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Presentation on theme: "WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS"— Presentation transcript:

Sensors that monitor assets + Wireless Technology Presented By : Biswajit Nayak MTech(ICT) Regd.No – 10IT61B06 SIT , IIT Kharagpur. Guided By : Prof. Indranil Sen Gupta Department of Computer Science & Engg. Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Prof. Partha Sarathi Day Department of Computer Science & Engg. Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.

2 Content Introduction History of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
Characteristics Hardware Component Hardware Design Software Component Software Design Wireless Sensor Network Architecture Wireless Sensor Network Protocols Security in WSN System Evaluations Metrics Standardization Wireless Sensor Network Applications Pros and Cons of Wireless Sensor Network Future Scope Conclusion Bibliography

3 What is Wireless Sensor Network ?
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of dispersed autonomous devices that use sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. These autonomous devices, or nodes, combine with routers and a gateway to create a typical WSN system. Data is collected at the wireless sensor node, compressed, and transmitted to the gateway directly or, if required, uses other wireless sensor nodes to forward data to the gateway, which provides a connection to the wired world where it can collect, process, analyze, and present the analyzed data. Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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cont.… ( General Structure of WSN ) Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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History DARPA: (Defense Advance Research Project Agency) Distributed Sensor Nets Workshop (1978) Distributed Sensor Networks (DSN) program (early 1980s) Sensor Information Technology (SensIT) program UCLA and Rockwell Science Center Wireless Integrated Network Sensors (WINS) Low Power Wireless Integrated Microsensor (LWIM) (1996) UC-Berkeley Smart Dust project (1999) concept of “motes”: extremely small sensor nodes Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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History cont.… Berkeley Wireless Research Center (BWRC) PicoRadio project (2000),(Low power sensor devices.) MIT μAMPS (micro-Adaptive Multidomain Power-aware Sensors) (2005) (Low power H/W and S/W components). Recent commercial efforts Crossbow Sensoria Worldsens Dust Networks Ember Corporation Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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Characteristics The main characteristics of a WSN include :- Power consumption constrains for nodes using batteries or energy harvesting Ability to cope with node failures Mobility of nodes Dynamic network topology Heterogeneity of nodes Scalability to large scale of deployment Ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions Ease of use Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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Hardware Component A WSN consists of spatially distributed sensor nodes. In a WSN, each sensor node is able to independently perform some processing and sensing tasks. These sensor nodes communicate with each other in order to forward their sensed information to a central processing unit such as data fusion. The usual hardware components of a sensor node includes :- An embedded processor A radio transceiver Internal and external memories One or more sensors Geopositioning system A power source Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

9 Hardware Component cont.…
It is a critical process to select components for the sensor motes in the development of Wireless Sensor Network. Low power and immense functionality are two highest priorities in evaluating the strength of both the microcontroller and the sensor devices. Wireless Sensor Network is introduced to the new state-of-the- art Chipcon CC1010 microcontroller with integrated RF transceiver.

10 Hardware Component cont.…
It had several features ,such as :- Optimized 8051-core Active (14.8 mA), Idle (2.9mA) and sleep (0.2mA) power modes 32 kB flash memory kB+128 bytes SRAM Three channel 10-bit ADC Four timers / Two PWM's Fully integrated UHF RF transceiver (433 MHz / 868 MHz nominal)

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Software Components The wireless sensor network mainly consists of three software components, such as :- The Web program WiseDB Tiny OS Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

12 Software Design You should have four commercial off the shelf applications installed on the server , that worked together to create the Data Analysis portion of the Server component. Web-Server(Apache) PHP MySQL Database Chart-Director

13 Wireless Sensor Network Architecture
The entire system may be expressed as two subsystems ,such as :- Data Analysis Data Acquisition Data Analysis is a subsystem which is software-only. Data Acquisition purpose is to collect and store environmental data for processing shortly by the Data Analysis subsystem. Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

14 Wireless Sensor Network Architecture cont.…
Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

15 Wireless Sensor Network Architecture cont.…
The system consists of several components , such as :- Client Server Sensor Motes Network Topology Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

