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The East Asian World 16. ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. China and.

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Presentation on theme: "The East Asian World 16. ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. China and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The East Asian World 16

2 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. China and Its Enemies during the Late Ming Era

3 China at Its Apex  From the Ming to the Qing  Peasant rebellion of Zhu Yuanzhang, 1368 Ming (Bright) Dynasty  Territorial expansion  Spread of Chinese influence into the Indian Ocean

4 First Contacts with the West  China’s view of Europeans  Portuguese arrival, 1514, Macao  Problems with the Portuguese  Portuguese and trade  Jesuit missionaries  Parallels between Christian and Confucian concepts

5 Ming Brought to Earth  Decline in the 16th century due to a series of weak rulers  Internal problems  Economic Inflation from foreign silver English and Dutch disrupted silver trade  Agricultural Crop yields fall with “little ice age”  Frontier  Manchus (Jurchen)  Disease  Peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng (Li Tzu-ch’eng, )  Occupied Beijing, 1644  Manchus conquer Beijing and create new dynasty with the name Qing (Ch’ing, or Pure)

6 The Greatness of the Qing  Manchu policies provoked resistance  Chinese to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles  Manchus adapted to Chinese conditions  Kangxi (K’ang Hsi, )  Arguably the greatest ruler in Chinese history  Pacified the people on the northern and western frontiers  Patron of the arts  Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits

7 The Greatness of the Qing (cont.’d)  The Reign of Qianlong (1736 – 1795)  Kangxi’s policies continued by his successors  First signs of internal decay emerge under Qianlong  Corruption in the central government led to unrest in rural areas  Qing Politics  Retained Ming political system  Devotion to the principles of Confucianism  Manchus only 2 percent of the population Manchu nobles’ privileges Bannermen Ethnic Chinese cannot settle in Manchuria  Dyarchy

8 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Qing Empire in the Eighteenth Century

9 China on the Eve of the Western Onslaught  Russian traders in Manchuria  Refused tributary status  Treaty of Nerchinsk, 1689  England replaced Portugal as the dominant European trader in Asia  First trading post at Canton, 1699  Qing licensed Chinese traders  Large amounts of silver to pay for Chinese goods  Mission under Lord Macartney, 1793

10 Changing China  The Population Explosion  70 to 80 million in 1390 to over 300 million at the end of the 18th century Long period of peace and stability Introduction of new crops from America (peanuts, sweet potatoes, and maize) New species of faster growing rice from Southeast Asia  Seeds of Industrialization  Trade and commerce Under control of the government Political and social prejudice against commerce  Matteo Ricci, clocks

11 Daily Life in Qing China  The Family  Joint family  Large families to maintain agriculture  Filial piety  Clan  The Role of Women  Inferior to men  Carry on sacred rituals/govern  Husband could divorce his wife, take second wife, or take on a concubine if first wife did not produce a male heir  Problems that face widows  Influential role in the family

12 Cultural Developments  Rise of the Chinese Novel  Colloquial style  Sympathized with the downtrodden  The Golden Lotus and The Dream of the Red Chamber  Art of the Ming and Qing  Architecture and the Imperial City in Beijing  Decorative arts  Artists

13 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Tokugawa Japan

14  The Three Great Unifiers  Oda Nobunga ( )  Toyotomi Hideyoshi ( ) Osaka Korea  Tokugawa Ieyasu ( )  Opening to the West  Portuguese arrive in 1543, begin trading  Visitors welcome at first  Jesuit missionaries  Franciscans  Expulsion of all missionaries  Prohibited foreign trade  Dutch at island of Hirado and Nagasaki

15 Last Headquarters of son of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, it was seized by forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1615 on the latter’s ascent to the shogunate ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Osaka Castle

16 The Tokugawa “Great Peace”  Ruled through a coalition of daimyo and a council of elders  State divided into territories, han  Daimyo had to have two residences  Families left at Edo  Economic problems  Social system  Changes with samurai system

17 Seeds of Capitalism  Commercial expansion  Major cities  Consumer culture  Impact on the samurai  Ronin  Land problems  Impact on rural population  Low population growth  Life in the Village  Bakufu  Ie  Role of women

18 Tokugawa Culture  The Literature of the New Middle Class  Saikaku ( )  Theater Kabuki  Basho ( ) Hokku Haiku  Tokugawa Art  Castle building/décor and furnishings  Influence of other cultures  Influence of “Dutch Learning”  Woodblock Printing

19 Korea: The Hermit Kingdom  Followed the Chinese model  Yangban (aristocratic class)  Chonmin (slaves)  Development of phonetic alphabet, hangul  Growing economy  Attempts to keep Korea isolated  Japanese invasion  Manchu invasion  Relatively untouched by Europeans

20 Marble Steps to the Imperial Palace These marble steps leading up to the Imperial Palace in Seoul were carved in imitation of those at the Imperial Palace in Beijing.

21 Discussion Questions  How did the Manchus adapt themselves to Chinese conditions? How successful were they in establishing control over China?  What contributed to economic change in Ming and Qing China? What factors limited the process of industrialization?  What were the most important changes in Japanese society under the Tokugawa?  In what ways was Korean society and government different from the Chinese and Japanese models it drew upon?


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