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Nutrition: Activity  As a class, we will make a list of our FAVORITE foods  Then, try to guess which ones are healthy (we will circle these)  Why did.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition: Activity  As a class, we will make a list of our FAVORITE foods  Then, try to guess which ones are healthy (we will circle these)  Why did."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition: Activity  As a class, we will make a list of our FAVORITE foods  Then, try to guess which ones are healthy (we will circle these)  Why did you pick these foods?

2 Nutrition  Now we are going to learn how to actually define “HEALTHY” vs “Non- Healthy” foods

3 Nutrition  Nutrition = the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and replacement of tissues  Proper nutrition can:  Reduce the likelihood of injury and illness  Speed the healing process of injury and illness  Increase energy  Improve athletic performance  Enhance mood  Regulate weight

4 Nutrition  The big question:  Why do we need food???  ENERGY!!!

5 Nutrition and Energy  Energy = the power used to do work (or to produce heat or light)  Energy cannot be created or destroyed  It can only be changed from one form to another  Ex: When coal burns, the energy stored in the chemical form is converted to heat and light

6 Nutrition and Energy  Living plants are able to use and convert solar energy by a process called photosynthesis  Animals use chemical energy found in plants or other animals  They can oxidize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins  This produces energy, carbon dioxide, and water

7 Nutrition and Energy  Energy is needed for:  Body functions  Ex: breathing, beating heart, body temperature  Active movement  Ex: muscle contractions (running, jumping, walking, etc.)  Growth and repair  Ex: muscular, skeletal, tissue, etc.

8 Nutrition and Calories  The use of energy always produces heat  In nutrition, energy is measured in CALORIES

9 Nutrition and Calories  What exactly is a Calorie?  Calorie = the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5 to 15.5 degrees Celsius  That is why we say that we “burn” calories  (In reality we are converting energy stored into body functions or active movement)

10 How Many Calories?  The “average” recommended diet is 2,000 calories per day  This number varies based on:  Age  Gender  Health issues  Physical activity

11 How Many Calories?  Why do young people need more calories?  Their tissue, bones, muscles are still growing!  Why do athletes need more calories?  They are constantly converting calories into energy for athletic performance!  Ex: Michael Phelps claims to maintain a 12,000 calorie/day diet

12 What should be in those Calories?  Before we talk about weight loss, weight gain, and counting calories….we need to address:  What should we eat???

13 What to Eat  The human body must have a balanced diet consisting of the following 7 food components or nutrients:  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats  Vitamins  Minerals  Water  Fiber  Without these, the body will not be able to grow, repair, and maintain body tissues

14 What Did You Eat Last Night?  As a class, make a list of what everyone ate last night  Highlight the “healthy” choices  (Hopefully each day we will get closer to knowing how to label these healthy options)

15 What is in Your Food?  Now let’s define what each nutrient is and how it affects your body  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats  Vitamins  Minerals  Water  Fiber

16 Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates = the body’s primary source of fuel for energy  Carbs make glucose which is the fuel that gives you energy and keeps everything going

17 Carbohydrates  You can find carbohydrates in the following:  Fruits  Vegetables  Breads, cereals, and other grains  Milk and milk products  Foods containing added sugars (e.g., cakes, cookies, and sugar-sweetened beverages).

18 Carbohydrates  Simple Carbs = added sugars  “Empty” calories  Provide energy but no nutrients  Complex carbs = starches  Provide energy AND vitamins, minerals, fiber  Ex: vegetables and grains

19 Carbohydrates  Nutritionists recommend that 45-50% of daily calories come from carbohydrate sources  Bulk should be from complex carbs  Veggies, grains, fruits  Minimize simple carbs  Candy, ice cream, sweet beverages, etc.

