2Section1 1: The Early Middle Ages The Germanic KingdomsGermanic tribes farmers and herdersThe Franks – between Germanic tribes divided Europe into small kingdoms486 Clovis conquered Roman province of GaulSignificance?
3Muslims In Europe Muslims move into Europe Muslim army crossed into France, Charles Martel rallied Frankish warriors.Battle of Tours in 732What would of happened had Martel not been successful?
4CharlemagneWhy did pope Leo II crown “Charles the Great” Holy Roman Emperor?What effect did this have on other leaders?Why was Charlemagne so Great?GovernmentWorked closely with the churchAppointed powerful nobles to rule local regionsGave them land so support and supply soldiers of his armyTo keep control of provincial rulers sent out officials called missi dominici to check on roads listen to grievances and promote justiceLearningFounded a school at Aachen under the direction of scholar Alcuin of YorkWhat was the curriculum?How did they preserve literature?
5After Charlemagne Happened to his kingdom after he passed? What is Charlemagne's legacy?Muslims still posed a threat to EuropeMagyars in 896 settled in HungaryOverran eastern Europe and moved to plunder western EuropeVikings in ScandinaviaThey opened trade routes linking Northern Europe to the Mediterranean
6Section 2: Feudalism and the Manor Economy The Emergence of FeudalismWhat is the definition of feudalism?Why does feudalism develop?The Feudal ContractMutual ObligationsLords (Nobles, Vassals) & Knights:Lords & Serfs: Everyone had a place in feudal society.
7Feudalism How did a boy become a Knight? Chivalry – code of conduct Knights are to be brave, loyal, and true to their wordIn warfare fight fairWarriors should treat their captives wellPlaced women on a pedestalWomen should be protected and cherishedThese ideas would shape the western ideas of romantic love.Castlesbuilt to withstand attack for the lords Moats, towers, and high walls for protectionsPeople would store up food and water so they could withstand a long siegeNoblewomenHow were women treated? What was expected of them?Politics – Eleanor of Aquitaine inherited lands in sw FranceThrough marriages she became the first queen of France and then the queen of England.
8Serfs & The Manor Peasants and Manor Life What was it like to live as a serf or as a peasant? What was the mutual obligation between Noble and Serf?Self Sufficiency - ManorialismEverything was grown or made on the manor – grain made into flour at mills, furniture, etc
9Section 3: Church and Medieval Life What role did the Church play in the everyday life of the people of Europe?How did the early church view women?Monastic MovementSt. Benedict around 530 monastery in Monte Cassino S. ItalyRules to regulate monastic life spread across Europe3 vowsDay was divided into periods for work, worship and studyLife of ServiceMonks and nuns looked after the poor and sick and sometimes set up schools for childrenLodging for travelers tooCenters for LearningPerformed a vital role in preserving the writings of the ancient worldCopied and illuminate, illustrated each page – Book of Kells Irish monks in Iona in 800sBritain Venerable Bede wrote the earliest known history of EnglandHe also introduced BC and AD
10Role of the RCC Became the most powerful force in Medieval Europe During the Middle Ages, the pope was spiritual leader of RCCMedieval popes claimed papal supremacy or authority over all secular statesThe pope himself held vast lands in central Italy later called the Papal StatesEveryone were sinners and only the church and participating in religious activities such as the sacraments could save you, hence the church had absolute power over religious matters and even secular onesChurch law – canonDisobeying church law – excommunicationLord or King could receive an interdict – an order excluding an entire town, region or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and Christian burial.Church tried to use its authority to end feudal warfare
11Reform Movements & Jews in Europe Why did reform movements develop?Cluniac ReformsAbbot Berno of ClunyRevived Benedictine ruleNo longer allowed Nobles to interfere in monastic affairs1073 – Pope Gregory VII extended Cluniac reforms to the entire church.Outlawed marriage for priests and prohibited simony or the selling of church officesPreaching Orders1200s – Francis of Assisi & DominicOrders of friars preaching to the poorJews in EuropeJews flourished in Spain called SephardimUnder Muslim rule, other religions toleratedMigrated to Germanic territoriesLate 1000’s Christian persecution increased – Why? Effects?
12Section 4: Expansion and Change An Agricultural RevolutionNew Technologies – iron plowsNew harnessWindmillExpanding ProductionReclaiming of wasteland for farmingThree field system – one field with grain, one with legumes, and the third fallowRevival of TradeWhy did trade revive minimally in Europe?Trade Fairs – purpose / effect
13The Commercial Revolution Definition:Business Practices:What changed?Bill of ExchangeHow was Europe affected Socially? Religiously?GuildsWhat are they, and why are they important in Europe History?
14Eastern Europe: Byzantine Empire and Russia Chapter 9 Sections 1 and 2
15Byzantine Empire Background: Age of Justinian How did the Byzantine Empire emerge?Why is Constantinople considered a major trading port?Age of JustinianBuilt Hagia Sophia churchCoded LawsOrganized all the laws of ancient Rome into Corpus Juris Civilis or Body of Civil Law (Justinian’s Code)What type of ruler was Justinian?After JustinianEmpire lost land after Justinian due to attacks by Persians, Slavs, Vikings Mongols, and Turks.
16Byzantine Christianity Who led Christianity in the Byzantine empire?How was it different than in the West?SchismWhat caused the split? 1054 – Official BreakCrisis and CollapseWho conquered the Byzantine Empire?Why did it collapse?
18The Crusades What caused the Crusades? Why did the European Knights sack Constantinople?Why did Europe lose the crusades?How was Europe affected?
19Byzantine Heritage Byzantine Heritage Architecture - What did they preserve? Why is this so important?ArtMosaicsIconsScholarsAnna Comnena – world’s first important female historian?Portrayed Latin crusaders as greedy barbarians
20Section 2: The Rise of Russia Geography of RussiaEurasian plainUral mountains divides boundary between Europe and AsiaTundra – frozen landSteppe – southernOpen treeless grasslandGrowth of KievSlavs spread into southern RussiaThe VarangiansWho are they?What majortrading city didthey establish?
21“Baby Russia” Byzantine Influences What things did Kiev & Moscow adopt from the Byzantine Empire?YaroslavKiev’s Golden AgeWhy?
22Mongol Conquest Golden Horde Mongol Influences What effect did they have on the development of Russia?What type of government did the Russians develop?
23Moscow City becomes head of the Orthodox church 1380 Russians defeated Golden Horde at battle of Kulikovo Ivan the GreatWhy was he great? Ivan the terribleWhy was he terrible?1613 a group of clergy, nobles and townsmen chose a new czar – Michael RomanovHis dynasty will last until (Russian Revolution)