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Cyberinfrastructure at IU and the IU Pervasive Technology Institute 11 March 2013 Presentation for Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Craig A. Stewart Executive.

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Presentation on theme: "Cyberinfrastructure at IU and the IU Pervasive Technology Institute 11 March 2013 Presentation for Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Craig A. Stewart Executive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cyberinfrastructure at IU and the IU Pervasive Technology Institute 11 March 2013 Presentation for Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Craig A. Stewart Executive Director, Pervasive Technology Institute Associate Dean, Research Technologies 1

2 Introduction and Motivation “If you don't know where you are going, any road will get you there” – Lewis Carroll If you want to go somewhere, set a strategy and pursue it with diligence IU wants to go somewhere: – To be one of the great public universities of the 21 st Century (Michael A. McRobbie, 18 th President of IU) – To be a leader, “in absolute terms for uses and applications of IT” (Myles Brand, 16 th President of IU) What is cyberinfrastructure, anyway? – First used in security briefing by Richard Clark in – Cyberinfrastructure consists of systems, advanced instruments and data repositories, visualization environments, and people, all linked together by software and high performance networks to improve research productivity and enable breakthroughs not otherwise possible. 2

3 Outline Some background about Indiana University How we got here DFG’s four questions 3

4 IU – Campuses and Medical School Centers 4 IU CampusesIU School of Medicine campuses and clinics

5 IU – Two Core Research/Education Campuses, Six Regional Campuses CampusAcademic appointees Staff (non- academic) Undergraduate Students Graduate & Professional Students IUB2,9735,44232,36710,097 IUPUI3,8474,79322,2458,321 IU Northwest , IU South Bend , IU East ,28580 IP Fort Wayne , IU Kokomo , IU Southeast , Totals 8,649 11,339 80,356 20,885 5 IU community: 121,229 people total

6 IU Budget Category 2010/2011 Budget Unrestricted $2,002,537,391 Restricted $615,974,635 Auxiliary $407,445,800 Total $3,025,957,826 IU Health Patient Metrics – 2010/11 Admissions 115,250 Outpatient visits 1,882,795 Staffed Beds 2,889 Key IU Metrics 6

7 IU’s Goal – Be One of the Great Public Universities of the 21 st Century As a great public university we have two fundamental missions: education and research. Indiana University seeks to provide the best possible education to all of our students, both undergraduate and graduate. It is an education in both breadth and depth, grounded in both the practical and the transcendent, and providing a command of the analytical and the expressive. We also seek to conduct path-breaking research and scholarship of the highest international standards from the most theoretical to the most applied. … We are also a public university supported by and with a responsibility to the citizens of Indiana. They expect us to provide a great education to their sons and daughters; they expect us to do the best research and scholarship; and they expect us to be engaged in the life of the State. Therefore, engagement is a third mission, and it grows out of excellence in education and research. -IU President Michael A. McRobbie McRobbie, M.A Inaugural address of Michael A. McRobbie: Endurance, Excellence, and the Energy of Change at Indiana University. 7

8 Begin with the End in Mind: End Goals for Service – IU Researchers, Scholars, Artists, and Students For IU researchers, scholars, students & artists: – To use information technology within a policy and security framework that is a model for academia and the US; – Pursue academic and creative activities without limitations created by resources for data management, computation, or visualization, accessible with state-of-the-art ease of use; – Examine and present research data, simulation results, or artistic creations intuitively to enhance scholarly and artistic efforts; and – Have resources available 24 x 365, immediately when desired. 8

9 Begin with the End in Mind: End Goals for Service – Indiana Residents, world community For Indiana residents: – To have the benefits of information technology services and information available from IU; – The opportunity to obtain a first-class education at all levels; the social and economic benefits of having IU produce talented graduates, well educated and ready to pursue interesting and valuable careers; – A vibrant economy providing satisfying, high-quality jobs with good pay that provide new career options and entice IU graduates to stay; a high standard of living and quality of life; and – An engaging and enjoyable cultural community. For others in the United States and the world: – To have the benefits of information technology services and IT-related information from IU; – Improved quality of life as a result of economic advancement, improved health; and – Artistic and literary creations brought about by the leadership of IU and the state of Indiana. 9