20 Carbohydrates  So if you are maintaining a 2,000 calorie/day diet…about how many of those calories should come from carbohydrates?  Remember, however, think:  Vegetables  Fruits  Grains

21 Increasing Carbohydrates  Some healthy foods that are high in quality carbohydrates:  Apples  Bananas  Corn  Squash  Dried fruits (raisins, cranberries)  Granola or oatmeal  Whole grain choices

22 Decreasing Carbohydrates  Some healthy foods with low amounts of carbohydrates:  Leafy greens  Broccoli  Spinach wrap (instead of bread)  Strawberry or Kiwi  Lean meats  Seafood  Egg whites

23 Activity: Carbohydrates  As a class, make a list of simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates  Name some ways that you can start substituting complex carbs for simple ones for the following meals:  Breakfast  Lunch  Snack  Dinner  Dessert

24 Proteins  Protein = an essential nutrient that contains nitrogen and helps the body grow, build, and repair tissue  Protein is found in every cell and tissue in the human body

25 Proteins  Proteins are made of amino acids  There are 20 amino acids and 9 are required in the human body  These are called “essential” amino acids

26 Proteins  A “complete protein” contains all the 9 essential amino acids  Complete Proteins: eggs, meat, fish, poultry, cheese and milk  Incomplete Proteins: fruits, veggies, grains, and beans

27 Proteins  In other words…  Animal proteins are usually complete proteins  Plant proteins are usually incomplete proteins  THEREFORE, vegetarians must maintain a very well-balanced diet that incorporates all of the essential amino acids

28 How Much Protein Do I Need?  (Body weight/2.2 ) x 0.8 = recommended AVERAGE grams of protein per day  This means that you need 0.8 grams of protein per kg of body weight  **Athletes need more for tissue repair!!**

29 Fats  Dietary fat is required to:  Carry vitamins through the blood  Insulate body tissues  Provide energy

30 Fats  Fats and oils are composed of basic units called “fatty acids”  The following types of fat all contain different mix of fatty acids:  Saturated  Monounsaturated  Polyunsaturated  Trans

31 Fats  Saturated Fatty Acid = mostly found in animal sources  Monounsaturated Fatty Acid = mostly found in vegetable, olive, and peanut oils  Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid = mostly found in seafood  Trans Fatty Acid = mostly found in processed food such as margarine and snack foods

32 Fats: How Much Should I Eat?  Total fat intake should be no more than 30% of total daily calories  Saturated fat intake should stay under 10%  While fats are an integral part of a well- balanced diet, they should be limited

33 How to Limit Fat Intake  Limit amounts of red meat  Choose low-fat or non-fat dairy products  Remove skin from poultry  Decrease or eliminate fried foods, butter, margarine  Cook with small amounts of olive oil instead of butter

34 Fats: Quick Assignment  Using the internet, complete the following assignment:  Identify 5 foods that you enjoy that are HIGH in fat content  Identify 5 foods that you enjoy that are LOW in fat content

35 Vitamins  Vitamins = complex organic substances that the body needs in small amounts  Most vitamins cannot be manufactured by the body and must be provided by your diet

36 Vitamins  Vitamins have a variety of healthy functions in the body  If the body lacks vitamins, deficiencies or disease can develop

37 Vitamins  Vitamins are grouped into 2 categories:  Fat-soluble  Too much can cause toxicity  Water-soluble  Too much will be excreted in the urine

38 Fat-Soluble Vitamins  Found in foods such as: meats, liver, dairy, eggs, and green vegetables  Vitamin A (retinol)  Vitamin D (calciferol)  Vitamin E (tocopherol)  Vitamin K1 (phytonadione)  Vitamin K2 (menaquinones)  Vitamin K3 (menadione)

39 Water-Soluble Vitamins  Found in foods such as: whole grain cereals, leafy green vegetables, fruits, and legumes  Folic Acid  Nicotinic Acid (niacin)  Vitamin B1 (thiamine hydrochloride)  Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)  Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride)  Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)  Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

40 Vitamins Vitamin A (retinol) properties Good for Eyesight, growth, appetite and taste. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) properties Good for Nervous system, digestion, muscles, heart, alcohol-damaged nerve tissues. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) properties Good for Growth, skin, nails, hair, sensitive lips and tongue, eyesight, the breakdown of protein, fat and carbohydrates.carbohydrates Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) properties Good for Preventing skin conditions, nerve problems, helps the body absorb protein and carbohydrate.

41 Vitamins Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) properties Good for Making red blood and the formation of the nerves. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) properties Good for Immune defense system, protection from viruses and bacteria, healing wounds, reducing cholesterol, cell lifespan and preventing scurvy. Vitamin D properties Good for Strong bones and teeth. Vitamin E (tocopherol) properties Good for Fighting toxins – vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant.

