Presentation on theme: "Nutrition: Activity As a class, we will make a list of our FAVORITE foods Then, try to guess which ones are healthy (we will circle these) Why did."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition: Activity As a class, we will make a list of our FAVORITE foods Then, try to guess which ones are healthy (we will circle these) Why did you pick these foods?
Nutrition Now we are going to learn how to actually define “HEALTHY” vs “Non- Healthy” foods
Nutrition Nutrition = the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and replacement of tissues Proper nutrition can: Reduce the likelihood of injury and illness Speed the healing process of injury and illness Increase energy Improve athletic performance Enhance mood Regulate weight
Nutrition The big question: Why do we need food??? ENERGY!!!
Nutrition and Energy Energy = the power used to do work (or to produce heat or light) Energy cannot be created or destroyed It can only be changed from one form to another Ex: When coal burns, the energy stored in the chemical form is converted to heat and light
Nutrition and Energy Living plants are able to use and convert solar energy by a process called photosynthesis Animals use chemical energy found in plants or other animals They can oxidize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins This produces energy, carbon dioxide, and water
Nutrition and Energy Energy is needed for: Body functions Ex: breathing, beating heart, body temperature Active movement Ex: muscle contractions (running, jumping, walking, etc.) Growth and repair Ex: muscular, skeletal, tissue, etc.
Nutrition and Calories The use of energy always produces heat In nutrition, energy is measured in CALORIES
Nutrition and Calories What exactly is a Calorie? Calorie = the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5 to 15.5 degrees Celsius That is why we say that we “burn” calories (In reality we are converting energy stored into body functions or active movement)
How Many Calories? The “average” recommended diet is 2,000 calories per day This number varies based on: Age Gender Health issues Physical activity
How Many Calories? Why do young people need more calories? Their tissue, bones, muscles are still growing! Why do athletes need more calories? They are constantly converting calories into energy for athletic performance! Ex: Michael Phelps claims to maintain a 12,000 calorie/day diet
What should be in those Calories? Before we talk about weight loss, weight gain, and counting calories….we need to address: What should we eat???
What to Eat The human body must have a balanced diet consisting of the following 7 food components or nutrients: Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Fiber Without these, the body will not be able to grow, repair, and maintain body tissues
What Did You Eat Last Night? As a class, make a list of what everyone ate last night Highlight the “healthy” choices (Hopefully each day we will get closer to knowing how to label these healthy options)
What is in Your Food? Now let’s define what each nutrient is and how it affects your body Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Fiber
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates = the body’s primary source of fuel for energy Carbs make glucose which is the fuel that gives you energy and keeps everything going
Carbohydrates You can find carbohydrates in the following: Fruits Vegetables Breads, cereals, and other grains Milk and milk products Foods containing added sugars (e.g., cakes, cookies, and sugar-sweetened beverages).
Carbohydrates Simple Carbs = added sugars “Empty” calories Provide energy but no nutrients Complex carbs = starches Provide energy AND vitamins, minerals, fiber Ex: vegetables and grains
Carbohydrates Nutritionists recommend that 45-50% of daily calories come from carbohydrate sources Bulk should be from complex carbs Veggies, grains, fruits Minimize simple carbs Candy, ice cream, sweet beverages, etc.