10 Goals for 2019 IU researchers, scholars, students, and artists will – Use information technology within a policy and security framework that serves as a model for academia and the US in general. – Be able to pursue their academic and creative activities with no limitations created by access to data, and few limitations caused by access to computational power. – Be able to examine and present research results or artistic creations in ways that are intuitive and enhance effectiveness through 2- and 3-D display and interface resources generally available in offices, labs, and meeting rooms. State-of-the-art large-scale facilities located conveniently throughout IU. – Have access to resources that Grow in capability and capacity predictably, steadily, and in ways that keep IU researchers at the leading edge of discovery. Are available resiliently by design (24 x 365 at never less than 75% aggregate capacity). Are available immediately when immediacy is essential. Are accessible through interfaces that are intuitively usable by the large majority of IU researchers. 10

11 Indiana residents will Have the benefits of information technology services and IT-related information made available to state residents by IU. Benefit from new, high-quality jobs created by IU’s advanced IT environment (at rates exceeding the present rate of job creation and contributing strongly to the Indiana economy). Such jobs will be created in three ways: – Bring federal money into the state to create new jobs. – Attract existing companies to locate major business operations in Indiana. – Create new companies through commercialization of innovations from IU. Have available education and training so anyone growing up in Indiana can strive for and obtain one of these high-quality jobs. The School of Informatics and Computing and other IU schools matriculate well-educated graduates, many of whom stay in Indiana. Have an improved quality of life stemming from these achievements: Indiana will rise from 23 rd in 2008 to at least 18 th in overall rank in the AeA’s annual Cyberstates report. UITS and PTI will aid IU biomedical research and health services communities to improve state rankings in major health indicators like obesity and tobacco use. US and world residents will benefit through access to information technology services and IT- related information made available by IU; and have improved quality of life, enabled at least in part by the outcomes of IU discoveries and innovations. 11 Goals for 2019, con’t

12 IU Bloomington Data Center designed to withstand category 5 tornado. Informatics & Communications Technology Complex houses IUPUI offices and Data Center Innovation Center, dedicated in November 2009, provides a central location for collaboration between discipline scientists, computer scientists, and staff through the Pervasive Technology Institute Cyberinfrastructure Building houses OVPIT, UITS staff. To be Gold (or higher) LEED certified Machine room total ft 2 Avail. ft 2 Power total Net power avail. Cooling capacity total (tons) Cooling capacity avail. (tons) ICTC 8,3001, kW208 kW IUB Data Center 30,00015, MW592 kW CI Facilities 12

13 13

14 Computational Systems 14 NameArchitectureTFLOPSTotal RAM (TB) Local disk (TB) Big RedIBM PowerPC 970MP (JS21 blades) QuarryIBM e1350 Intel Xeon (HS21 blades) MasonHP DL580 G7 Intel Xeon servers3816 RDCIBM Power5 (p575) database servers, Intel Xeon E5310 N/A FutureGridIBM e FutureGridCrayXT5m Totals Big Red II will be a 1 petaflop Cray supercomputer and Data Capacitor II will be a 5 PB DDN Lustre file system. Both to be installed yet this spring.

15 Storage Systems 15 NameArchitectureDisk (PB)Tape (PB) Research File SystemOpenAFS0.06NA Data CapacitorLustre0.94NA Scholarly Data ArchiveHPSS Totals Big Red II will be a 1 petaflop Cray supercomputer and Data Capacitor II will be a 5 PB DDN Lustre file system. Both to be installed yet this spring.

16 An Array of Viz Systems 16 Immersive Theaters Ultra-Resolution Stereoscopic IUB IUPUI

17 Early history YearNotable Events, Grants, and Awards 1955Marshall Wrubel named first permanent director of Research Computing Center Establishes ‘open access’ principle Marshall Wrubel publishes “The digital computer as an astronomical instrument Frank Prosser, Stan Hagstrom, Steve Young publish FASTRAN compiler 1970sIU develops significant CDC environment, major location for BMDP ports from IB => CDC 1981Bloomington Academic Computing Services formed, first full time administrator (Daniel W. DeHayes, Business Professor) 1990s 1997 IU major VAX facility, focus on computing in humanities, some significant scientific computing. We experience significant turbulence in mid 1990s Michael A. McRobbie comes to IU as first full VP for IT and University COI IU has its first display at the IEEE/ACM SCxy conference 1998IU IT Strategic Plan adopted 17

