China at Its Apex From the Ming to the Qing Peasant rebellion of Zhu Yuanzhang, 1368 Ming (Bright) Dynasty Territorial expansion Spread of Chinese influence into the Indian Ocean
First Contacts with the West China’s view of Europeans Portuguese arrival, 1514, Macao Problems with the Portuguese Portuguese and trade Jesuit missionaries Parallels between Christian and Confucian concepts
Ming Brought to Earth Decline in the 16th century due to a series of weak rulers Internal problems Economic Inflation from foreign silver English and Dutch disrupted silver trade Agricultural Crop yields fall with “little ice age” Frontier Manchus (Jurchen) Disease Peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng (Li Tzu-ch’eng, 1604-1651) Occupied Beijing, 1644 Manchus conquer Beijing and create new dynasty with the name Qing (Ch’ing, or Pure)
The Greatness of the Qing Manchu policies provoked resistance Chinese to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles Manchus adapted to Chinese conditions Kangxi (K’ang Hsi, 1661-1722) Arguably the greatest ruler in Chinese history Pacified the people on the northern and western frontiers Patron of the arts Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits
The Greatness of the Qing (cont.’d) The Reign of Qianlong (1736 – 1795) Kangxi’s policies continued by his successors First signs of internal decay emerge under Qianlong Corruption in the central government led to unrest in rural areas Qing Politics Retained Ming political system Devotion to the principles of Confucianism Manchus only 2 percent of the population Manchu nobles’ privileges Bannermen Ethnic Chinese cannot settle in Manchuria Dyarchy
China on the Eve of the Western Onslaught Russian traders in Manchuria Refused tributary status Treaty of Nerchinsk, 1689 England replaced Portugal as the dominant European trader in Asia First trading post at Canton, 1699 Qing licensed Chinese traders Large amounts of silver to pay for Chinese goods Mission under Lord Macartney, 1793
Changing China The Population Explosion 70 to 80 million in 1390 to over 300 million at the end of the 18th century Long period of peace and stability Introduction of new crops from America (peanuts, sweet potatoes, and maize) New species of faster growing rice from Southeast Asia Seeds of Industrialization Trade and commerce Under control of the government Political and social prejudice against commerce Matteo Ricci, clocks
Daily Life in Qing China The Family Joint family Large families to maintain agriculture Filial piety Clan The Role of Women Inferior to men Carry on sacred rituals/govern Husband could divorce his wife, take second wife, or take on a concubine if first wife did not produce a male heir Problems that face widows Influential role in the family
Cultural Developments Rise of the Chinese Novel Colloquial style Sympathized with the downtrodden The Golden Lotus and The Dream of the Red Chamber Art of the Ming and Qing Architecture and the Imperial City in Beijing Decorative arts Artists
The Three Great Unifiers Oda Nobunga (1568-1582) Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1582-1598) Osaka Korea Tokugawa Ieyasu (1598-1616) Opening to the West Portuguese arrive in 1543, begin trading Visitors welcome at first Jesuit missionaries Franciscans Expulsion of all missionaries Prohibited foreign trade Dutch at island of Hirado and Nagasaki
The Tokugawa “Great Peace” Ruled through a coalition of daimyo and a council of elders State divided into territories, han Daimyo had to have two residences Families left at Edo Economic problems Social system Changes with samurai system
Seeds of Capitalism Commercial expansion Major cities Consumer culture Impact on the samurai Ronin Land problems Impact on rural population Low population growth Life in the Village Bakufu Ie Role of women
Tokugawa Culture The Literature of the New Middle Class Saikaku (1642-1693) Theater Kabuki Basho (1644-1694) Hokku Haiku Tokugawa Art Castle building/décor and furnishings Influence of other cultures Influence of “Dutch Learning” Woodblock Printing
Korea: The Hermit Kingdom Followed the Chinese model Yangban (aristocratic class) Chonmin (slaves) Development of phonetic alphabet, hangul Growing economy Attempts to keep Korea isolated Japanese invasion Manchu invasion Relatively untouched by Europeans
Marble Steps to the Imperial Palace These marble steps leading up to the Imperial Palace in Seoul were carved in imitation of those at the Imperial Palace in Beijing.
Discussion Questions How did the Manchus adapt themselves to Chinese conditions? How successful were they in establishing control over China? What contributed to economic change in Ming and Qing China? What factors limited the process of industrialization? What were the most important changes in Japanese society under the Tokugawa? In what ways was Korean society and government different from the Chinese and Japanese models it drew upon?
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