Carbohydrates So if you are maintaining a 2,000 calorie/day diet…about how many of those calories should come from carbohydrates? Remember, however, think: Vegetables Fruits Grains
Increasing Carbohydrates Some healthy foods that are high in quality carbohydrates: Apples Bananas Corn Squash Dried fruits (raisins, cranberries) Granola or oatmeal Whole grain choices
Decreasing Carbohydrates Some healthy foods with low amounts of carbohydrates: Leafy greens Broccoli Spinach wrap (instead of bread) Strawberry or Kiwi Lean meats Seafood Egg whites
Activity: Carbohydrates As a class, make a list of simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates Name some ways that you can start substituting complex carbs for simple ones for the following meals: Breakfast Lunch Snack Dinner Dessert
Proteins Protein = an essential nutrient that contains nitrogen and helps the body grow, build, and repair tissue Protein is found in every cell and tissue in the human body
Proteins Proteins are made of amino acids There are 20 amino acids and 9 are required in the human body These are called “essential” amino acids
Proteins A “complete protein” contains all the 9 essential amino acids Complete Proteins: eggs, meat, fish, poultry, cheese and milk Incomplete Proteins: fruits, veggies, grains, and beans
Proteins In other words… Animal proteins are usually complete proteins Plant proteins are usually incomplete proteins THEREFORE, vegetarians must maintain a very well-balanced diet that incorporates all of the essential amino acids
How Much Protein Do I Need? (Body weight/2.2 ) x 0.8 = recommended AVERAGE grams of protein per day This means that you need 0.8 grams of protein per kg of body weight **Athletes need more for tissue repair!!**
Fats Dietary fat is required to: Carry vitamins through the blood Insulate body tissues Provide energy
Fats Fats and oils are composed of basic units called “fatty acids” The following types of fat all contain different mix of fatty acids: Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Trans
Fats Saturated Fatty Acid = mostly found in animal sources Monounsaturated Fatty Acid = mostly found in vegetable, olive, and peanut oils Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid = mostly found in seafood Trans Fatty Acid = mostly found in processed food such as margarine and snack foods
Fats: How Much Should I Eat? Total fat intake should be no more than 30% of total daily calories Saturated fat intake should stay under 10% While fats are an integral part of a well- balanced diet, they should be limited
How to Limit Fat Intake Limit amounts of red meat Choose low-fat or non-fat dairy products Remove skin from poultry Decrease or eliminate fried foods, butter, margarine Cook with small amounts of olive oil instead of butter
Fats: Quick Assignment Using the internet, complete the following assignment: Identify 5 foods that you enjoy that are HIGH in fat content Identify 5 foods that you enjoy that are LOW in fat content
Vitamins Vitamins = complex organic substances that the body needs in small amounts Most vitamins cannot be manufactured by the body and must be provided by your diet
Vitamins Vitamins have a variety of healthy functions in the body If the body lacks vitamins, deficiencies or disease can develop
Vitamins Vitamins are grouped into 2 categories: Fat-soluble Too much can cause toxicity Water-soluble Too much will be excreted in the urine
Fat-Soluble Vitamins Found in foods such as: meats, liver, dairy, eggs, and green vegetables Vitamin A (retinol) Vitamin D (calciferol) Vitamin E (tocopherol) Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) Vitamin K3 (menadione)
Water-Soluble Vitamins Found in foods such as: whole grain cereals, leafy green vegetables, fruits, and legumes Folic Acid Nicotinic Acid (niacin) Vitamin B1 (thiamine hydrochloride) Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride) Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Vitamins Vitamin A (retinol) properties Good for Eyesight, growth, appetite and taste. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) properties Good for Nervous system, digestion, muscles, heart, alcohol-damaged nerve tissues. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) properties Good for Growth, skin, nails, hair, sensitive lips and tongue, eyesight, the breakdown of protein, fat and carbohydrates.carbohydrates Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) properties Good for Preventing skin conditions, nerve problems, helps the body absorb protein and carbohydrate.
Vitamins Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) properties Good for Making red blood and the formation of the nerves. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) properties Good for Immune defense system, protection from viruses and bacteria, healing wounds, reducing cholesterol, cell lifespan and preventing scurvy. Vitamin D properties Good for Strong bones and teeth. Vitamin E (tocopherol) properties Good for Fighting toxins – vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant.
