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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment Graziano and Raulin Research Methods: Chapter 1 This multimedia product and its.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment Graziano and Raulin Research Methods: Chapter 1 This multimedia product and its."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment Graziano and Raulin Research Methods: Chapter 1 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: (1) Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; (2) Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; (3) Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Psychology and Research Scientific study of behavior and the factors that influence behavior Scientific study of behavior and the factors that influence behavior Subject matter is everywhere Subject matter is everywhere –We wonder about behavior all the time –Psychologist simply do it for a living How to answer such questions is the focus of the course How to answer such questions is the focus of the course

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Student Resource Website Fully integrated with the textbook Fully integrated with the textbook –Chapter resources list at the beginning of each chapter –Resources also identified with icon and code number in the text

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Steps to Find a Resource 1. Open and log into textbook website 2. Select Chapter Resources from dropdown menu 3. Select chapter number and then select the item 4. Or, alternatively, select the item directly using the code number list

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Accessing Resources These examples use the materials that were available for the fifth edition of this text or working copies of the sixth edition These examples use the materials that were available for the fifth edition of this text or working copies of the sixth edition The sixth edition Student Resource Website was not online when these slides were prepared. The sixth edition Student Resource Website was not online when these slides were prepared.

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Opening Page The opening page The opening page –Features a dropdown menu in the upper left hand corner –Describes the general features of the Student Resource Website

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Select Chapter Resources The Chapter Resources feature The Chapter Resources feature –Organizes and describes the resources by chapter –Also allows you to go directly to a resource with the code number

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Select Resource Wanted

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) OR Select Resource Code

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Explore the Website Select items from the drop-down menu Select items from the drop-down menu See what they are and what they offer See what they are and what they offer Select other items Select other items Follow the links to see where they go Follow the links to see where they go

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Items to Explore Chapter Resources Chapter Resources Study Resources Study Resources –Study Guide/Lab Manual –Notes (PowerPoint) –Practice Quizzes –Flashcards –Glossary

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Items to Explore Tutorials Tutorials –APA Style (writing research reports) –Library Research –Statistical Analyses –Using web browser programs –Statistical flowcharts (Chapter 14) –Pre-Data Checklist (Chapter 14)

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) How to Learn People learn best by doing (active learning) People learn best by doing (active learning) Website is very “hands on” Website is very “hands on” –Study Guide provides active feedback –Lab Manual has you doing research activities –Most tutorials include animations to show you how things are done

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) SPSS for Windows Can be bundled with the text Can be bundled with the text Does a large variety of statistical analyses easily and quickly Does a large variety of statistical analyses easily and quickly Website provides instructions on how to use this package, complete with animations Website provides instructions on how to use this package, complete with animations

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Science Defined by its way of thinking Defined by its way of thinking –Not defined by its technology or its accomplishments Scientists ask questions Scientists ask questions –You can ask questions about anything –Scientists must tolerate uncertainty, because some questions cannot be easily or quickly answered

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Scientists Endless curiosity Endless curiosity Pervasive skepticism Pervasive skepticism –Challenging old ideas –Proposing new idea –Sometimes upsetting authorities Prepared minds Prepared minds –Recognizing interesting phenomena

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Science and Art Often thought of as polar opposites Often thought of as polar opposites –Science as precise and constrained –Art as free flowing and creative –But this dichotomy is false Scientists and artists share a creative drive to understand and represent reality Scientists and artists share a creative drive to understand and represent reality Creative people are often gifted in both science and art (e.g., Leonardo da Vinci) Creative people are often gifted in both science and art (e.g., Leonardo da Vinci)

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Acquiring Knowledge Tenacity: “it has always been that way” Tenacity: “it has always been that way” Intuition: “it feels true” Intuition: “it feels true” Authority: “the boss says it is true” Authority: “the boss says it is true” Rationalism: “it makes sense logically” Rationalism: “it makes sense logically” Empiricism: “I observed it to be true” Empiricism: “I observed it to be true” Science: a combination of rationalism and empiricism Science: a combination of rationalism and empiricism

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Rationalism Using reason (logic) to derive new knowledge from old knowledge Using reason (logic) to derive new knowledge from old knowledge –Reliable conclusions can be derived from established facts if one uses logic Limitation Limitation –By itself, rationalism has no way of verifying the accuracy of the facts

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Empiricism Naïve Empiricism Naïve Empiricism –Literally need to see it to believe it –Severely limits what could be studied, because many interesting things cannot be directly observed (e.g., gravity) Sophisticated Empiricism Sophisticated Empiricism –Allows one to study both things that can be seen other things that produce effects that can be seen –Accepts indirect evidence

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Science Rationalism Rationalism –To derive theories from existing observations –To derive predictions from theories to test empirically Empiricism Empiricism –To provide the initial facts on which theories might rest –To test the predictions from theories by seeing if they are accurate