42 Vitamins: Assignment  Use the internet to fill out the Vitamin chart

43 Minerals  Inorganic substances that are needed for proper growth, development, and health  If a body needs more than milligrams of an inorganic substance in a day…it is known as a “MINERAL”  If less is needed = “trace element”

44 Minerals  Minerals are needed to:  Transport oxygen  Stimulate muscles to contract  Maintain CNS function

45 Minerals  Examples of minerals that are critical in a well-rounded diet:  Calcium  Phosphorus  Potassium  Sodium  Iron  Zinc

46 Minerals: Assignment  Use the internet to complete the minerals assignment to the best of your ability

47 Vitamins & Minerals: Assignment  1.) Go to the following website:  ce/facts/vitamins_which.htm  2.) For each vitamin and mineral you will need to identify:  Signs of deficiency  Good sources

48 Water  The most important, yet often neglected, nutrient  No water = death  Limited water = body will suffer

49 Water  Water is in the bloodstream (circulating throughout the body)  Water helps to:  Regulate temperature  Transport nutrients  Eliminate toxins and waste  Maintain proper metabolism

50 Water  Fluid Loss  2-3 % of body weight = impaired performance  7-10% of body weight = can be fatal

51 Water  Average recommendation: Drink 6-8 glasses of water a day  More when you are physically active  On average, a person loses about 7 glasses of water each day  An active person will lose a greater amount

52 Water  It is important to drink water BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER physical activity  Our muscles work best when fed water….therefore athletes MUST stay properly hydrated at ALL times

53 Water vs. Sports Drinks  Sports Drinks  Added electrolytes, carbohydrates, sugars, and some vitamins and minerals  NOT a better source of hydration than water  However, the added components might delay some fatigue and provide extra energy from sugar

54 Water Challenge  I challenge each of you to drink at least 4 bottles of water every day for one week  Report back to me if you feel any change  Extra credit for anyone who actually does this!!!

55 Fiber  Dietary Fiber = the indigestible component of plants that are consumed by humans  Fiber is found in all plant foods  Such as: grains, beans, lentils, fruits and vegetables

56 Fiber  The nutritional component of fiber is actually NOT essential  HOWEVER, fiber keeps our digestive tract running smoothly

57 Fiber  2 types of fiber  Soluble  Found in fruits, oats, legumes  Lowers cholesterol  Insoluble  Some fruits, vegetables, whole grains  Soaks up water to add bulk  Prevents constipation

58 How Much Fiber Should I Eat?  AVERAGE daily recommendations:  WOMEN:  Age 50 and down: 25 grams  Age 51 and up: 21 grams  MEN  Age 50 and down: 38 grams  Age 51 and up: 30 grams

59 Some Foods High in Fiber  Apple  Bran cereal (Raisin Bran)  Broccoli  Carrot  Strawberries  Pear  Oat Bran  Lentils (cooked)  Baked Potato  Peas

60 Key Concepts!!!  Carbohydrates = our primary source of energy  Protein = needed for growth and repair  Fats = store energy, insulate body, and transport vitamins  Vitamins = needed to use energy for body functions  Minerals = needed for growth, maintenance, repair of tissue and bone  Water = most important nutrient  Fiber = helps digestive tract

61 Assignment: Foods to Avoid or Limit….  Go to the following website:   Finds foods that YOU ENJOY that have a high content of the following nutrients:  Sugars  Trans Fat  Saturated Fat  Alcohol (you MIGHT enjoy these someday, but not yet, so just take a guess at your preference)  This list = Foods/beverages that you generally want to avoid

62 Nutrition Labels  Nutrition labels are required on almost all consumable products  In certain cases, labels are not required by law…but a list of ingredients should ALWAYS be present

63 Nutrition Labels: DV  % DV = Percentage Daily Value  DRV = Daily Reference Value  These show you percentages of nutrients present in the food or drink  Percentages are based on a 2,000 calorie/day diet

64 Nutrition Labels: DV  Recommended daily values for energy- producing nutrients:  Fat = 30% of calories  Saturated Fat = 10% of calories  Carbohydrate = 60% of calories  Protein = 10% of calories  Fiber = 11.5 grams per 1,000 calories

65 Nutrition Labels: DRVs  Should limit daily nutrient levels to the following (regardless of caloric intake):  Total Fat = less than 65 g  Saturated Fat = less than 20 g  Cholesterol= less than 300 mg  Sodium= less than 2,400 mg

