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IMMUNE SYSTEM BENCHMARK STUDY GUIDE. What is a PATHOGEN?  Anything that causes disease  Can be a bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites  Bacteria produce.

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Presentation on theme: "IMMUNE SYSTEM BENCHMARK STUDY GUIDE. What is a PATHOGEN?  Anything that causes disease  Can be a bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites  Bacteria produce."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMMUNE SYSTEM BENCHMARK STUDY GUIDE

2 What is a PATHOGEN?  Anything that causes disease  Can be a bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites  Bacteria produce toxins  Viruses lyse cells

3 What is a VIRUS?  A non-living particle that requires a host to replicate  Can cause disease  Found in soil, water, air, surfaces

4 What happens during the LYTIC CYCLE?  Attachment  Entry  DNA Replication and Virus Protein Production  Assembly  Lysis

5 What happens during the LYSOGENIC CYCLE?  Attachment  Entry  Provirus – Viral DNA is incorporated into host DNA  Cell DNA with virus DNA is replicated

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7 What adaptations allow bacteria to survive in different environments?  Cell Walls  Can withstand harsh environments  Endospores  Aerobic or anaerobic respiration

8 What are some useful uses for bacteria?  Make cheese and yogurt  Clean spills  Make antibiotics  Nitrogen fixation  Recycle nutrients/decomposers

9 Describe how Robert Koch explained the cause of disease. Steps?  Pathogen is isolated from a host  Pathogen is grown/cultured  Pathogen is introduced to another host  New host becomes ill, must have same symptoms  Pathogen is isolated – must be same pathogen as original

10 What are the causes of…  Malaria – plasmodium parasite on mosquitoes  Mosquito is a vector  HIV – Virus  Passed through exchange of body fluids  Shingles – Virus  Passed on by contact/droplets

11 Define INNATE IMMUNITY  First line of defense  Barriers and Mucus  Non-specific defense  Skin  Mucus membranes  Tears and Saliva  Lysozyme enzyme – breaks down bacterial cell walls and membranes

12 What is INFLAMMATION?  Non-specific defense  2 nd Line of Defense  Entry of pathogen  Mast cells release histamine Histamine triggers – pain, heat, swelling, redness Dilate red blood vessels to allow phagocytes to damage site  Phagocytes (macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils) digest pathogens  Pus

13 How does the body react to viral infections?  Virus infected cells release INTERFERONS  Interferons (chemicals) tell neighboring cells to make antiviral proteins  Viruses cannot enter neighboring cells

14 What is the function of white blood cells?  Basophils – make histamine  Macrophage – digest invading cells

15 Describe 2 ways bacteria can reproduce?  Binary fission  Asexual reproduction  One bacteria replicates DNA and divides into two cells  Conjugation  Sexual reproduction  One bacteria passes on a plasmid or new DNA to another bacteria through pili

16 What is ACQUIRED IMMUNITY?  3 rd Line of Defense  Build up resistance  Specific Immunity  Body uses T and B cells against a specific pathogen  Cellular Immunity  Antibody Immunity

17 Cellular Immunity 1. Pathogen is engulfed by macrophage 2. Macrophage presents digested pathogen to Helper T Cell 3. Helper T cell activates Cytotoxic T cells 4. Cytotoxic T cells signal infected cells to commit “suicide” 5. Memory Cytotoxic T cells are made

18 Antibody Immunity  Pathogen (bacteria) is engulfed by macrophage  Macrophage presents digested bacteria to Helper T cell  Helper T cell activates B cell  B cell turns into plasma cell  Plasma cell makes Antibodies  Antibodies circulate through blood stream to find and collect bacteria

19 What is PASSIVE IMMUNITY?  Receive Antibodies by injection or breast feeding  Passive – you DON’T make antibodies yourself  Temporary

20 What is ACTIVE IMMUNITY  Occurs Naturally – You build up immune system  You have to get sick  Body makes memory B and T cells

21 What is an ANTIBIOTIC?  Most come from penicillin  Target – bacterial infections  CANNOT be used on viruses  Break down the cell walls

22 What is RESISTANCE?  When a bacteria is no longer sensitive to antibiotics


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