Efficacy Measurement General efficacy Barrier/coping efficacy Task efficacy
Research Focus Self-efficacy is theorized as specific but confidence to overcome various barriers are usually summed to create self-efficacy scales What if efficacy also differs by barrier?
Research Focus Cont… 683 Canadian adults sampled by measuring SE and PA across three time periods Results suggested that barriers differed by mean and variance (thus not interchangeable) Individual barriers explained 7-8% more variance in PA than the aggregate scales Rhodes, R.E., Plotnikoff, R.C., & Spence, J.C. (2004). Creating parsimony at the expense of precision? Conceptual and applied issues of aggregating belief-based constructs in physical activity research. Health Education Research, 19, 392-405.
Self-efficacy and PA Arguably the most validated and consistent construct associated with PA Associated with intention, mood states, and behaviour (McAuley et al. 1999)
Research Focus SE has a remarkably wide measurement domain Often measured using confidence appraisal What if people answer confidence items in terms of motivation independent of ability?
Research Focus Several samples (adult & undergraduate) measured with confidence items, confidence if motivated, intention, etc. Results all show that confidence items are redundant with intention unless “if I wanted to…” is included
Research Focus Confidence items have a measurement domain beyond SE – often measuring motivation in entirety Rhodes, R.E., & Courneya, K.S. (2004). Differentiating motivation and control in the theory of planned behavior. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 9, 205-215. Rhodes, R.E. & Courneya, K.S. (2003). Self-efficacy, controllability, and intention in the theory of planned behavior: Measurement redundancy or causal independence? Psychology and Health, 18, 79-91. Rhodes, R.E. & Blanchard, C.M. (2007). What do confidence items measure in the physical activity domain? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 753-768.
Research Focus E.g., Blanchard et al. & Rodgers et al. (2004-2009) Task and Barrier efficacy may have importance at different times during the exercise adoption and maintenance process – particularly in rehabilitation populations
Task Develop your gold standard 1) self- efficacy enhancing program for sedentary: ChildrenAdults Older Adults Use the principles of efficacy building!