Demonstrate an awareness of how the biotic (plants, animals, soil, bacteria, fungi) and abiotic (water, air, minerals, nutrients, light) components interrelate to form a natural functioning system, taking into account other contributory factors of acidity, temperature, humidity and wind.
Understand the relevant concepts of dynamic equilibrium, food webs and food chains. Demonstrate an awareness of the complexity of links between biotic and abiotic components and how changes to one or more of the components can disturb the equilibrium of the system, especially as a result of human activity. Understand how positive and negative feedback contribute to the stability of the system.
Understand that changes to ecosystems may be temporary (where recovery may occur leading to the re-establishment of the system) or permanent, leading to modification of the system.
The part of the Earth including air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere) and minerals (lithosphere) where life can exist is called the biosphere.
Detritivores digest the organic matter internally after ingesting it. They speed up decay by shredding the dead matter, thereby increasing the surface area for attack by the decomposers - bacteria and fungi (e.g., mushrooms). Both bacteria and fungi have the capacity to release enzymes that break apart the organic molecules, thereby releasing the inorganic elements into the environment (e.g., soil or water). This process is called decomposition.
The re-establishment of species into an area that once contained populations of plants and animals, but which have been disturbed.
Eventually a stable ecosystem develops which is in equilibrium with its environment and which normally undergoes little further change.
different soil types different climax community
A climax community produced by the action of humans. Succession is then said to be deflected.
1. Ability to withstand drying (desiccation) 2. Ability to withstand wave pounding
The most common formula for working out Species Diversity is the Simpson’s diversity index Simpson's diversity index, which uses the following formula: Where: D = diversity index N = Total number of organisms of all species found n = number of individuals of a particular species Usually used in studies of vegetation but can also be applied to animals.