نام:مصطفی نام خانوادگی:نادری نام استاد : موضوع: رله ریکلوزر
saman.g28-05-2008, 10:55 PM: 5: Dyzhngtvr that you all know that is a key to maintaining the power and the cessation of normal flow in the circuit or the connection used.What is the reason for this failure and recurrent Vslhay? Usually (in most cases) the network error is temporary and disappears after switching.
have been divided into the following: (a) increasing the voltage substations increase voltage to the message in order to transfer production to the consumption of energy is applied, usually in the vicinity of power plants are built. (B) reducing the voltage substations: This message is usually near the consumption centers are built to reduce the voltage.
A parallel reactor systems are used in some of the reactors by installing additional equipment when the post comes from domestic consumption.The posts are released in the atmosphere as a result of their performance is a function of atmospheric conditions.They have a maintenance problem.
Thanks ingredients *** *** 1 - Svyychgyr (switch yards): Switchgear 2 - Transfvrmatr power ower Transformer 3 - Transformers Earth: Ground Transformer 4 - Transformers domestic consumption: Staition Service (T) 5 - compensation for: Componsators 6 - Utilities Peripherals: * Svyychgyr: a set of equipment at a certain voltage is said to be established between the two bass parts they include the following: 1 - busbar (bus): Bas bar 2 - circuit breakers: Circuit Breaker 3 - Sksyvnr: Disconector Switch
4 - Current Transformer: Current Transformer 5 - Voltage Transformer: Voltage Transformer 6 - Insulators Reinsurance: (PI) 7 - arresters: Lighting Arester 8 - Wave Traps: Line Trap 9 - Department of matches: LMU = Line Matching Unit * compensation: 1 - 2 capacitors
1 - control room. 2 - relay room. 3 - Batrykhanh. 4 - diesel generators. 5 - Distribution panels AC 6 - Distribution panels DC 7 - battery charger. 8 - emergency lighting. 9 - yard lighting. 10 - Facility grounding and lightning protection.Sksyvnr Earth 6 - Sksyvnr line 7 - Current Transformer 8 - Sksyvnr 9 - Breaker 10 - Trans disconnect switch
* B: Depends on the number of power transformers and busbar and transformer sets of communication equipment that can connect without the trans occurs: 1distance telephone conversations, TTY, send and receive protection orders from other posts are also used.Signals pLc with high frequency and the grid of the 30khz to 500khz changes. Wave Instant typically an inductor having a core and a series capacitor and resistor, the total parallel time being is composed of inductors (wire screws) and set the line directly through the capacitor and resistor are usually installed inside the coil
In order to protect front-line therapy in sudden voltages that may arise in the two-line therapy is the use of lightning rods.are significant at ** Open the electric voltage between two contact breaker must be able to open it completely safe to handle.- Electrical circuit breaker must be able to close below the nominal voltage (maximum voltage systems are designed breaker usually). - The electrical circuit breaker must be able to flow again.
- Bryk·h should be capable of high speed switching circuits are electric. - No flow restriction and a big breaker short circuit currents are produced. - One of the important characteristics Brykrhay power off delay time is key. The time between the moment the command is interrupted by Hdfaslh free relay and toggle off the ignition key to turn off completely.
Common characteristics breaker: 1 - A mechanism of switching: operating Mechanism 2 - a mechanism for turning off the spark chamber spark: Arcextinction Inarcing Chamber 3 - Having the contacts of the breaker (contacts simple and moving): Fixed & Moving Contacts 4 - A wire bolts off: Triping coil & Closing Coil 5 - a contact sub: Auxiliary Contact 6 - A control circuit breaker: Control Circuits Circuit Breaker
Types breaker for installation: 1 - install the free space: Out Door 2 - Installation Local facilities: In Door * breaker by turning off the ignition mechanism of classification is as follows: 1 - breaker oil tank or oil: Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker 2 - breaker Low oil or half oil: Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker 3 - SF6 gas breaker : Sulphur- hexafluoride (sf6) CB 4 - breaker with vacuum chambers: Vacuum Circuit Breaker 5 - Air Breaker: Air Circuit Breaker 6 - Breaker compressed air: Air Blast Circuit Breaker * Brykrhay oil: Sparks, oil will degrade the dielectric and gases resulting from the analysis increased the pressure inside the chamber is a disconnect that is installed.
When the breaker a circuit active cut provides oil for intense heat decomposition and gases and vapors such as gas, H2 content of 70% C2H2 a value of 20% and CH2 to 10 Drsdv carbon content of the oil released is that the gases of hydrogen (. * The role of oil in the oil Brykrhay: 1 - to insulate the body contact and also the oil tank. 2 - To provide a spark off the contacts through the insulation. 3 - for hydrogen production during arc creation. NOTE: This type of key is generally a movable contact and fixed contact there.
Oil breaker weak points: 1 - the oil carbonization and the sediment is the key. 2 - mixture of air and hydrogen, causing explosions and fires are dangerous.4 - It would occupy too much volume, especially at high voltages. 5 - Access to services and regular contact and oil needs. 6 - not suitable for frequent switching. 7 - Brykrhay oil phase can be placed inside a tank or tanks, each phase will have its own.
Off sparks reasons: 1 - elongation curve (arising from the performance of mechanical arm). 2 - cool sparks. * Increasing the length of the spark, the spark calls for more oil and more oil in the heat of the arc will be cooler.The two parts are separated from each other by high voltage post. * Sksyvnr are made at different voltages and are made of three basic parts: 1 - the second blade carrier - Reinsurance insulators 3 - mechanism of action and leverage the single action mechanism * disconnect switch: 1 - Manual: the mechanism Aynhalt is stimulated by the operator. 2 - Engine: The mechanism of action by an electric motor which is connected to the transmission system operator to leverage their force and the disconnect switch is opened and closed.
