year. Run the program, then we'll have a look at the output.

107 Even so, the quality of MT has not really improved very much over the past three decades, says John Hutchins, an expert on the history of machine translation at the University of East Anglia, in Britain. "If you look at quality of output now, compared with 1970, in many cases you can't see much improvement," he says. What has changed is that MT systems have now been plugged into the Internet. That changes the way they are used, and the expectations of them. TEXT_8-9_W_pop_plug1 The network of Babel 1. v. connect (one piece of electrical equipment) to another; connect (sth.) to the electricity supply They plugged their electronic organ into amplifiers. plug: I don’t think the antenna’s plugged right. Collocation: plug away 坚持努力做 plug in/into 接通 plug up 堵塞,填塞

108 Even so, the quality of MT has not really improved very much over the past three decades, says John Hutchins, an expert on the history of machine translation at the University of East Anglia, in Britain. "If you look at quality of output now, compared with 1970, in many cases you can't see much improvement," he says. What has changed is that MT systems have now been plugged into the Internet. That changes the way they are used, and the expectations of them. TEXT_8-9_W_pop_plug2 The network of Babel 2. n. a thing used for connecting a piece of electrical equipment to the main supply of electricity Make sure you turn off the washing machine at the plug. Collocation: pull the plug on sth. 不能继续,突然中断 We were doing fine until the bank pulled the plug on us.

109 The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel TEXT_10_W_POP_increasingly increasingly: adv. more and more I'm finding it increasingly difficult to live on my own. The increasingly dull nature of many industrial jobs has led to the alienation of many workers.

110 The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel TEXT_10_W_POP_elaborate The network of Babel 1. adj. carefully worked out and rich in detail; very detailed and complicated We are all attracted by the elaborate lace pattern in a small shop. elaborate: They have created elaborate computer programs to run the system. 2. v. give more details or new information about something I had new evidence but I didn’t want to elaborate any further in public. 经理只想了解事实, 你不必作详细说明。 The manager just wanted the facts. You don't need to elaborate on them.

111 The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel TEXT_10_W_POP_multiple The network of Babel 1. adj. many in number He is a man of multiple interests. multiple: The driver of the crashed car received multiple injuries. 2. n. number that may be divided by another number with no remainder 4 and 6 are multiples of 2.

112 The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel TEXT_10_W_POP_on average The network of Babel What is the rainfall for summer in your country on average? on average: as an average rate or estimate, typically The wines vary but they are quite good on average.

113 The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel TEXT_10_W_POP_resend If possible, would you please resend the poem in Chinese? resend: vt. send again As I had deleted the file, I asked him to resend it to me.

114 The Internet has democratised MT and boosted demand dramatically, as users around the world struggle to understand pages in languages other than their own. And as companies set up increasingly elaborate websites, they have become aware of the need to maintain multiple sites in different countries and serve customers in languages languages. Of America's 100 largest firms, 33 had multilingual websites at the end of 1999, and 57 did a year later. A study by Aberdeen Group, a management consultancy, found that, on average, users spend up to twice as long at a site, and are four times more likely to buy something from it, if it is presented presented to them in their own language. Another study by IDC, a technology consultancy, found that only 5% of the 50 top websites responded appropriately to e-mail queries in a foreign language; most simply asked for the message to be resent in English. All of which highlights the need for MT systems to provide on-the-fly translations, and for elaborate publishing systems that can manage multilingual websites. The network of Babel TEXT_10_W_POP_highlight While reviewing, you should highlight the text. highlight: vt. emphasize, make important Could you read through this for me and highlight the important points?

115 TEXT_11_W_pop_unintentional Arguably the best known online MT system is Babel Fish, which relies on Systran software to translate pages retrieved by the AltaVista search engine. Anyone who has used Babel Fish will be familiar with the the unintentional hilarity of the results; one popular game involves scrambling the lyrics of pop songs by translating them from English into another language and then back again (a "round-trip" translation). Other MT systems are also in use online, providing rough-and-ready translations of chat-room conversations and messages e-mail messages. Demand for such services is likely to increase as the diversity of Internet users increases. At the end of 2000, 48% of Internet users were English speakers, but this figure is expected to fall to 32% by the end of 2002. I'm sorry to disturb you; it was unintentional. unintentional: adj. not intentional Having thought the crime, we decided the person who did it had done it with an unintentional motive.

