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Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 1 Westinghouse Science Honors Institute October 11,

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Presentation on theme: "Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 1 Westinghouse Science Honors Institute October 11,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 1 Westinghouse Science Honors Institute October 11, 2014 Westinghouse Electric Company Andrew Drake, PMP Director, AP1000 Cost Control Nuclear Power Production

2 2 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Education -Miami University (Oxford, OH): Bachelor Science - Physics - The Ohio State University: Master of Science – Nuclear Engineering Experience - Certified Senior Reactor Operator / Instructor - PMI Certified Project Manager Job Description - Director, AP1000 Cost Control Interests - Travel - Golf - Boy Scouts Bio

3 3 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Topics Safety Brief Westinghouse How is Electricity Produced from Nuclear Fuel? What About the Spent Fuel? What about SAFETY ? Why Nuclear?

4 4 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Safety Brief Standard Westinghouse practice to start off every meeting with a Safety Brief which can be related to: –Nuclear safety –Personnel safety –Recent industry safety event –Changes in work environment that may present a potential safety situation –Others For this presentation I would like to make sure everyone is aware of the fire exits and should we ned to evaluate make sure you do not panic and exit in a orderly manner (i.e. do not run over your neighbor)

5 5 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Westinghouse Electric Company Cranberry, PA

6 6 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Fuel A single-source fuel provider for PWR, BWR, VVER, AGR, and Magnox reactors worldwide Nuclear Power Plants Specializing in the technology of new nuclear power plants and component manufacturing Engineering, Equipment & Major Projects Provider of engineering services and methods for the design, operation and safety of nuclear power plants worldwide. Integrate and manage major cross-functional projects world wide Automation & Field Services Provide Instrumentation and Control (I&C) solutions to both operating and new nuclear power fleet worldwide. Provide Maintenance, repair and replacement of equipment. Four Core Businesses:

7 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 7 How is Electricity Produced from Nuclear Fuel?

8 8 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Basic Electrical Power Plant Turbine Generator Heat

9 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 9 So, how do we get the “heat” to boil the water from Uranium?

10 10 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. The Atom Nucleus Protons & Neutrons Electrons Basic component of matter

11 11 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 235 U 92 Uranium 235 Symbol represent specific atoms and nuclei Chemical symbol (U for uranium) All uranium atoms have 92 protons in nucleus A neutral uranium atom has 92 electrons orbiting the nucleus Atomic number (Z) (number of protons) Mass (A) (number of protons + number of neutrons) 143 Neutrons

12 12 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Isotopes of Natural Uranium Uranium Isotopes Isotope% in Natural U# Protons# Neutrons Uranium Uranium Uranium Natural uranium consists of three isotopes: Uranium-238, Uranium-235, and Uranium-234. Uranium isotopes are radioactive. The nuclei of radioactive elements are unstable. Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting particles of ionizing radiation. A material that spontaneously emits this kind of radiation—which includes the emission of energetic alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays—is considered radioactive.nucleusatomionizing radiationalpha particlesbeta particlesgamma rays

13 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 13 Let’s “Split” a U-235 Atom

14 14 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Energy Releases from U-235 Fission Thermal Neutron n th Heat f Fast Neutron  Gamma Ray Heat  Gamma Ray  Beta Heat To next Fission n n f FF = fission fragment FF

15 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 15 Ping Pong Ball Chain Reaction

16 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 16 In Slo-Mo…

17 17 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Fission and Energy The sum of the mass of all the particles is slightly less than the mass of the original atom and neutron. This missing mass has been converted to energy. The fission process (splitting an atom) converts mass into energy. The sum of the mass of all the particles is slightly less than the mass of the original atom and neutron. This missing mass has been converted to energy. E = mc 2

18 18 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Uranium-235 Fission Example

19 19 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Energy From Uranium Fission nergy From Uranium Fission MeV is a multiple of the electron volt unit referring to 1,000,000 eVmultiple electron volt 1 electron volt = × joules A joule, is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heatderived unitenergyworkheat One (1) joule = 2.78×10 −7 kW·h

20 20 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Combustion vs Fission Combustion is a chemical reaction CH4 +2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + 2eV Fission is a nuclear reaction n + U-235 → U-236* → FFs + 200,000,000eV Fission releases 100 MILLION times more energy per reaction than combustion!

21 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 21 So The KEY to Harnessing the Heat Produced By Fission is to CONTROL the Fission Rate Let’s Explore “The Core”

22 22 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. ~12 in Harnessing Nuclear Power U235: The Fuel in Fuel Rods and Fuel Assembly 12 ft ~1,450 Lbs A single uranium fuel pellet the size of a fingertip contains as much energy as: 17,000 cubic feet of natural gas 1,780 pounds of coal 149 gallons of oil. ~230 pellets in a fuel rod 20 mm (~0.79 inches) ~7 grams (0.24 oz) 12 mm (~0.47 inches) U

23 23 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Reactor Core and Control Rods Fuel Assembly Control Rod Assembly Control Rod Drive Assembly

24 24 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Thermal Neutron Control START 1000 Thermal Neutrons 235 U Fission 1330 Fast Neutrons -30 Fast Neutron Leakage 1300 Fast Neutrons Moderator -150 Thermal leakage -100 Thermal Capture -50 Other losses 1000 Thermal Neutrons This is how we can control the fissioning of U-235

25 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 25 Put it all together and you get a Nuclear Power Plant !

