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Core Concepts in Athletic Training and Therapy Susan Kay Hillman ATHLETIC TAPING, PADDING, AND BRACING.

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Presentation on theme: "Core Concepts in Athletic Training and Therapy Susan Kay Hillman ATHLETIC TAPING, PADDING, AND BRACING."— Presentation transcript:

1 Core Concepts in Athletic Training and Therapy Susan Kay Hillman ATHLETIC TAPING, PADDING, AND BRACING

2  Identify the types of tape commonly used in athletic taping.  Explain the “check reign” used in athletic taping and identify different styles or shapes.  Describe the five different taping techniques (spiral, figure 8, teardrop, herringbone, and horseshoe) and give an application of each.  Identify the points to consider when developing preventive and protective pads.  Identify six basic products used in the construction of pads and braces for injury protection or prevention.  Explain why a fiberglass cast on a football lineman’s wrist should be padded for practice and games, regardless of rules.  Identify the three categories of knee braces and when each might be used. OBJECTIVES

3  Athletic Taping and Bandaging is one of the more psychomotor skills of the A.T.  Prevent injury  Facilitate injured persons return to physical activity  Support ligaments and capsule of unstable joints  limit excessive or abnormal motion  Enhance proprioceptive feedback from the injured limb or joint  Requires a great deal of practice INTRODUCTION

4  Necessary to have understanding of anatomy and mechanism of injuries  Important to understand link between anatomical structure, mechanism of injury, and purpose for which the tape is being applied  Human anatomy is the foundation for everything you learn about athletic training ANATOMY AND INJURY MECHANISM AS THE FOUNDATION FOR TAPING AND BRACING

5  Elastic tape, non elastic tape, elastic wraps, commercially manufactured braces  Non elastic  Standard white tape: porous, different sizes  Optimal support to joints and strategically restrict abnormal/excessive motion  Elastic tapes/wraps  Support for body parts that require more ROM  Apply compression to acute injury to minimize swelling  Braces  Prevent injury  Support unstable joints  Reduce cost of athletic tape MATERIALS FOR TAPING AND WRAPPING

6  Thorough injury evaluation  Nature and mechanism of injury  Associated with appropriate rehabilitation program  Criteria of full return to activity has been met  Optimal ROM, strength, progression of functional activity, psychological readiness  Safety of athlete is #1 concern PREREQUISITES TO TAPING AND BRACING

7  Ergonomic taping area  Proper illumination, ventilation and free from excessive heat and humidity  Area should be coeducational  Patient should be willing participant  Area to be taped should be clean and shaven for optimal support  Prewrap may be applied  Tape adherent and friction pads over bony prominences or muscle tendons PREPARING FOR TAPING

8  Creativity with taping techniques and supplies is valuable skill for A.T.  Various Application Techniques  Spiral: Used when padding, compression or general support of joints or soft tissue is the objective  Overlapping circles, usually by 1/d tape/wrap width  Distal to Proximal  Promote venous return and function  Commonly used for thigh (hamstring, quad), groin, hip, wrist and lower leg APPLYING TAPE

9 Spiral Taping/wrapping

10 Check Reigns: Using strips of tape that cross a joint to limit normal or excessive movement  Anchor strips applied proximally and distally are anchor points for various check reigns  Stacks  Strips of tape placed directly on top of each other to add strength to application APPLYING TAPE Proximal and distal anchors with stack technique to limit dorsiflexion

11  Fan  Similar to stacking method, but one end is wider than the other  Allows for taping over a joint where proximal aspect is larger than distal or vice versa  Greater contact area=greater control of motion and support  The “X”  Crisscross method to provide more control/support in one area and more movement in another APPLYING TAPE: CHECK REIGN TECHNIQUES


13  The “Y”  Type of stack check reign that is cut at 1 end and split to facilitate attachment to anchor  Split end can be cut long enough to be placed in circular fashion  The “Double Y”  Like “Y” but split at both ends  Different from X because center is ore elongated and covers larger area  Often used for elbow hyperextension and Achilles pathologies APPLYING TAPE: CHECK REIGN TECHNIQUES


15  Figure 8  Foundational technique applied in numerous situations to benefit multiple joints  Limit motion or provide support to joint  Circular and angular patterns crossing over itself while forming an “8” proximally and distally  Tape tension, joint placement, and type of tape are key factors APPLYING TAPE


17  Teardrop  Strip of tape originates and ends in same spot to form an oval or “teardrop” APPLYING TAPE

18  Herringbone  Overlapping strips that cross over each other in alternating and opposite directions  Sequential support from overlapping strips  Compression and support due to directional pull applied APPLYING TAPE

19 Horseshoe (Stirrup)  Used during taping of ankle, heel and shoulder  Used when circumferential tape application is not possible  Direction of pull, amount of tension, % of overlap, and type of tape all affect the benefit of this technique APPLYING TAPE


21  Valuable in preventing or lessening severity of injuries from sporting competition  Many different types of pads and protective equipment have been developed  Different material  Moldable plastic  Foam  Felt  Commercially manufactured padding PADDING

22  a. Density  Weight of product compared to its size  Higher density offer greater protection and more resistant to deformation  b. Strength  Maximal external stress or load material can withstand  Compression sleeve vs. ankle brace.  c. Rigidity  Amount of bending or compression that occurs in response to amount of applied stress  Fiberglass splint more stiff and has less elasticity  Aluminum splint less stiff and lower elasticity  d. Conformability  Ease in which material forms to the body PAD FABRICATION CONSIDERATIONS

23  e. Self-Adherence  Strength in which material bonds to itself  Integrity and durability of the splint  f. Durability  Ability to withstand repeated stress  More durable=last longer  g. Ease of Fabrication  Time, equipment and skill needed to shape material for support and comfort  h. Availability and Cost PAD FABRICATION CONSIDERATIONS

24 Type of density High modulus of elasticity vs. low modulus Custom vs. prefabricated Boil and bite designed for custom fit

25  Closed Cell Foam  Higher density  Regains original shape quickly after deformation  Provides better protection fro higher levels o impact  Stiffer foam, less comfortable  Can have adhesive backing for ease of application  Open Cell Foam  Lower density  Slowly regains shape after deformation  Better protection for low levels of impact  More comfortable  Can have adhesive backing for ease of application PAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

26  Thermomoldable foam  Closed or open cell that can be heated and molded to body part  Improves conformability  Great padding for cast and braces  Felt  Varying thickness  Used in conjunction with foam or other padding  Can have adhesive backing PAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

27  Gel  Made entirely or partially with silicone or sorbothane  Effective in dispersing different levels of impact  Comfortable and increased ability to conform to body part  Can create adherence problems, must secure well PAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

28  Heat and Moldable Plastics  Activated by heat or water  Hard covering for foam or felt  Increased absorption of high level of impact  Elevated strength levels  Can also be used for immobilization or ROM restriction  A.T. may vary how padding is used  Doughnut or bubble techniques PAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

29  Prevent injury or support unstable joints  Ankle Braces  Knee Braces  Preventative, rehabilitative, and functional braces  Shoulder Braces  Support unstable glenohumeral joints  Elbow Braces  Wrist Braces ROLE OF BRACING





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