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) History of Science Science developed over thousands of years Science developed over thousands of years Combination of rationalism and empiricism Combination of rationalism and empiricism –Sometimes empiricism dominated –Sometimes rationalism dominated –Eventually they were combined into science as we know it

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Early Civilization Early civilizations developed practical skills Early civilizations developed practical skills –Passed from generation to generation Focus was on the practical, rather than the abstract principles Focus was on the practical, rather than the abstract principles Orderliness belief: The universe behaves in an orderly, lawful manner Orderliness belief: The universe behaves in an orderly, lawful manner

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Greek Science Greeks contributed much to science Greeks contributed much to science –Thales was one of the first to combine rationalism and empiricism –Strato introduced experimentation –Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle moved away from empiricism to an emphasis on rationalism as a way to understand a mystical universe

25 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Medieval Science Research in the service of religion Research in the service of religion –To demonstrate the hand of God Some religious scholars encouraged research Some religious scholars encouraged research –Thomas Aquinas & Roger Bacon Science becoming a tool in the “service of humanity” Science becoming a tool in the “service of humanity” But science and religion clashed But science and religion clashed

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) The Scientific Revolution Based on Based on –Rediscovery of earlier scholarship –New discoveries with immediate benefits The new universities nourish science and research The new universities nourish science and research Increased scientific understanding fueled technological development Increased scientific understanding fueled technological development

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Modern Science Vast enterprise Vast enterprise –Supported by governments –Valuable to society –Tremendous growth in the last century Remarkable new discoveries Remarkable new discoveries –Which lead to new technologies –Which lead to more discoveries

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Scientific Ethics Pace of scientific discovery Pace of scientific discovery –Seemingly unstoppable –Directions unpredictable –Frightening consequences The novel Frankenstein The novel Frankenstein –Metaphor for science –Scientists must take responsibility

29 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) History of Psychology Built on other sciences (e.g., philosophy, biology, physiology, physics, etc.) Built on other sciences (e.g., philosophy, biology, physiology, physics, etc.) First psychology lab: Wundt in 1879 First psychology lab: Wundt in 1879 Early perspectives Early perspectives –Structuralism: understand the structure behind human consciousness –Functionalism: understand the function and practical applications of human behavior

30 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Modern Psychology Heavily influenced by Darwin and Galton Heavily influenced by Darwin and Galton Several perspectives advanced Several perspectives advanced –Gestalt Psychology (focused on perception) –Behaviorism (focused on learning principles) –Psychoanalysis (focused on internal dynamics and unconscious processes) –Humanistic psychology (focused on the uniqueness of the human being)

31 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Women in Psychology Women were not allowed to earn advanced degrees Women were not allowed to earn advanced degrees Belief that women were not smart enough or had the temperament for professional careers Belief that women were not smart enough or had the temperament for professional careers Even when they earned degrees, they could not get academic positions Even when they earned degrees, they could not get academic positions Nevertheless, women made significant contributions Nevertheless, women made significant contributions

32 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Women’s Achievements Mary Whiton Calkins was first female president of the APA Mary Whiton Calkins was first female president of the APA Margaret Floy Washburn was first female to earn a Ph.D. in psychology Margaret Floy Washburn was first female to earn a Ph.D. in psychology Helen Thompson Wooley found that the presumed sex differences did not exist Helen Thompson Wooley found that the presumed sex differences did not exist Leta Stetter Hollingworth studied gifted children and educational systems Leta Stetter Hollingworth studied gifted children and educational systems

33 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Minorities in Psychology Between 1920 and 1966 Between 1920 and 1966 –Only 0.2% of the Ph.D.s from the most prestigious universities went to African Americans Early pioneers paved the way for others Early pioneers paved the way for others –Francis Cecil Sumner was the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology –Kenneth and Mamie Phipps Clark conducted landmark research on racial identity in black children

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Modern Psychology Vast enterprise Vast enterprise –Thousands of undergraduate training programs –Hundreds of graduate training programs –Dozens of subdisciplines (many interdisciplinary) –Women now outnumber men in grad school and minority groups are now well represented Dozens of specialized organizations, some with tens of thousands of members Dozens of specialized organizations, some with tens of thousands of members

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Science of Psychology Defined as the systematic, objective study of human behavior Defined as the systematic, objective study of human behavior Unfortunately, many pseudoscientific ideas masquerade as scientific psychology Unfortunately, many pseudoscientific ideas masquerade as scientific psychology –Often creating great harm, even though the motives of the proponents may have been good –Only solid theories can withstand the rigors of scientific scrutiny

36 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon (2007) Summary Science is a way of thinking Science is a way of thinking Many ways to gain knowledge, science being one of them Many ways to gain knowledge, science being one of them Science combines rationalism and empiricism Science combines rationalism and empiricism Science has a long history built originally on the practical values of empiricism Science has a long history built originally on the practical values of empiricism Modern science is a huge social enterprise Modern science is a huge social enterprise


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