116 TEXT_11_W_pop_scramble Arguably the best known online MT system is Babel Fish, which relies on Systran software to translate pages retrieved by the AltaVista search engine. Anyone who has used Babel Fish will be familiar with the the unintentional hilarity of the results; one popular game involves scrambling the lyrics of pop songs by translating them from English into another language and then back again (a "round-trip" translation). Other MT systems are also in use online, providing rough-and-ready translations of chat-room conversations and messages e-mail messages. Demand for such services is likely to increase as the diversity of Internet users increases. At the end of 2000, 48% of Internet users were English speakers, but this figure is expected to fall to 32% by the end of 2002. Scrambling her hair, she rushed out of the house. scramble: v. 1. vt. mix or throw together haphazardly 恶劣的天气把飞机班次打乱了。 Bad weather scrambled the air schedules. 2. vi. move or climb hurriedly, especially on the hands and knees The old couple scrambled up the steep hill finally.

117 Unfortunately, MT systems work best when they have been customised for a particular subject area, such as microbiology, aerospace or particle physics. This involves analysing typical documents and adding common words and technical terms to the system's dictionary. Using MT to translate Internet pages, which can be about anything at all, therefore produces terrible results, since no customisation is possible. To make matters worse, most MT systems were designed for use with high quality documents, whereas many web pages, chat-rooms and e-mails tend to involve slang, colloquial language and ungrammatical constructions. Even so, Steve McClure, an analyst at IDC, notes that the Internet has "refocused" MT from being a tool that provides a first draft for translators to becoming a general tool "for gaining a quick, partial understanding of perishable texts in high-volume environments without human involvement in the translation process." The Internet changes the game for machine translation: users want speed, rather than quality, and are more likely to accept poor results. TEXT_12-13_W_pop_particle Electrons are one kind of elementary particles. particle: n. a unit of matter smaller than an atom, e.g. an electron; an extremely small piece of matter Dust particles must have got into the TV set, which is why it isn't working properly.

118 Unfortunately, MT systems work best when they have been customised for a particular subject area, such as microbiology, aerospace or particle physics. This involves analysing typical documents and adding common words and technical terms to the system's dictionary. Using MT to translate Internet pages, which can be about anything at all, therefore produces terrible results, since no customisation is possible. To make matters worse, most MT systems were designed for use with high quality documents, whereas many web pages, chat-rooms and e-mails tend to involve slang, colloquial language and ungrammatical constructions. Even so, Steve McClure, an analyst at IDC, notes that the Internet has "refocused" MT from being a tool that provides a first draft for translators to becoming a general tool "for gaining a quick, partial understanding of perishable texts in high-volume environments without human involvement in the translation process." The Internet changes the game for machine translation: users want speed, rather than quality, and are more likely to accept poor results. TEXT_12-13_W_pop_to make matters worse My bike broke down half way home, and to make matters worse, it began to rain. to make matters worse: to make a bad or difficult situation worse You’ve spent too much time watching TV, and to make matters worse, rubbishy commercials and harmful programs lead to bad tastes and a distorted viewpoint towards human life.

119 Unfortunately, MT systems work best when they have been customised for a particular subject area, such as microbiology, aerospace or particle physics. This involves analysing typical documents and adding common words and technical terms to the system's dictionary. Using MT to translate Internet pages, which can be about anything at all, therefore produces terrible results, since no customisation is possible. To make matters worse, most MT systems were designed for use with high quality documents, whereas many web pages, chat-rooms and e-mails tend to involve slang, colloquial language and ungrammatical constructions. Even so, Steve McClure, an analyst at IDC, notes that the Internet has "refocused" MT from being a tool that provides a first draft for translators to becoming a general tool "for gaining a quick, partial understanding of perishable texts in high-volume environments without human involvement in the translation process." The Internet changes the game for machine translation: users want speed, rather than quality, and are more likely to accept poor results. TEXT_12-13_W_pop_whereas He must be about eighty, whereas his wife looks about twenty. whereas: conj. but; compared with the fact that 他们想要一座房子, 而我们宁愿住在公寓里。 They want a house, whereas we would rather live in a flat.

120 Unfortunately, MT systems work best when they have been customised for a particular subject area, such as microbiology, aerospace or particle physics. This involves analysing typical documents and adding common words and technical terms to the system's dictionary. Using MT to translate Internet pages, which can be about anything at all, therefore produces terrible results, since no customisation is possible. To make matters worse, most MT systems were designed for use with high quality documents, whereas many web pages, chat-rooms and e-mails tend to involve slang, colloquial language and ungrammatical constructions. Even so, Steve McClure, an analyst at IDC, notes that the Internet has "refocused" MT from being a tool that provides a first draft for translators to becoming a general tool "for gaining a quick, partial understanding of perishable texts in high-volume environments without human involvement in the translation process." The Internet changes the game for machine translation: users want speed, rather than quality, and are more likely to accept poor results. TEXT_12-13_W_pop_partial The research project was only a partial success. partial: adj. not complete or whole 警察只对嫌疑犯进行了不完全的描述。 The police have only a partial description of the suspect.