26 26 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Harnessing Nuclear Power Turbine Generator Reactor Vessel with Fuel Pressurizer Reactor Coolant Pump Steam Generator Condenser Feedwater Feedwater Pump

27 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 27 What About the Spent Fuel?

28 28 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Spent Fuel The concentration of fission fragments and heavy elements produced in a fuel bundle will increase to the point where it is no longer practical to continue to use the fuel. After months the 'spent fuel' is removed from the reactor. –Kept in underwater storage for 5-10 years. –Transferred to “Dry Casks” and stored on site.

29 29 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Storage Pool and Dry Cask

30 30 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Spent Fuel Total amount of spent fuel generated is small and manageable After 50 years of US plant operations, the high-level waste volume would fill an area the size of a football field seven yards deep. With reprocessing, the amount of waste is even less. ~62,000 metric tons ~½ ton per fuel assembly ~ 150,000 assemblies Only ~5% is true waste

31 31 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Reprocessing Only 5% of the fissionable material in fuel is used in a once- through cycle. In a reprocessing facility, the spent fuel is separated into its three components: uranium, plutonium, and waste. Reprocessing enables recycling of the uranium and plutonium into fresh fuel –Produces significantly less waste (compared with treating all used fuel as waste).

32 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 32 What about SAFETY ?

33 33 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Three Main Safety Barriers Fuel pellet and fuel rod –(Designed to withstand temperatures up to 22000F) Reactor coolant system – closed loop –(Designed to withstand internal pressures up to 2375 psig) Containment building –(Designed to withstand internal pressures up to 65 psig)

34 34 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Containment Building Wall

35 35 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Nuclear Power Plants Cannot Result in a “Nuclear” Explosion! A commercial power reactor simply CANNOT explode like a nuclear bomb. Naturally occurring U-235 is 0.711% concentration and must be “enriched” Commercial Grade Fuel: ~3-5% U-235 Weapons Grade Fuel: >90% U-235 Much Lower Fuel Enrichment Level than Weapons Grade Fuel X

36 36 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. SAFETY – Number 1 Priority Safe Operating Record 104 Nuclear Plants Operating in US for Decades Thousands of Reactor-Years of Safe Operation Beaver Valley Nuclear Plant, Shippingport, PA. in Operation since units, Westinghouse PWR

37 37 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Safety of Nuclear Power in the US There has NEVER been a single death as the result of a commercial nuclear power accident in the US… …EVER!!!

38 38 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Sources of Radiation Exposure

39 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 39 Why Nuclear?

40 40 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Forecast Electricity Demand by Region An extensive expansion of installed generating capacity will be required. 63% increase needed in next 20 years!

41 41 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Key Drivers of Global Energy Grand Challenge Adapted from presentation by Dr. Frank Kreith to ASME Board on Nuclear Codes & Standards, September 2007

42 42 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Sources of U.S. Electricity

43 43 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Fuel Type Average Capacity Factors (%) Nuclear86.4 Geothermal69.2 Biomass61.9 Gas (Combined Cycle)55.5 Coal (Steam Turbine)55.3 Hydro42.0 Wind31.3 Solar27.1 Gas (Steam Turbine)15.1 Oil (Steam Turbine)9.5 Source: Ventyx Velocity Suite / Energy Information Administration Updated: 4/13 U.S. Capacity Factors by Fuel Type (2012)

44 44 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. US Nuclear Capacity Factors US Nuclear Capacity Factors

45 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 45 How has technology improved?

46 46 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Better Designs from Evolved Technology - EPR

47 47 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Gen III+ Builds on Safety Passive designs with “walk away” capabilities in the event of an emergency: 72 hours before human intervention is needed. All lessons learned from 50 years of nuclear power generation have been incorporated. Multiple barriers – “defense in depth”. Human error is significantly minimized. Inherent Safety

48 48 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. AP1000 ® Addresses Safety Risk Current plants are two times safer than U.S. NRC requirements. AP1000 is 100 times safer than current plants. U.S. NRC Requirements Current Plants Utility New Plant Requirements AP1000 Results

49 49 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved.  Simple 2-loop reactor coolant system with canned motor pumps  Use of passive safety systems  Long-term safe shutdown state: 72 hours without operator action AP1000 Passive Core Cooling System

50 50 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved.  Passive Safety replaces mechanical & electrical systems which results in greater safety margins  Evaporation  Condensation  Natural Circulation  Compressed gasses (nitrogen, air) Passive Technology Employs Natural Forces Advancements in Technology

51 51 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Retaining the debris in the reactor vessel protects the containment integrity by simply avoiding the uncertainties associated with external- vessel accident phenomena. Advancements in Technology

52 52 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. Fact: “If you got all of your electricity for your life solely from nuclear power, your share of the waste would fit in a single soda can. If you got all of your electricity from coal, your share of waste would be 68.5 tons and fit into six rail cars. This, in addition to the 77 tons of carbon dioxide emitted, plus other gases and heavy metals such as lead & mercury.” Gwyneth Cravens Science Journalist & Novelist Author of Power To Save The World The Truth About Nuclear Energy

53 Westinghouse Non-Proprietary Class 3© 2013 Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. All Rights Reserved. 53 Questions?


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