Vitamins: Assignment Use the internet to fill out the Vitamin chart
Minerals Inorganic substances that are needed for proper growth, development, and health If a body needs more than milligrams of an inorganic substance in a day…it is known as a “MINERAL” If less is needed = “trace element”
Minerals Minerals are needed to: Transport oxygen Stimulate muscles to contract Maintain CNS function
Minerals Examples of minerals that are critical in a well-rounded diet: Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Iron Zinc
Minerals: Assignment Use the internet to complete the minerals assignment to the best of your ability
Vitamins & Minerals: Assignment 1.) Go to the following website: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/health_advi ce/facts/vitamins_which.htm 2.) For each vitamin and mineral you will need to identify: Signs of deficiency Good sources
Water The most important, yet often neglected, nutrient No water = death Limited water = body will suffer
Water Water is in the bloodstream (circulating throughout the body) Water helps to: Regulate temperature Transport nutrients Eliminate toxins and waste Maintain proper metabolism
Water Fluid Loss 2-3 % of body weight = impaired performance 7-10% of body weight = can be fatal
Water Average recommendation: Drink 6-8 glasses of water a day More when you are physically active On average, a person loses about 7 glasses of water each day An active person will lose a greater amount
Water It is important to drink water BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER physical activity Our muscles work best when fed water….therefore athletes MUST stay properly hydrated at ALL times
Water vs. Sports Drinks Sports Drinks Added electrolytes, carbohydrates, sugars, and some vitamins and minerals NOT a better source of hydration than water However, the added components might delay some fatigue and provide extra energy from sugar
Water Challenge I challenge each of you to drink at least 4 bottles of water every day for one week Report back to me if you feel any change Extra credit for anyone who actually does this!!!
Fiber Dietary Fiber = the indigestible component of plants that are consumed by humans Fiber is found in all plant foods Such as: grains, beans, lentils, fruits and vegetables
Fiber The nutritional component of fiber is actually NOT essential HOWEVER, fiber keeps our digestive tract running smoothly
Fiber 2 types of fiber Soluble Found in fruits, oats, legumes Lowers cholesterol Insoluble Some fruits, vegetables, whole grains Soaks up water to add bulk Prevents constipation
How Much Fiber Should I Eat? AVERAGE daily recommendations: WOMEN: Age 50 and down: 25 grams Age 51 and up: 21 grams MEN Age 50 and down: 38 grams Age 51 and up: 30 grams
Some Foods High in Fiber Apple Bran cereal (Raisin Bran) Broccoli Carrot Strawberries Pear Oat Bran Lentils (cooked) Baked Potato Peas
Key Concepts!!! Carbohydrates = our primary source of energy Protein = needed for growth and repair Fats = store energy, insulate body, and transport vitamins Vitamins = needed to use energy for body functions Minerals = needed for growth, maintenance, repair of tissue and bone Water = most important nutrient Fiber = helps digestive tract
Assignment: Foods to Avoid or Limit…. Go to the following website: http://nutritiondata.self.com/tools/nutrient-search http://nutritiondata.self.com/tools/nutrient-search Finds foods that YOU ENJOY that have a high content of the following nutrients: Sugars Trans Fat Saturated Fat Alcohol (you MIGHT enjoy these someday, but not yet, so just take a guess at your preference) This list = Foods/beverages that you generally want to avoid
Nutrition Labels Nutrition labels are required on almost all consumable products In certain cases, labels are not required by law…but a list of ingredients should ALWAYS be present
Nutrition Labels: DV % DV = Percentage Daily Value DRV = Daily Reference Value These show you percentages of nutrients present in the food or drink Percentages are based on a 2,000 calorie/day diet
Nutrition Labels: DV Recommended daily values for energy- producing nutrients: Fat = 30% of calories Saturated Fat = 10% of calories Carbohydrate = 60% of calories Protein = 10% of calories Fiber = 11.5 grams per 1,000 calories
Nutrition Labels: DRVs Should limit daily nutrient levels to the following (regardless of caloric intake): Total Fat = less than 65 g Saturated Fat = less than 20 g Cholesterol= less than 300 mg Sodium= less than 2,400 mg
How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Getting Healthy/NutritionCenter/HeartSmartShopp ing/Reading-Food-Nutrition- Labels_UCM_300132_Article.jsp http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Getting Healthy/NutritionCenter/HeartSmartShopp ing/Reading-Food-Nutrition- Labels_UCM_300132_Article.jsp
Nutrition Labels: Serving Size Serving Size = How much of the food/drink is actually being measured Servings per container = How many servings there are
Nutrition Labels: Serving Size If there are is more than 1 serving per container, AND you eat more than 1 serving, you must multiply EVERYTHING on the nutrition label
Nutrition Labels: Serving Size For example: Let’s say you are reading the info for a Grande Starbucks cup of Chai Tea You see that there are 100 calories PER SERVING You also see that there are 4 SERVINGS PER CUP You drink the entire cup You just drank 4 x 100 = 400 Calories
Nutrition Labels: Serving Size Example: Graham Crackers Serving size: 1 cracker Servings per Cracker sheet: 4 Servings per container: About 30 Calories = 100 How many calories are in 1 cracker? How many calories are in 1 sheet? How many calories are in the whole box?
