Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 450 CE – 1500 CE. The Germanic Kingdoms Germanic tribes farmers and herders The Franks – between 400-700 Germanic tribes divided Europe into."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter CE – 1500 CE
The Germanic Kingdoms Germanic tribes farmers and herders The Franks – between Germanic tribes divided Europe into small kingdoms 486 Clovis conquered Roman province of Gaul Significance?
Muslims move into Europe Muslim army crossed into France, Charles Martel rallied Frankish warriors. Battle of Tours in 732 What would of happened had Martel not been successful?
Why did pope Leo II crown “Charles the Great” Holy Roman Emperor? What effect did this have on other leaders? Why was Charlemagne so Great? Government Worked closely with the church Appointed powerful nobles to rule local regions Gave them land so support and supply soldiers of his army To keep control of provincial rulers sent out officials called missi dominici to check on roads listen to grievances and promote justice Learning Founded a school at Aachen under the direction of scholar Alcuin of York What was the curriculum? How did they preserve literature?
Happened to his kingdom after he passed? What is Charlemagne's legacy? Muslims still posed a threat to Europe Magyars in 896 settled in Hungary Overran eastern Europe and moved to plunder western Europe Vikings in Scandinavia They opened trade routes linking Northern Europe to the Mediterranean
The Emergence of Feudalism What is the definition of feudalism? Why does feudalism develop? The Feudal Contract Mutual Obligations Lords (Nobles, Vassals) & Knights: Lords & Serfs: Everyone had a place in feudal society.
How did a boy become a Knight? Chivalry – code of conduct Knights are to be brave, loyal, and true to their word In warfare fight fair Warriors should treat their captives well Placed women on a pedestal Women should be protected and cherished These ideas would shape the western ideas of romantic love. Castles built to withstand attack for the lords Moats, towers, and high walls for protections People would store up food and water so they could withstand a long siege Noblewomen How were women treated? What was expected of them? Politics – Eleanor of Aquitaine inherited lands in sw France Through marriages she became the first queen of France and then the queen of England.
Peasants and Manor Life What was it like to live as a serf or as a peasant? What was the mutual obligation between Noble and Serf? Self Sufficiency - Manorialism Everything was grown or made on the manor – grain made into flour at mills, furniture, etc
What role did the Church play in the everyday life of the people of Europe? How did the early church view women? Monastic Movement St. Benedict around 530 monastery in Monte Cassino S. Italy Rules to regulate monastic life spread across Europe 3 vows Day was divided into periods for work, worship and study Life of Service Monks and nuns looked after the poor and sick and sometimes set up schools for children Lodging for travelers too Centers for Learning Performed a vital role in preserving the writings of the ancient world Copied and illuminate, illustrated each page – Book of Kells Irish monks in Iona in 800s Britain Venerable Bede wrote the earliest known history of England He also introduced BC and AD
Became the most powerful force in Medieval Europe During the Middle Ages, the pope was spiritual leader of RCC Medieval popes claimed papal supremacy or authority over all secular states The pope himself held vast lands in central Italy later called the Papal States Everyone were sinners and only the church and participating in religious activities such as the sacraments could save you, hence the church had absolute power over religious matters and even secular ones Church law – canon Disobeying church law – excommunication Lord or King could receive an interdict – an order excluding an entire town, region or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and Christian burial. Church tried to use its authority to end feudal warfare
Why did reform movements develop? Cluniac Reforms Abbot Berno of Cluny Revived Benedictine rule No longer allowed Nobles to interfere in monastic affairs 1073 – Pope Gregory VII extended Cluniac reforms to the entire church. Outlawed marriage for priests and prohibited simony or the selling of church offices Preaching Orders 1200s – Francis of Assisi & Dominic Orders of friars preaching to the poor Jews in Europe Jews flourished in Spain called Sephardim Under Muslim rule, other religions tolerated Migrated to Germanic territories Late 1000’s Christian persecution increased – Why? Effects?
An Agricultural Revolution New Technologies – iron plows New harness Windmill Expanding Production Reclaiming of wasteland for farming Three field system – one field with grain, one with legumes, and the third fallow Revival of Trade Why did trade revive minimally in Europe? Trade Fairs – purpose / effect
Definition: Business Practices: What changed? Bill of Exchange How was Europe affected Socially? Religiously? Guilds What are they, and why are they important in Europe History?
Chapter 9 Sections 1 and 2
Background: How did the Byzantine Empire emerge? Why is Constantinople considered a major trading port? Age of Justinian Built Hagia Sophia church Coded Laws Organized all the laws of ancient Rome into Corpus Juris Civilis or Body of Civil Law (Justinian’s Code) What type of ruler was Justinian? After Justinian Empire lost land after Justinian due to attacks by Persians, Slavs, Vikings Mongols, and Turks.
Who led Christianity in the Byzantine empire? How was it different than in the West? Schism What caused the split? 1054 – Official Break Crisis and Collapse Who conquered the Byzantine Empire? Why did it collapse?
What caused the Crusades? Why did the European Knights sack Constantinople? Why did Europe lose the crusades? How was Europe affected?
Byzantine Heritage Architecture - What did they preserve? Why is this so important? Art Mosaics Icons Scholars Anna Comnena – world’s first important female historian? Portrayed Latin crusaders as greedy barbarians
Geography of Russia Eurasian plain Ural mountains divides boundary between Europe and Asia Tundra – frozen land Steppe – southern Open treeless grassland Growth of Kiev Slavs spread into southern Russia The Varangians Who are they? What major trading city did they establish?
Byzantine Influences What things did Kiev & Moscow adopt from the Byzantine Empire? Yaroslav Kiev’s Golden Age Why?
Golden Horde Mongol Influences What effect did they have on the development of Russia? What type of government did the Russians develop?
City becomes head of the Orthodox church 1380 Russians defeated Golden Horde at battle of Kulikovo Ivan the Great Why was he great? Ivan the terrible Why was he terrible? 1613 a group of clergy, nobles and townsmen chose a new czar – Michael Romanov His dynasty will last until 1917 (Russian Revolution)