18 We’ve Come a Long Way In 1997, when IU had its first display at SCxy, the most common question we heard was “Why does IU have a booth at the supercomputing conference” No one asks us that anymore. So how did we do it? 1998 Indiana University Strategic Plan (Architecture for the 21 st century) adopted 10 Recommendations, 68 Actions Mostly focused on technology stacks and the spectra from “competent to excellent” and “no longer needed to phased out” 18 YearNotable Events, Grants, and Awards 1998GRNOC: Internet2 network engineering and operations support ($3,700,000 contact) 1999Lilly Endowment, Inc. funds Pervasive Technology Labs ($29M) 1999Indiana General Assembly funds I-Light Network ($5.300,000) 1999NSF funds network connectivity to Asia (TransPAC) ($10,100,100)

19 Year Notable Events, Grants, and Awards 2000NSF funds Variations2 digital music library project ($3,100,000M) Indiana Display at SC2000 – first time at this conference that all of the major research universities of any state coordinate a display promoting their home state as a whole 2000Lilly Endowment, Inc. funds Indiana Genomics Initiative ($105,000,000 total; $6,700,000 for advanced Information Technology) 2001John-E-Box invented 2001IU announces first 1 TFLOPS supercomputer owned by a US university; it appears as the 50 th fastest supercomputer on the on Top500 list in the world in November 2001I-Light activated on December NSF funds AVIDD, first university-owned teraflops supercomputer ($1,800,000) 2001GRNOC: Indiana Gigapop supporting Higher Education access to national R&E ($500K) 2002IU establishes first distributed, disaster-resilient tape archive running under the highly secure HPSS (High Performance Storage Software). Data written to data in tape silos simultaneously in Indianapolis and Bloomington to ensure reliability of data preservation 2002IU joins in life sciences initiative as part of Central Indiana’s life sciences corridor 19

20 Year Notable Events, Grants, and Awards 2003AVIDD achieves more than 1 Trillion calculations per second on standard benchmark application – the First distributed supercomputer cluster to surpass the 1 TFLOPS barrier. AVIDD appears in 50 th place on Top500 list in June. 2003NSF funds IP-grid project providing $1,500,000 for IU to become part of TeraGrid, and $1,400,000 to fund Purdue’s participation 2004Lilly Endowment, Inc. funds Indiana METACyt Initiative ($53M total; $6.25M for life sciences IT) 2004Informatics and Communication Technology Complex Building dedicated on IUPUI campus – new home for School of Informatics, UITS, and Pervasive Technology Labs 2005NSF funds IU’s early operations participation in TeraGrid ($440,000) 2005NSF funds IU as a TeraGrid Resource Partner ($4,100,000) 2005NSF funds network connectivity to Asia (TransPAC2) ($5.1M) 2005GRNOC: National Lambda Rail engineering and operations support ($7.5M) 2005NSF funds Data Capacitor – very fast data storage system ($1,720,000) 2006Big Red: fastest academic supercomputer in western hemisphere, 23 rd fastest supercomputer in the world on the June Top500 list. 2006IEDC/IBM grant to double Big Red. Big Red listed as 31 st fastest supercomputer on the November Top500 list. 2006I-Light: First customer connection to backbone ($15.5M) 20

21 Year Notable Events, Grants, and Awards 2007NSF funds PolarGrid ($1.9M) (Fox PI) 2007NSF funds network connectivity to Pakistan ($950K) 2007Bandwidth Challenge award – IU moves data across international and national networks faster than any other supercomputer center competing in this contest at the 2007 Supercomputing Conference 2008Lilly Endowment, Inc. funds Pervasive Technology Institute ($15M) 2008I-Light: Network backbone complete ($4.9M) 2009IU research systems approved by IU Counsel – meets standards for alignment with HIPAA regulations. IU researchers now able to use IU research systems to analyze electronic protected health information, thus speeding research 2009IU Professor Alex Vespignani uses Big Red and I-Light to predict spread of H1N1 virus and transmit that data to federal agencies in Washington 2009NSF funds GRNOC: Global Environment for Network Innovations ($330K) 2009NSF funds FutureGrid ($10.1M) – the fourth of the so-called Track I and II systems announced officially by the NSF. IBM, Cray major partners Stewart chairs NSF ACCI Task force on Campus Bridging 2011IU $4.9M Subcontract as part of XSEDE 2011NSF funding $1.5M for National Center for Genome Analysis Support 2011CREST opens – Center for Research in Extreme Scale Technologies 2011IU announces partnership with Penguin Computing, Inc. for cluster as a service 21