66 How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label  Healthy/NutritionCenter/HeartSmartShopp ing/Reading-Food-Nutrition- Labels_UCM_300132_Article.jsp Healthy/NutritionCenter/HeartSmartShopp ing/Reading-Food-Nutrition- Labels_UCM_300132_Article.jsp


68 Nutrition Labels: Serving Size  Serving Size = How much of the food/drink is actually being measured  Servings per container = How many servings there are

69 Nutrition Labels: Serving Size  If there are is more than 1 serving per container, AND you eat more than 1 serving, you must multiply EVERYTHING on the nutrition label

70 Nutrition Labels: Serving Size  For example:  Let’s say you are reading the info for a Grande Starbucks cup of Chai Tea  You see that there are 100 calories PER SERVING  You also see that there are 4 SERVINGS PER CUP  You drink the entire cup  You just drank 4 x 100 = 400 Calories

71 Nutrition Labels: Serving Size  Example:  Graham Crackers  Serving size: 1 cracker  Servings per Cracker sheet: 4  Servings per container: About 30  Calories = 100  How many calories are in 1 cracker?  How many calories are in 1 sheet?  How many calories are in the whole box?

72 Nutrition Labels: Serving Size  Example:  Lays Chips  Serving size: About 5 chips  Servings per bag: About 20  Fat = 15%  About how much Fat is in 1 chip?  How much Fat is in 5 chips?  How much Fat is in the whole bag?

73 Calories and Calories from Fat  If calories from fat = more than 30% of total calories…this food is HIGH FAT

74 Nutrition Labels: Activity  Pass out the following nutrition label samples:  amplelabels.pdf amplelabels.pdf  Complete the worksheet questions and review as a class

75 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  The key to losing weight is to do it in a HEALTHY manner  This will:  Keep the weight off  Maintain your energy level  Avoid illnesses and injuries  Avoid dangerous “fad diets”

76 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight:  1. Smaller Portions  Use smaller plates  Don’t serve food “family style”  Only allow one plate for dinner (like a restaurant would)  Use smaller utensils  Never put food in your mouth when you are still chewing  Don’t eat standing in the kitchen

77 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight:  2. Frequent small meals  Avoid eating only 3 big meals a day  Your body needs to know that it will be fed soon (or else it will store fat in case of an emergency)  When you fuel your body regularly, it will process the food and release it as waste quickly and frequently

78 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight:  3. Decrease caloric intake  Check nutrition facts label **Remember to multiply by the servings per container**  **Warning** - too little calories will actually make your body hold onto calories for longer (as a survival tactic)

79 How to Lose Weight the HEALTHY Way  Think about a picture of a young, underprivileged child in a developing country  Why is his belly so big?

80 How to Lose Weight the HEALTHY Way  Concept of “Skinny Fat”  Your body will hold fat in the wrong places

81 How to Lose Weight the HEALTHY Way  Calories: quality over quantity  Maintaining a very low calorie diet can decrease your energy, therefore decreasing your metabolism and quality of exercise

82 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight:  4. Decrease processed foods  Generally speaking, the more ingredients and the longer the words = the worse for you  Takes your body longer to break down

83 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight:  5. Decrease sugar intake  Avoid: Candies, ice cream, sweet drinks, cookies, chocolate, sweet cereals, “fruit” snacks, etc.  Temporary energy from empty calories

84 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight:  6. Replace high calorie and high fat condiments for lower ones:  Avoid: ranch, mayonnaise, butter, bleu cheese, barbeque sauces, creams, cheese sauces  Use: mustard, lite vinaigrette, lite Italian, dry spices (cayenne, salt, pepper, etc.), lemon/lime

85 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight:  7. Eat more veggies!  8. Replace fatty meats with lean meats  Lean meats = chicken, turkey, bison, seafood (fish and shellfish)

86 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight:  9. Choose the “light”, “diet”, “less sugar” or “low fat” option  Milk, soda, yogurt, juice, sports drinks, etc.  10. Always carry healthy snacks with you  Carrying carrots, granola bars, almonds, etc. around will prevent you from buying unhealthy snacks

87 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  11. Drink more water  If you get bored of water, use the crystal light powders that contain zero sugar  12. Instead of eating that late night snack….drink something  Studies show that over 70% of hunger is actually thirst….drink some water or low-fat milk