121 AR-Main 5. Talk about the Pictures 1. Useful Expressions 2. Spot Dictation 3. Translation Appreciation 4. Translation Practice After Reading 6. Proverbs and Quotations

122 AR-Useful Expressions1.1 1. 言过其实的断言 2. 不切实际的期望 3. 心有余而力不足 4. 苦笑 5. 把 … 当回事 6. 满足期望 7. 颇具发展前途的新途径 8. 决定性的突破 exaggerated claims impossible expectations The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. a hollow laugh take … seriously meet the expectations promising new approaches decisive breakthrough Useful Expressions

123 AR-Useful Expressions1.2 9. 主要技术 10. 构成基础 11. 一阵热潮 12. 挑起重担 13. 探明前景 14. 粗糙的翻译 15. 聊胜于无 underlying technology form the basis of a surge of enthusiasm pick up the burden examine the prospects a rough-and-ready translation better than none 16. 中介语 intermediate language

124 AR-Useful Expressions1.3 17. 极大地促进了需求 18. 非母语 19. 管理咨询公司 20. 即时翻译 21. 搜索引擎 22. 来回翻译 boost demand dramatically language other than one’s own a management consultancy on-the-fly translation search engine a round-trip translation 23. 更糟的是 24. 部分了解 to make matters worse partial understanding

125 The only difference between (1)and translation is in the (2) : the interpreter translates (3), while a translator does his job in written forms. AR_2_1 Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 1 to 7 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 8 to 11 you are required to fill in the missing information. You can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written. Spot Dictation interpretation __________ medium ______ orally ____ ■

126 Both interpretation and translation (4) a certain love of language and good knowledge of more than one (5). However, differences in the training, skills, and (6) needed for either job are certain and clear. The key skill of a very good translator is the ability to write well, to express him/herself clearly in the (7) language. That is why (8) translators almost always work in only one direction, translating only into their native language. (9) AR_2_2 presuppose _________ tongue _____ talents _____ target ____ professional _________ Even bilingual individuals rarely can express themselves on a given subject equally well in two languages __________ ________________________________________________ _______________.

127 AR_2_3 And many excellent translators are far from being bilingual — they may not be, and need not be, fluent speakers of the source language (the language of the original text being translated). (10) and using a good library of dictionaries and reference materials, render that material into the target language. An interpreter, on the other hand, is quite something else. (11). Their successful performance depends on the ability to understand the source language and the culture of the country where the text originated _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ________, He or she has to be able to translate in both directions on the spot, without the use of any dictionaries _______________________________________________ ________________________

128 AR_3 1. Translate the following sentence into Chinese. Translation Appreciation An interpreter (translator) has to know everything of something and something of everything. 译文 1 :一个口译或笔译人员对一些事情要什么都懂,对所有事情都要懂一些。 译文 2 :翻译人员对有些事情要无所不晓,对所有事情又要略知一二。 译文 3 :翻译人员搞学问,既要精深,又要渊博。 译文 1 虽形似,但文字功夫不足。 译文 2 用了 “ 无所不晓 ” 和 “ 略知一二 ” ,口语化却又不失雅,宜于口语场合。 译文 3 的结构已脱于原形,但显得凝练而神似,可称雅俗共赏。 2. Discuss with your partners the following three Chinese versions. 3. Evaluation.

129 AR_4_1 Translation Practice Analyze the structure of the following sentences and translate them into English. Compare your version with the machine translation (http://www.systranbox.com/systran/box) and the reference translation. State the differences. 1.In what now seems like the prehistoric times of computer history, the earth's postwar era, there was quite a wide-spread concern that computers would take over the world from man one day. 该句的句架为 there was quite a wide-spread concern that… ,这是一 个 there be 存在句型。 Concern 后面是一个由 that 引导的同位语从句,作 名词 concern 的同位语。 Concern 的意思是 “ 担忧,担心 ” ; take over 的 意思是 “ 占据,取而代之 ” ; wide-spread 是复合形容词,可译为 “ 普遍的 ” 。 该句的前半部分是由两个同位语构成的状语。翻译此句时如何处理这个 there be 存在句型是关键所在,有必要加一个主语,译成 “ 人们普遍担心 ” 较好。 Sentence Analysis:

130 AR_4_2 Machine Translation: 在什么现在似乎像计算机历史的史前时代,地球的战后年代,那里相当是普 遍不安计算机将接管世界从人一天。 Reference Translation: 在现在看来似乎是计算机历史的史前时期,即第二次世界大战之后的年代里, 人们普遍担心,计算机有朝一日会取代人类在世界中的地位。 1.In what now seems like the prehistoric times of computer history, the earth's postwar era, there was quite a wide-spread concern that computers would take over the world from man one day.