* Dyskanktha types: 1 - Rotational (column) in 132kv and higher voltages are used and their function in parallel with the surface angle will be 90 degrees. 2 - rotational (vertical) which are used in voltage level. (Disconnect switch blade) 3 - scissors shape (Pando graph) where the difference in elevation is Mmvlabkar. 4 - Dsykankthay elbow (split):
5 - Dyskankt Earth: Earthing Switch & Grounding Switch the electrical or mechanical interlock Dyskanktha usually a Sksyvnrhay lines or transformers, reactors, capacitor banks are a means to the disconnect switch or line input Depending on the transformer will not open until the disconnect switch is closed, the disconnect switch will be closed.
Opening and closing conditions Dyskanktha: 1 - only the capacitive charging current circuit lines or current magnetic effect of small distribution transformers exist. 2 - the opening and closing of the switch does not change the voltage switch. 3 - open or closed because the keys are not in the flow of time is almost zero switching the breaker disconnect switch is much higher. 4 - To ensure Dyskanktha function called interlock system with steering circuit breaker is used in this system, the interlock can be electrically and mechanically.Network disruptions and issues like switching, short circuit and resonance may occur.
Protective equipment against overvoltage general characteristics are: 1 - the network nominal voltage not show any reaction. 2 - against over voltages caused to react very quickly to any harm system equipment. 3 - Ability to have a lot of flow. 4 - After removing the voltage reaches the nominal voltage and current through the arrester off and the circuit is completely open.
Types of surge arresters: 1 - 2 arrester rod - lightning rods Valve 3 - zinc oxide arrester arrester z no * Specifications: 1 - Nominal Voltage: Rated Voltage - that is, the maximum amount of voltage that can be lightning rods in your head and is not functional. 2 - The nominal frequency: Rated Fregaency F = 50 Hz or 60 Hz -, grid frequency where the arrester is installed 3 - ignition voltage of industrial frequency: Paver Frequency Spark Over Voltage - The minimum voltage at industrial frequency If the two ends of the spark arrester may cause. 4 - voltage spark caused by a shock wave: Impulse Spark Over Voltag - 01.02.50 peak shock wave micro seconds if it is applied to the arrester.
5 - Maximum discharge current: Rated Discharge Current - The maximum current that can pass through the arrester to the evacuation without damage to the arrester. 6 - Residual voltage: Residerad Voltage - The voltage that appears on the two ends of the arrester, which is dependent on the current arresters.A number of times arresters per meter will record the number of performances at the end of each month, quarter or year will be read and recorded.
Kmyat electrical voltage applied to the grid at a level proportional to the voltage and current used for measuring relays and instruments are provided.* Voltage transformer: (PT) is the transformer secondary voltage proportional to the primary voltage Hmfazy occurs for a system voltage converter for voltage measurement and protection devices and circuits used for the measurement II provide isolated power circuit. The transformer operates just like other transformers and voltage based on electromagnetic induction to convert to standard voltages.
PT-high voltage tank of oil in the primary coils inside Vsanvyh Holds and includes the following sections: - coil voltage - low voltage coils - insulation at high voltages and supply voltages typically lower oil The dry type is - the core - external wall insulation voltage transformers * The building is divided into two categories: 1 - single Bvshyngy Type: Single Bushing 2 - Bvshyngy type: Double Bushing for phase-to- ground voltage measurements of PT single Bvshyngy used. PT single Bvshyngy the construction cost and the stars are made.
PT and generally parallel to the power system are installed. PT should have the following characteristics: 1 - voltage drop and power loss in the primary and secondary windings is minimized. 2 - The flow is very low dispersion. 3 - core to avoid saturation. Important note: It is best to reform the PT secondary is open, ie it has a high impedance to the flow of it is very limited.
T and C.T: the difference in the equivalent circuit parameters, namely: 1 - Differences in coils Resistance 2 - nuclei are characterized by differences in PT ** NOTE ** as commonly used are single-phase. * Application of P, T: A - System Protection - In use PT as described measurement system that is: - voltage measurements - can be measured - measured power factor - using a synchronous circuit check - use protections O / V---U/V---Directional * PT must be installed in place to ensure that no electrical feeder is installed after PT: - At the two ends of the transmission lines and along the Line Trap.
The input and output of the power transformer. - The PT must be present on each bus. * General Considerations in PT * 1 - the second PT can be used in several Kor Kor is possible that each is composed of several pulses.The choir is a (MCB) must be for her. - PT secondary terminals and the small initial letters capitalized are identified. Secondary taps on the right side and the left side of the figure are deaf in the secondary.
Definitions and important Kmyat PT: * name * of voltage conversion phase to earth and always consider is the second time in PT (remove) * Trans * Nominal output voltage of error * error handling * phase Insulation class accuracy levels: index of nominal voltage consumption rate allowable voltage on the pT of the coefficient depends on the duration voltage Dardmsla: pT withstand voltage is normally 10%. PT's are typically for 50% voltage tolerance is 60 Sec.
pT normally 100% for the voltage tolerance is 30 Sec. Capacitor voltage transformer Capacitor Voltage Transformer Or CVT consists of a single partition by using the capacitor voltage transformers, electromagnetic Vick.At voltages above 63 kv and economically because of the ease of use of the CVT.