Presentation on theme: "SPLICING AND ITS APPLICATIONS -SPLICES JOIN TOGETHER THE ENDS OF TWO OPTICAL FIBERS IN A CONNECTION THAT IS INTENDED TO STAY CONNECTED CONNECTORSSPLICES."— Presentation transcript:
SPLICING AND ITS APPLICATIONS -SPLICES JOIN TOGETHER THE ENDS OF TWO OPTICAL FIBERS IN A CONNECTION THAT IS INTENDED TO STAY CONNECTED CONNECTORSSPLICES NonpermanentPermanent Simple to use once mountedLower attenuation Factory installable on cablesLower back-reflection Allow easy reconfigurationEasier to seal hermetically Provide standard interfacesUsually less expensive per splice More compact
-SPLICES HAVE LOWER LOSS AND BETTER MECHANICAL INTEGRITY THAN CONNECTORS -SPLICES JOIN LENGTHS OF CABLE OUTSIDE BUILDINGS, CONNECTORS TERMINATE CABLES INSIDE BUILDINGS -LOWER ATTENUATION OF SPLICES IS IMPORTANT FOR INSTALLING SYSTEMS THAT SPAN TENS OF THOUSANDS OF KILOMETERS -PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPLICES ARE IMPORTANT ESPECIALLY CONSIDERING THEY HAVE TO WITHSTAND THE HOSTILE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT -TEMPORARY SPLICES MAY BE NEEDED IN EMERGENDY REPAIRS OF BROKEN CABLES AND TESTING DURING INSTALLATION OR RENOVATION OF A CABLE SYSTEM
SPLICING ISSUES AND PERFORMANCE MAIN CONCERNS WHEN DEALING WITH SPLICING INCLUDE MANY OF THE SAME CONCERNS AS THOSE DEALING WITH CONNECTORS, SUCH AS… OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FINISHED SPLICE PHYSICAL DURABILITY EASE OF SPLICING
SPLICES BOND TWO FIBERS BY MELTING (FUSING), GLUING, OR MECHANICALLY HOLDING THEM IN A TIGHT STRUCTURE INTRINSIC LOSSES ARE LOSSES AS A RESULT OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FIBERS BEING SPLICED
EXTRINSIC LOSSES ARE LOSSES AS A RESULT OF THE NATURE OF THE SPLICE ITSELF (MISALIGNMENT OF FIBER ENDS, QUALITY OF END PREPARATION, REFRACTIVE-INDEX MATCHING BETWEEN ENDS, CONTAMINATION, ETC.)
TOTAL LOSS CAN BE VERY LOW, NEAR 0.05 dB, IN PROPERLY MADE SPLICES SIGNS OF DEFECTIVE SPLICE: HIGH BACK- REFLECTION OR ATTENUATION MECHANICAL AND FUSION SPLICES ARE PROTECTED BY COATINGS, CLADDINGS, AND OR JACKETS
QUESTION #1: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC LOSSES?
TYPES OF SPLICING 1.Fusion Splicers- melts the ends of two fibers together so they fuse. Something that can closely relate would be welding metal. Usually expensive to create but requires almost no consumable costs. Utilizing fusion splicers generally results in better optical characteristics 2.Mechanical Splicers- Holds two fiber ends together without welding them, using a mechanical clamp and/or glue. Less expensive to create but consumable costs per slice are much higher Usually has a higher loss than fusion splicers
MECHANICAL SPLICING TERMS AND TYPES Back Reflection- the % of power reflected back from a particular point in a light path. These reflections can be reduced by using epoxy (thermosetting polymer) or by inserting a fluid or gel with a refractive index close to glass into the splice Capillary Splice Inserting two fiber ends into a thin capillary tube. The cladding of the fiber is inserted into a tube with an inner diameter that matches the outer diameter of the clad fiber The two fiber ends are then pushed into the capillary until they meet. Compression or friction usually holds the fibers in place.
QUESTION #2: WHAT ARE THE STEPS INVOLVED WHEN USING A FUSION SPLICER?
SPLICING REQUIREMENTS FUSION SPLICING Normally performed by technicians who work primarily with fiber (installing new cables or repairing existing ones) Used mostly for cables with long outdoor runs, where loss is a major concern MECHANICAL SPLICES Mostly used by non-specialists Used to repair shorter cables, indoors where fixing the cable is more important than its final loss Mechanical splicing is more expensive per splice but the overall cost is lower than that of a fusion splicer
QUESTION #3 WHAT ARE SOME SPECIFICATIONS THAT FIBER ENCLOSURES ARE DESIGNED TO INCLUDE?