Nutrition Labels: Serving Size Example: Lays Chips Serving size: About 5 chips Servings per bag: About 20 Fat = 15% About how much Fat is in 1 chip? How much Fat is in 5 chips? How much Fat is in the whole bag?
Calories and Calories from Fat If calories from fat = more than 30% of total calories…this food is HIGH FAT
Nutrition Labels: Activity Pass out the following nutrition label samples: http://extension.missouri.edu/fnep/JIFF/7s amplelabels.pdf http://extension.missouri.edu/fnep/JIFF/7s amplelabels.pdf Complete the worksheet questions and review as a class
How to Lose Weight Healthfully The key to losing weight is to do it in a HEALTHY manner This will: Keep the weight off Maintain your energy level Avoid illnesses and injuries Avoid dangerous “fad diets”
How to Lose Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight: 1. Smaller Portions Use smaller plates Don’t serve food “family style” Only allow one plate for dinner (like a restaurant would) Use smaller utensils Never put food in your mouth when you are still chewing Don’t eat standing in the kitchen
How to Lose Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight: 2. Frequent small meals Avoid eating only 3 big meals a day Your body needs to know that it will be fed soon (or else it will store fat in case of an emergency) When you fuel your body regularly, it will process the food and release it as waste quickly and frequently
How to Lose Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight: 3. Decrease caloric intake Check nutrition facts label **Remember to multiply by the servings per container** **Warning** - too little calories will actually make your body hold onto calories for longer (as a survival tactic)
How to Lose Weight the HEALTHY Way Think about a picture of a young, underprivileged child in a developing country Why is his belly so big?
How to Lose Weight the HEALTHY Way Concept of “Skinny Fat” Your body will hold fat in the wrong places
How to Lose Weight the HEALTHY Way Calories: quality over quantity Maintaining a very low calorie diet can decrease your energy, therefore decreasing your metabolism and quality of exercise
How to Lose Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight: 4. Decrease processed foods Generally speaking, the more ingredients and the longer the words = the worse for you Takes your body longer to break down
How to Lose Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight: 5. Decrease sugar intake Avoid: Candies, ice cream, sweet drinks, cookies, chocolate, sweet cereals, “fruit” snacks, etc. Temporary energy from empty calories
How to Lose Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight: 6. Replace high calorie and high fat condiments for lower ones: Avoid: ranch, mayonnaise, butter, bleu cheese, barbeque sauces, creams, cheese sauces Use: mustard, lite vinaigrette, lite Italian, dry spices (cayenne, salt, pepper, etc.), lemon/lime
How to Lose Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight: 7. Eat more veggies! 8. Replace fatty meats with lean meats Lean meats = chicken, turkey, bison, seafood (fish and shellfish)
How to Lose Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to lose unhealthy weight: 9. Choose the “light”, “diet”, “less sugar” or “low fat” option Milk, soda, yogurt, juice, sports drinks, etc. 10. Always carry healthy snacks with you Carrying carrots, granola bars, almonds, etc. around will prevent you from buying unhealthy snacks
How to Lose Weight Healthfully 11. Drink more water If you get bored of water, use the crystal light powders that contain zero sugar 12. Instead of eating that late night snack….drink something Studies show that over 70% of hunger is actually thirst….drink some water or low-fat milk
How to Lose Weight Healthfully 13. Learn how to cook! Will actually encourage you to eat healthier 14. Avoid popular “fad diets” The quick fix is usually never the healthy answer (and the weight almost always comes back) Lifestyle changes are a smarter, healthier approach to weight loss
How to Lose Weight Healthfully 15. EXERCISE!!!!! We will discuss this in the next section Miss V’s FAVORITE unit!