22 Pervasive Technology Institute PTI is a world-class organization that pairs fundamental academic computational research with the widely known strengths of Indiana University through cyberinfrastructure innovations and service delivery in networking and high performance computing. PTI’s mission is to improve the quality of life in the state of Indiana and the world through novel research, innovation, and service delivery in the broad domain of information technology and informatics. PTI achieves its mission through the cycle of: Invent, develop, deploy, deliver. PTI is the brand identity for IU’s applied research, development, and delivery activities in applied information technology. PTI is a collaboration among School of Informatics and Computing, Maurer School of Law, Office of the Vice President for Information Technology, University Information Technology Services, and College of Arts and Sciences. 22

23 PTI - History and Goals Started by $30M grant from the Lilly Endowment to create the Pervasive Technology Labs and fuel growth of the IU School of Informatics and Computing. 2nd round funding of $15M to create Pervasive Technology Institute in 2008 Overall: – Invent, develop, deploy, deliver – Serve IU’s flagship ‘brand’ re this activity in advanced IT Consists of two types of centers: – Research Centers: D2I; CACR; DSC; CREST. Needs and communication coordinated by Managing Director. Research Centers goal: research excellence – PTI Service & Cyberinfrastructure Centers Goals. Support Development, deployment, support of research IT. Support research-related activities by IU community generally, PTI Research Centers particularly, and national research community when in IU’s interests. Aid state of Indiana (baseline level of workforce & economic development activities). Research Technologies Division of UITS, National Center for Genome Analysis Support 23

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25 Positive feedback loop Adapted from graphic by Bradley C. Wheeler. Used under Creative Commons 3.0 unported attribution license 25

26 Increasing IU (and Indiana’s) advanced IT workforce 26

27 From 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2012 the Pervasive Technology Institute and its forerunners and collaborators created 1,109 full time job-years of employment directly as a result of grants and contracts brought into Indiana Economic Development Matters Indiana Illinois Kentucky Michigan Ohio Milken Institute’s State Technology and Science Index for Indiana and bordering states 27

28 Education and outreach = creating the advanced IT workforce of tomorrow 28

29 DFG Question # 1 – Cloud services New/expected developments concerning use of commercial clouds Security issues (security, safety, privacy) Best practice Ways of funding by research funding organizations Need for self-organized / non-commercial research cloud services 29

30 The good & the uncertain about Clouds This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics (On-demand self-service, Broad network access, Resource pooling, Rapid elasticity, Measured Service); three service models (Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS), Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS), Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)); and, four deployment models (Private cloud, Community cloud, Public cloud, Hybrid cloud). In the cloud, do you know: – Where your data are? – What laws prevail over the physical location of your data? – What license you really agreed to? – What is the security (electronic / physical) around your data? – And how exactly do you get to that cloud, or get things out of it? – How secure your provider is financially? (The fact that something seems unimaginable, like cloud provider such-and-such going out of business abruptly, does not mean it is impossible!) 30

31 31 Based on: Welch, V.; Sheppard, R.; Lingwall, M.J.; Stewart, C. A Current structure and past history of US cyberinfrastructure (data set and figures). Some CI Resources Available to Science and Engineering Researchers in the US (March 2011)

32 Adequacy of Research CI 32 Stewart, C.A., D.S. Katz, D.L. Hart, D. Lantrip, D.S. McCaulay and R.L. Moore. Technical Report: Survey of cyberinfrastructure needs and interests of NSF-funded principal investigators Responses to question asking if researchers had sufficient access to cyberinfrastructure resources – survey sent to 5,000 researchers selected randomly from 34,623 researchers funded by NSF as Principal Investigators ; Results based on 1,028 responses.