131 AR_4_3 本句是一个并列复合句,第一个分句中含有一个 if 引导的条件状语从句。第二 个分句较为复杂,含有一个 when 引导的时间状语从句,其中又含有一个同位 语从句 that something has gone wrong ,作 feelings 的同位语。在第一 个分句中, investing in a computer 可翻译成 “ 买计算机 ” ; check all its answers 的意思是 “ 检查所有的答案 ” 。在第二个分句中, rely on 意为 “ 依赖, 依靠 ” ; internal computers 指的是 “ 人的大脑 ” ; something has gone wrong 指的是 “ 计算机出了什么问题或错误 ” 。英语中的条件状语从句或时间状 语从句翻译成汉语时,往往要放在主句的前面,英语的习惯是将从句放在后 面(除非表示强调),因此英汉互译时一定要注意。 Sentence Analysis: 2. Obviously, there would be no point in investing in a computer if you had to check all its answers, but people should also rely on their own internal computers and check the machine when they have the feeling that something has gone wrong.

132 AR_4_4 Reference Translation: 很显然,如果计算机得出的答案全部需要复查一遍,花钱买计算机就毫无意 义。不过,人们也应该相信自身内部的计算能力,一旦感觉计算机计算的结 果有什么不对之处,就应该进行复查。 Machine Translation: 明显地, 有会是没有点在投资在计算机如果您必须检查所有它的答复, 但人们应 该依靠他们自己的内部计算机和并且检查机器当他们有某事变错误的感觉。 2. Obviously, there would be no point in investing in a computer if you had to check all its answers, but people should also rely on their own internal computers and check the machine when they have the feeling that something has gone wrong.

133 AR_4_4 3. Maybe each computer should come with the warning: for all the help this computer may provide, it should not be seen as a substitute for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills. 本句是含有一个同位语从句的复合句, warning 后面的部分是 warning 的同 位语。同位语从句中,代词 it 指的是前面的 this computer ; be seen as 相 当于 be regarded as ,意为 “ 被认为是 ” ; substitute 的意思是 “ 替代品 ” ; fundamental thinking and reasoning skills 指的是 “ 思考和推理的基本技 能 ” 。 Sentence Analysis:

134 AR_4_5 Machine Translation: 可能各台计算机应该来以警告 : 为所有帮助这台计算机可以提供, 它不应该 被看见作为根本想法的和辩解的技能的一个替补。 Reference Translation: 或许每台计算机都应提醒用户,尽管本机能提供各种帮助,但决不能把它看 作是能代替你基本思考和推理的工具。 3. Maybe each computer should come with the warning: for all the help this computer may provide, it should not be seen as a substitute for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.

135 AR_5 Talk about the Pictures

136 AR_5

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141 1.The computer is the most important single technological resource of later life. 2. Technology means the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical tasks. 3. Faithfulness, expressiveness, elegance. — Yan Fu, Chinese translator 计算机是今后生活中最重要的一个技术资源。 技术意味着科学知识或其他系统知识在实际工作中的系统运用。 信达雅。 —— 中国翻译家 严复 AR_6_1 Proverbs and Quotations

142 4. Handle them carefully, for words have more power than atom bombs. — Samuel Von Pufendorf, German Legist For a cultivated man to be ignorant of foreign language is a great inconvenience. — Anton P. Chekhorv, Russian dramatist 5. 一个受过教育的人不懂外语是极不方便的。 —— 俄国剧作家 A. P. 契诃夫 A foreign tongue is spread not by fire and the sword but by its own richness and superiority. — Alexander Pushkin, Russian Poet 6. 一种外语的传播不是依靠武力,而是依靠这种语言本身的丰富与优越。 —— 俄国诗人 A. 普希金 要小心地驾驭语言文字, 因为它们具有比原子弹还要强大的力量. —— 德国法学家 S. V. 普芬道夫 AR_6_2


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