How to Lose Weight the HEALTHY Way Instead of “low-cal” snacks, pick “Super Foods” Super Food = carries an abundance of Vitamins and Minerals, mood-enhancing, lowers cholesterol, and reduces risk of heart disease!!! Super Food Examples: Beans Blueberries Broccoli Oats Oranges Salmon Spinach Tea (green or black) Tomatoes Turkey Walnuts Yogurt
Important to Remember Weight loss should only be attempted by people who are OVER WEIGHT You CANNOT change your frame Starving yourself is NEVER going to work Optimal health should be your final goal….NOT being a size 0
Activity: Fast Foods Go to the following website: http://nutritiondata.self.com/foods- 021000000000000000000.html?categories=1,9,11,14,7,12, 20,16,5,19,6,42,18,3,10,8,21,0,17,13,4,15,22 http://nutritiondata.self.com/foods- 021000000000000000000.html?categories=1,9,11,14,7,12, 20,16,5,19,6,42,18,3,10,8,21,0,17,13,4,15,22 Locate at least 5 fast food items that you have eaten or that you are likely to eat in the future. Then, follow the instructions below: 1. Name of item. 2. How many calories does the entire item contain? (Remember to look at the serving size) 3. List some other nutrient levels: 4. Do these surprise you? 5. Why or why not? (Repeat these questions for each food item)....at least 5 items total
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 1.) Increase caloric AND nutrient intake Calorie-rich foods should also be nutrient-rich (do not find your calories in processed foods, refined sugars, or alcohols…these will produce the wrong type of weight gain)
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 2.) Increase number of daily meals Meals should include protein, starch, vegetables and fats
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 3.) Increase protein intake Whey protein can be added to almost any meal, shakes, bars, etc. Lean meats should be increased (avoid TOO much meat that will increase your cholesterol) Be careful not to increase sodium above 2,300 mg
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 4.) Increase healthy foods that are high in fat Plant fats such as nuts, peanuts, seeds, peanut butter, almond butter, avocados, hummus, and oils
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 5.) Shakes and natural supplements Pre-workout (for increased energy and max oxygen conversion) Post-workout (for accelerated recovery) protein shakes
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 6.) Choose “full-fat” or “whole” options Milk, yogurt, cheese, etc. 7.) Replace diet drinks with 100% juice products This increases calories, vitamins, and nutrients
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 8.) Take your vitamins and minerals Increasing weight will put more pressure on your bones, muscles, and whole body Take vitamins and minerals to ensure that your body can withstand this new stress and avoid injury or illness Glucosamine, calcium, iron, fiber, multi- vitamins, etc.
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 9.) Cook in advance Healthy protein and healthy fat options are rarely readily available…so make Tupperware and sandwich bags your new best friend Cook healthy meals and bring them with you!
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Steps you can take to gain healthy weight: 10.) Increase exercise and resistance training We will discuss this in the next section Miss V’s FAVORITE unit!!!
How to Gain Weight Healthfully Important to remember: You cannot change your frame Steroids are NEVER the answer Too big = less athletic Optimal health and strength should be your goal….NOT extreme size
Exercise and Fitness Come prepared to stretch, try some exercises, and be active Bring an extra set of clothes Bring water **This will NOT be difficult, so I encourage EVERYONE to try EVERYTHING!**
Meal Plan Project You are going to make a 3 day meal plan Each day must have different food options that YOU ENJOY eating You must justify each day’s choices by labeling where you are getting the following: Vitamins Minerals Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Water Fiber You must also identify how you avoided unhealthy items and components (ex: Saturated Fat) Include the following: Name of food Time of day Portion size **Make sure at least 1 day is a school-day schedule and 1 is a weekend/off-day schedule!!***