33 Net+ Services "We are seeing the early emergence of a meta-university — a transcendent, accessible, empowering, dynamic, communally constructed framework of open materials and platforms on which much of higher education worldwide can be constructed or enhanced.” Charles Vest, president emeritus of MIT, 2006 See: Brad Wheeler and Shelton Waggener Above-Campus Services: Shaping the Promise of Cloud Computing for Higher Education. EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 44, no. 6 (November/December 2009): gazineVolume44/AboveCampusServicesShapingtheP/ Goal: achieve economy of scale and retain reasonable measure of control Examples: – Internet2 and HP – IU & Penguin Computing Inc. 33

34 DGF Question 2 - IT Governance What is your IT Governance model – Input rights / Decision rights model. Community has strong input rights. IT organization has strong decision rights. Big Red II / Data Capacitor II as an example. What kind of power has the CIO in the overall structure, what are his/her competences – The CIO IS the Chief Information Officer, and leads execution of the large majority of the IT infrastructure of IU and leads policies that affect IT for the university as a whole Are there any general investment strategies to renew the infrastructure, how is the net-work kept on a high level. – Equipment replacement funds What kind of synergies do you realize through your collective efforts – Significant economies through site licensing Are there any security issues you address across campuses – Network security is university-wide (IU is one university with 8 campuses) How is the Student Lifecycle Process supported, what kind of software is used, what are the experiences – With a student technology fee, and a wide variety of software is provided to students without any additional charges How do you deal with BYODs – We try to get information to students in advance about devices that are and ar not compatible with campus wireless network standards 34

35 The Local Community is Happy – User Satisfaction Survey 35 How helpful has the information technology environment at IUB been in your research activities Overall, how satisfied are you with the UITS research technology services available at IUB AverageSatisfactionUsage Central research and high performance computers (Big Red, Quarry, and RDC clusters) [F, Staff, G] 4.16 ± ± 2.2%14.6% Center for Statistical and Mathematical Computing (StatMath Center, ) [All] 4.08 ± ± 1.7%20.1% Massive Data Storage Service (MDSS/HPSS) [F, Staff, G] 4.16 ± ± 2.1%16.2% Advanced Visualization Laboratory (AVL); [F, Staff, G] 4.32 ± ± 1.3%7.8% Support for software applications using IU’s high performing computing resources [F, Staff, G] 4.11 ± ± 2.1%15.2% Support for life sciences research (Bioinformatics, The Center for Computational Cytomics [F, Staff, G] 3.91 ± ± 2.3%8.3% AverageSatisfactionUsage 4.17 ± ± 1.5% 50.0% AverageSatisfactionUsage 4.19 ± ± 2.2 % 83.9%

36 Evolution of IT Services Recommendations 72 Action Items 2008 – IU IT Strategic Plan 15 Recommendations 72 Action Items Role and function based, not technology based

37 37 Campus Scholarly Infrastructure Domain Specific Discovery & Innovation, Teaching & Learning Necessary Infrastructure Leveraged Innovation Metadata Computation, Storage Models Networks Genomics Visualization Curation Anthropology Searching & Retrieving Networks Metadata Curation Innovation, Publication Storage Visualization Arts Networks Curation Storage Metadata Retrieval & Analysis Innovation Primary Storage Physics Distributed Storage Networks Metadata Models Computation Visualization Innovation Shared Cyberinfrastructure Line Here? © Brad Wheeler, Indiana University, Creative Commons Attribution License 2.5

38 Consolidation of CI facilities has been a driver for success Based on: – Competence and trust Summaries of all survey data and every comment (minus obscenities and identifying references) from 1986 on is available on the web – Facilities and gear Especially systems obtained through collaborative grants – Mission orientation Constantly asking: what is the mission of IU – are we following it We ask the faculty and students to trust our competence…. We trust their scholarly and artistic leadership Serve the home crowd first, the national community when it reinforces service to the home community. And serve all of the home crowd Vendor partnerships. The best partnerships have been based on complementary strengths and shared goals, and those that persisted even when there was no money on the table 38

