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NERDS 2012 Pre-Session #2 Content Lecture: Flora and Fauna Experimental Design Jennifer Hollander.

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Presentation on theme: "NERDS 2012 Pre-Session #2 Content Lecture: Flora and Fauna Experimental Design Jennifer Hollander."— Presentation transcript:

1 NERDS 2012 Pre-Session #2 Content Lecture: Flora and Fauna Experimental Design Jennifer Hollander

2 2 Ecosystems, again Elevation at Portola ~4800 feet Lodgepole forest Whitebark pine/ white fir Jeffrey pine

3 Plant adaptations in this region Ideal for conifers: numerous species, specially adapted Many plants have shallow root systems to absorb moisture from snowmelt Hot summers and cold winters – Conifers have needles to withstand moisture loss – Many shrubs have waxy coating on the leaves Fire adaptations – Historic fires every 10 – 20 years, low-intensity ground fires Adaptions for seed dispersal

4 Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) 3 needles per fascicle Long needles (4-8”) Cones about 5” long with sharp prickle on end (medium sized) Seeds winged, smaller than Jeffrey or sugar pine seeds

5 Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi) 3 needles (long) Cones larger (6-9 in) with inward barbs Larger seeds, with wings “vanilla” scent???

6 Ponderosa vs. Jeffrey

7 Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana) Very long cones (~20 in) 5 needled pine Mid-elevation Very large, dark seeds with frail wings

8 Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) Long, cylindrical cones Large winged seeds Needles ~3” long and 5 in a bundle High elevation

9 Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) Very high elevation (sub-alpine) 5-needled pine Cones purple when ripe, don’t open

10 Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Needles short (~2” long) and in bundles of 2 Cones small and have sharp prickles serotinous cones

11 Fir Trees (Abies spp.) Cones disintegrate when mature, stalk remains on tree Soft needles White Fir Red Fir

12 Douglas-fir Not a true fir… Different cone shape Cones drop from the tree

13 Bush Chinquapin (Castanopsis sempervirens) Shrub ~4 ft tall with slender, pointed leaves Spiny cupule enclosing 3 seeds

14 Greenleaf Manzanita (Arctostaphylos patula) Twisted reddish- brown stems Oval, flat, shiny leaves

15 Tobacco Brush (Ceanothus velutinus) Oval leaves with serrated edges White flowers Seeds ballistically dispersed

16 Common berry-producing shrubs: Sierra currant Sierra gooseberry Serviceberry Elderberry

17 Common threats to vegetation Mistletoe Pine beetle Blister rust

18 Adaptations by animals to living in the local climate (migrate, hibernate or tolerate) Behavioral adaptations: – Burrowing – Altering active times of day Diurnal Nocturnal Crepuscular – Others Physiological adaptations: – Entering torpor or hibernation

19 Yellow-pine chipmunk 36 – 50 grams (smaller than others in its range) Drab brown Lodgepole chipmunk 60-75 grams (medium sized) More brightly colored

20 Long-eared chipmunk Townsend’s chipmunk 80 – 100 grams 100+ grams

21 Golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis) Striped back, but no facial stripes Golden-brown neck and shoulders

22 Deer mice Nocturnal Tan/grey back and head, white underneath Large ears Hanta virus

23 Common Freshwater Insect Larvae Mayflies – Order Ephemeroptera Stoneflies – Order Plecoptera Caddisflies – Order Trichoptera Midges – Order Diptera, Family Chironomidae Dragonflies/damselflies – Order Odonata

24 Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) Identification of Larvae – Long posterior filaments (ususally 3) – Gills on first seven abdominal segments Adults vestigial, live for hours to days, non-feeding, reproduction only. – Hold wings vertically at rest – Second set of wings smaller than first

25 Plecoptera (Stoneflies) Identification of Larvae – Two long cerci (appendages) on posterior end – Elongate flattened body Adults – Elongate antennae – 10 abdominal segments – Wings long, membranous, and fold over an around abdomen at rest.

26 Trichoptera (Caddisflies) Identification of Larvae – Caterpillar-like, build and live in cases (silk + debris) – Generally six legs on first three (thoracic) segments – Abdominal prolegs on terminal segment. Adults – Moth-like, but body and wings with short hairs – Wings tented (roof-like) in vertical plane cover abdomen at rest. – Long antennae

27 Odonata (dragonflies/damselflies) Identification of larvae – Long, hinged labium – Large compound eye – Short antennae Adults

28 Chironomidae (midges) Identification of larvae – Worm-like – C-shaped – No true legs, but two pairs of prolegs (one anterior, one posterior) Adults – Flies

29 Experimental Design Basic Requirements of an Experiment – Different treatments are administered to different groups of subjects. – What does this mean in practical terms?

30 Experimental Design Treatment – A classification, category, or factor. Group of Subjects – A sample – Numerical counts of key metrics Finally, replication is needed for statistical power – Sample replication – Treatment replication

31 Case Study #1

32 Case Study #2 Seed removal transect 3 sites (habitats) 5 treatments (species) 300 “stations” – 60 replicates of each treatment

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