88 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  13. Learn how to cook!  Will actually encourage you to eat healthier  14. Avoid popular “fad diets”  The quick fix is usually never the healthy answer (and the weight almost always comes back)  Lifestyle changes are a smarter, healthier approach to weight loss

89 How to Lose Weight Healthfully  15. EXERCISE!!!!!  We will discuss this in the next section  Miss V’s FAVORITE unit!

90 How to Lose Weight the HEALTHY Way  Instead of “low-cal” snacks, pick “Super Foods”  Super Food = carries an abundance of Vitamins and Minerals, mood-enhancing, lowers cholesterol, and reduces risk of heart disease!!!  Super Food Examples:  Beans  Blueberries  Broccoli  Oats  Oranges  Salmon  Spinach  Tea (green or black)  Tomatoes  Turkey  Walnuts  Yogurt

91 Important to Remember  Weight loss should only be attempted by people who are OVER WEIGHT  You CANNOT change your frame  Starving yourself is NEVER going to work  Optimal health should be your final goal….NOT being a size 0

92 Activity: Fast Foods  Go to the following website:  021000000000000000000.html?categories=1,9,11,14,7,12, 20,16,5,19,6,42,18,3,10,8,21,0,17,13,4,15,22 021000000000000000000.html?categories=1,9,11,14,7,12, 20,16,5,19,6,42,18,3,10,8,21,0,17,13,4,15,22  Locate at least 5 fast food items that you have eaten or that you are likely to eat in the future.  Then, follow the instructions below:  1. Name of item.  2. How many calories does the entire item contain? (Remember to look at the serving size)  3. List some other nutrient levels:  4. Do these surprise you?  5. Why or why not?  (Repeat these questions for each food item) least 5 items total

93 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  1.) Increase caloric AND nutrient intake  Calorie-rich foods should also be nutrient-rich (do not find your calories in processed foods, refined sugars, or alcohols…these will produce the wrong type of weight gain)

94 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  2.) Increase number of daily meals  Meals should include protein, starch, vegetables and fats

95 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  3.) Increase protein intake  Whey protein can be added to almost any meal, shakes, bars, etc.  Lean meats should be increased  (avoid TOO much meat that will increase your cholesterol)  Be careful not to increase sodium above 2,300 mg

96 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  4.) Increase healthy foods that are high in fat  Plant fats such as nuts, peanuts, seeds, peanut butter, almond butter, avocados, hummus, and oils

97 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  5.) Shakes and natural supplements  Pre-workout (for increased energy and max oxygen conversion)  Post-workout (for accelerated recovery) protein shakes

98 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  6.) Choose “full-fat” or “whole” options  Milk, yogurt, cheese, etc.  7.) Replace diet drinks with 100% juice products  This increases calories, vitamins, and nutrients

99 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  8.) Take your vitamins and minerals  Increasing weight will put more pressure on your bones, muscles, and whole body  Take vitamins and minerals to ensure that your body can withstand this new stress and avoid injury or illness  Glucosamine, calcium, iron, fiber, multi- vitamins, etc.

100 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  9.) Cook in advance  Healthy protein and healthy fat options are rarely readily available…so make Tupperware and sandwich bags your new best friend  Cook healthy meals and bring them with you!

101 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Steps you can take to gain healthy weight:  10.) Increase exercise and resistance training  We will discuss this in the next section  Miss V’s FAVORITE unit!!!

102 How to Gain Weight Healthfully  Important to remember:  You cannot change your frame  Steroids are NEVER the answer  Too big = less athletic  Optimal health and strength should be your goal….NOT extreme size

103 Exercise and Fitness  Come prepared to stretch, try some exercises, and be active  Bring an extra set of clothes  Bring water  **This will NOT be difficult, so I encourage EVERYONE to try EVERYTHING!**

104 Meal Plan Project  You are going to make a 3 day meal plan  Each day must have different food options that YOU ENJOY eating  You must justify each day’s choices by labeling where you are getting the following:  Vitamins  Minerals  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats  Water  Fiber  You must also identify how you avoided unhealthy items and components (ex: Saturated Fat)  Include the following:  Name of food  Time of day  Portion size  **Make sure at least 1 day is a school-day schedule and 1 is a weekend/off-day schedule!!***

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