Presentation on theme: "NERDS 2012 Pre-Session #2 Content Lecture: Flora and Fauna Experimental Design Jennifer Hollander."— Presentation transcript:
NERDS 2012 Pre-Session #2 Content Lecture: Flora and Fauna Experimental Design Jennifer Hollander
2 Ecosystems, again Elevation at Portola ~4800 feet Lodgepole forest Whitebark pine/ white fir Jeffrey pine
Plant adaptations in this region Ideal for conifers: numerous species, specially adapted Many plants have shallow root systems to absorb moisture from snowmelt Hot summers and cold winters – Conifers have needles to withstand moisture loss – Many shrubs have waxy coating on the leaves Fire adaptations – Historic fires every 10 – 20 years, low-intensity ground fires Adaptions for seed dispersal
Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) 3 needles per fascicle Long needles (4-8”) Cones about 5” long with sharp prickle on end (medium sized) Seeds winged, smaller than Jeffrey or sugar pine seeds
Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi) 3 needles (long) Cones larger (6-9 in) with inward barbs Larger seeds, with wings “vanilla” scent???
Tobacco Brush (Ceanothus velutinus) Oval leaves with serrated edges White flowers Seeds ballistically dispersed
Common berry-producing shrubs: Sierra currant Sierra gooseberry Serviceberry Elderberry
Common threats to vegetation Mistletoe Pine beetle Blister rust
Adaptations by animals to living in the local climate (migrate, hibernate or tolerate) Behavioral adaptations: – Burrowing – Altering active times of day Diurnal Nocturnal Crepuscular – Others Physiological adaptations: – Entering torpor or hibernation
Yellow-pine chipmunk 36 – 50 grams (smaller than others in its range) Drab brown Lodgepole chipmunk 60-75 grams (medium sized) More brightly colored
Golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis) Striped back, but no facial stripes Golden-brown neck and shoulders
Deer mice Nocturnal Tan/grey back and head, white underneath Large ears Hanta virus
Common Freshwater Insect Larvae Mayflies – Order Ephemeroptera Stoneflies – Order Plecoptera Caddisflies – Order Trichoptera Midges – Order Diptera, Family Chironomidae Dragonflies/damselflies – Order Odonata
Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) Identification of Larvae – Long posterior filaments (ususally 3) – Gills on first seven abdominal segments Adults vestigial, live for hours to days, non-feeding, reproduction only. – Hold wings vertically at rest – Second set of wings smaller than first
Plecoptera (Stoneflies) Identification of Larvae – Two long cerci (appendages) on posterior end – Elongate flattened body Adults – Elongate antennae – 10 abdominal segments – Wings long, membranous, and fold over an around abdomen at rest.
Trichoptera (Caddisflies) Identification of Larvae – Caterpillar-like, build and live in cases (silk + debris) – Generally six legs on first three (thoracic) segments – Abdominal prolegs on terminal segment. Adults – Moth-like, but body and wings with short hairs – Wings tented (roof-like) in vertical plane cover abdomen at rest. – Long antennae
Odonata (dragonflies/damselflies) Identification of larvae – Long, hinged labium – Large compound eye – Short antennae Adults
Chironomidae (midges) Identification of larvae – Worm-like – C-shaped – No true legs, but two pairs of prolegs (one anterior, one posterior) Adults – Flies
Experimental Design Basic Requirements of an Experiment – Different treatments are administered to different groups of subjects. – What does this mean in practical terms?
Experimental Design Treatment – A classification, category, or factor. Group of Subjects – A sample – Numerical counts of key metrics Finally, replication is needed for statistical power – Sample replication – Treatment replication