Presentation on theme: "THE WAR ON DRUGS IN LATIN AMERICA: A CASE STUDY OF COLOMBIA & BRAZIL."— Presentation transcript:
THE WAR ON DRUGS IN LATIN AMERICA: A CASE STUDY OF COLOMBIA & BRAZIL
President Nixon declares a war on “Public Enemy No. 1,” drugs at a press conference on June 17, 1971. In 1973, Nixon establishes the Drug Enforcement Agency, or DEA. Throughout the 1970’s, U.S. demand for illicit drugs from Latin America increased, especially for Colombian cocaine & Mexican marijuana. The lucrative profits & the demands of smuggling illegal drugs into the U.S. led to the rise of notorious drug trafficking cartels all throughout Latin America.
President Reagan believed America's drug problems stemmed from an overly tolerant approach toward drug users, drug dealers, and drug producing countries. Colombia, the source of almost all the world's refined cocaine, became the main focus of US policy, followed by Peru and Bolivia, where most of the raw material, coca leaf, is grown. Unlike Turkey and Mexico in the 1970s, Peru and Bolivia in the 1980s lacked strong governments in control of the growing areas, where coca was a traditional crop, used for centuries as a mild stimulant. At the same time, the Reagan administration launched the largest drug interdiction campaign in the nation's history, intended to seal the borders against the drug traffic, particularly at key entry points.
By the early 80’s, the Colombian drug trade had become increasingly violent. The Medellin Cartel formed, led by Pablo Escobar. It was the most powerful in Colombia & arguably the world. Escobar negotiated a trafficking route through Panama for the cartel’s cocaine with Panamanian General Manuel Noriega in 1982. On March 9, 1982, 3,906 pounds of cocaine seized at Miami airport. On March 10, 1984, the DEA & Colombian police discover Tranquilandia, a drug lab complex deep in the Columbian jungle. After large crackdowns in Florida, the U.S. Mexico border becomes the primary entry way for Colombian cocaine. By the mid 1980’s, the crack epidemic hit the U.S. which only further strengthened demand for Colombian cocaine.
In early 1990, the U.S. invades Panama, leading to the surrender to the DEA by Manuel Noriega. He is convicted in U.S. court & sentenced to 40 years in prison. In September 1990, The Ochoa Bros. turn themselves in to Colombian police. On December 2, 1993, Pablo Escobar is killed by Colombian police with the aid of the DEA & the CIA. In the summer of 1995, the Cali Cartel’s five leaders are captured. In the struggle to control Colombia’s drug trade, Colombia becomes the world’s deadliest country. Guerrilla factions like the FARC begin taxing small drug trafficking groups to fund their rebellion.
Originally a $7.5 billion plan for social and economic development by then President Andres Pastrana in 1999. U.S. President Clinton gives $1.3 billion in aid as part of the plan, mostly to fund military & counter narcotics initiatives. The plan also aimed at targeting the southern parts of Colombia where the FARC and other guerrilla groups controlled the largest coca fields. Aerial fumigation is a key for the eradication of the coca plants. Fumigation destroys the only economic option for peasant farmers & leaves thousands displaced from the sprayings. Record numbers of eradication in Colombia.
World's leading coca cultivator with 167,000 hectares in coca cultivation in 2007, a 6% increase over 2006, producing a potential of 535 mt of pure cocaine. World’s largest producer of coca derivatives. Supplies cocaine to nearly all of the US market and the great majority of other international drug markets. In 2005, aerial eradication dispensed herbicide to treat over 130,000 hectares but aggressive replanting on the part of coca growers means Colombia remains a key producer. A significant portion of narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Colombia through the black market peso exchange. Important heroin supplier for the U.S.; most Colombian heroin is destined for the US market.
Second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world. Important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine Coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption Important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe. Used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia. Illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system. Significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area. (Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil)
Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff announced on February 18, 2011, the establishment of 49 Regional Centers of Reference on crack and other drugs in public universities. The fight against drugs will be conducted on three fronts: prevention, assistance to users and their families and combating drug traffic. According to the president, the fight against drugs requires a fight against organized crime, so it is necessary to strengthen the Federal Police and border control.