39 Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) Is CSE a “discipline” on its own? – Computer science is to CSE (or Computational and Data- Enabled Science & Engineering – CDS&E) as physics is to engineering. One creates theories and discovers principles, the other puts them to practical use What kind of organization structures does CSE need (departments, programs, faculty,...) – We have been very successful with a School of Informatics (academic research and teaching), University Information Technology Services (professional IT organization), and Pervasive Technology Institute (applied R&D) How is CSE funded (How) Do funding agencies react to the specific interdisciplinary needs of CSE? – The answer to this is in flux in the US right now 39

40 Big Data Technical challenges – Many, and there is unlikely to be one definition of the technical challenges and the technical solutions Is “Big Data“ just a buzz word or is “Data” really something that changes the way of doing science (“4th paradigm”) – Perhaps the worst of possible situations in terms of the wording: there are real and very new challenges due to the rate at which data are born digital – But Big Data is used very much as buzzword. The public and business may become bored with the term long before we have made significant progress on critical solutions – And how many paradigms do we need, anyway ? Theory, empirical observation (experiment or post hoc analysis of data), and simulation are three. It’s not clear that empirical analysis of experiment and post-hoc analysis of big data are really different as paradigms. 40

41 Assertions about CI at Home and Beyond 1)Well-tuned campus CI enables greater research outcomes 2)Well-tuned campus CI is very expensive …though less expensive than other models 3)Well-tuned CI is possible only in the presence of clear strategy at the institutional level 4)Campus CI is (mostly) a coordination problem in the guise of a money problem 5)NET+ CI is not magic, and does not take away responsibility for delivering service to local CI users… but properly employed can be a useful strategic tool 6) Leadership in service of mission is the essential means of creating sustainable campus CI. Leadership matters, as does teamwork 7)Effective partnership is essential – colleagues, community, institutions, vendors *From several talks by IU CIO Brad Wheeler 41

42 Alternate Financial Models IU operates on Responsibility Center Management with a non- optional financial allocation for certain central services … including IT IU has also benefitted greatly from support of the Lilly Endowment The relationship models IU has developed are likely fairly portable Financial models at different universities vary If you want to look at different financial and organizational models, I suggest: – Purdue – among the best current examples of community funding model (Penn State was the pioneer in this area) – Texas Advanced Computing Center – they do things big in Texas, but the model of excellent science and strong relations to alums and donors might be more transportable than one would imagine at first blush 42

43 "The struggle enough to fill a [person’s] heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy.” –Albert Camus We Are Living in the Myth of Sisyphus 43 Sisyphys ( ) by Titian, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain This work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or fewer.

44 Thanks Thank you for the kind invitation to be here today All of the IU Research Technologies and Pervasive Technology Institute staff who have contributed to the development of IU’s advanced cyberinfrastructure and its support All of our faculty collaborators, especially the PTI-affiliated faculty Thanks to the colleagues who have contributed directly to this presentation: Malinda Husk, Vince Cannon, Greg Moore, Rob Lowden, Duane Schau, Eric Wernert, Mike Boyles, Bill Sherman Those involved in campus bridging activities: Guy Almes, Von Welch, Patrick Dreher, Jim Pepin, Dave Jent, Stan Ahalt, Bill Barnett, Therese Miller, Malinda Husk, Maria Morris, Gabrielle Allen, Jennifer Schopf, Ed Seidel NSF for funding support (Awards , , , , , , OCI – which supports the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment) Lilly Endowment, Inc. and the Indiana University Pervasive Technology Institute Any opinions presented here are those of the presenter and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the National Science Foundation or any other funding agencies 44

45 Questions? 45

46 License Terms Please cite as: Stewart, Craig A. Cyberinfrastructure at IU and the IU Pervasive Technology Institute. (Presentation) Items indicated with a © are under copyright and used here with permission. Such items may not be reused without permission from the holder of copyright except where license terms noted on a slide permit reuse. Except where otherwise noted, contents of this presentation are copyright 2013 by the Trustees of Indiana University. This document is released under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license ( This license includes the following terms: You are free to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work and to remix – to adapt the work under the following conditions: attribution – you must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work.

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