16 Wireless Sensor Network Architecture cont.…
The Client component is necessary but external to the development of Wireless Sensor Network. The Server is a critical component as the link between the Data Acquisition and Data Analysis subsystems. It is the component responsible for collecting and transmitting raw environmental data to the Server. We can use several network topologies to coordinate the WSN gateway, end nodes, and router nodes. Star Topology Cluster/Tree Topology(Increase the Network) Mesh Topology(Redundant Communication Path) Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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cont.… Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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WSN Protocols Wireless sensor network routing protocols can be broadly classified into three categories . Flat protocols (Multihop) Hierarchical Routing Protocols Location based Routing Protocols Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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( The above diagram shows how different routing protocols fit under different category and also compare different routing techniques according to many metrics. ) Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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Security Security and privacy issues become more vital because WSNs are usually used for very important applications. Security Threats in WSNs Countermeasures Vurnebilities :- Resource constraint Wireless communication Security-sensitive data Uncontrollable environment Distributed deployment Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

22 System Evaluation Metrics
The evaluation metrics that will be used to assess a wireless sensor network are :- Network Coverage Cost &Ease of deployment Security Lifetime Response Time Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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Standardization The major standardization bodies are the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the International Society for Automation (ISA) and the HART Communication Foundation, etc. IEEE Zigbee WirelessHART Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

24 Standardization cont.…
IEEE is a standard which specifies the physical layer and MAC layer for low-rate wireless personal area networks. ZigBee is a standard for a suite of high level communication protocols based on the IEEE standard for low power and low data rate radio communications. WirelessHART is an open-standard Wireless Mesh Network communications protocol designed to meet the needs for process automation applications. Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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WSN Applications Wireless sensor networks are currently being employed in a variety of applications ranging from medical to military, and from home to industry. The motivation behind the research into WSNs was several applications :- Military surveillance and target tracking Environmental Monitoring Health Monitoring Traffic Control Industrial Sensing Infrastructure Security Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

26 Pros and Cons of Wireless Sensor Networking
Stores limited source of energy, No constraint of cables and has mobility Works competently under harsh conditions, and it has deployment up to large scale etc. Cons :- Insufficient speed of communication, Hack your networking Wireless sensor networking is too costly to use. Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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Future Work We can think of expanding the sensor mote network by adding more motes. This would allow the development and testing of advanced network-layer functions, such as multi-hop routing. We can think of alternative energy sources to extend mote battery life. Which may includes solar cells and rechargeable batteries, these systems could provide a long term, maintenance free, wireless monitoring solution. Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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Conclusions Wireless sensor networks must be designed to meet a number of challenging requirements including extended lifetime in the face of energy constraints, robustness, scalability, and autonomous operation. Wireless sensor networks are getting smaller and faster, increasing their potential applications in commercial, industrial, and residential environments. However, the limit of applications depends only upon the sensors used and the interpretation of the data obtained. As the technology improves and new low-power digital sensors become more readily available, motes will increase functionality without increasing power consumption and will expand the wireless sensing market. Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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Bibliography Networking Wireless Sensors by Bhaskar Krishnamachari ,2005. Wireless Sensor Networks - An Introduction by QinghuaWang and Ilangko Balasingham. System Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks by Jason Lester Hill, University of California, Berkeley ,2003. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Networks Technology by I. Khemapech, I. Duncan and A. Miller ,School of Computer Science , University of St Andrews ,North Haugh, St Andrews. Data Fusion Improves the Coverage of Wireless Sensor Networks by Guoliang Xing1; Rui Tan2; Benyuan Liu3; Jianping Wang2 ;Xiaohua Jia2; Chih-Wei Yi4, 1Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Michigan State University,USA Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

30 Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks –A Survey Shio Kumar Singh 1, M P Singh 2, and D K Singh 3. Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey¤,Jamal N. Al-Karaki Ahmed E. Kamal Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice, Waltenegus Dargie and Christian Poellabauer© 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Wikipedia

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WISENET, SNGCE kolenchery, Dept. ofCSE. Chipcon ,SmartRF® CC1010 Datasheet (rev. 1.3) A Survey of Wireless Sensor Networks Technology I. Khemapech, I. Duncan and A. Miller School of Computer Science University of St Andrews North Haugh, St Andrews. A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks Kemal Akkaya *, Mohamed Younis ,Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore. A Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Survivability in Wireless Sensor Network(WSN), Mohammad S. Al-Fares1, student Member , IEEE, Zhili Sun2, Member, IEEE, Haitham Cruick shank3, Member, IEEE, IMECS 2009, March , 2009, Hong Kong. Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

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Wireless Sensor Network Security Analysis by Hemanta Kumar Kalita1 and Avijit Kar2, Department of Computer Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications by Raymond S. Wagner, Ph.D,NASA Johnson Space Center. Wireless Sensor Network by priyal shah,Dept.CSE.Ahmadbad,oct Biswajit Nayak( Regd.No-10IT61B06 )

33 Any Question ?

34 Thank You


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