Presentation on theme: "Biology and Chemistry Chemical Biology research uses the tools of chemistry and synthesis to understand biology and disease pathways at the molecular level."— Presentation transcript:
Biology and Chemistry Chemical Biology research uses the tools of chemistry and synthesis to understand biology and disease pathways at the molecular level.
Advanced Biological Chemistry interests include diverse topics such as nucleic acids, DNA repair, bioconjugate chemistry, peptides and peptidomimetics, glycoscience, biomolecular structure and function, and biological catalysis.
Biophysical Chemistry represents the union of Chemistry, Physics, and Biology using a variety of experimental and theoretical approaches to understand the structure and function of biological systems. separation A number of technologies to improve (bio)chemical measurements are under development among them is separation.
Chemical separations remain a core tool in analytical chemistry involved in anything from biological research to pharmaceutical industry to environmental analysis. The continued evolution of separation methods such as chromatography and electrophoresis is driven by the need for analysis of complex mixtures on smaller scale in shorter times.
extremely small samples, increase the speed of separation analysis to sub-second levels for rapid high-throughput A particular emphasis is on improving separation methods so that analysis can be performed on extremely small samples, increase the speed of separation analysis to sub-second levels for rapid, high-throughput by using a variety of spectroscopic detectors, applications to a variety of topics including metabolomics, proteomics, glycomics, neuroscience, and pharmaceuticals are being explored.
Mobile Phase / Stationary Phase A site in which a moving phase (mobile phase) and a non-moving phase (stationary phase) make contact via an interface that is set up. The affinity with the mobile phase and stationary phase varies with the solute. Separation occurs due to differences in the speed of motion.
Chromatographic methods can be classified according to the types of mobile and stationary phases as follows: Where: GSC = gas-solid chromatography GLC = gas-liquid chromatography PC = paper chromatography LSC = liquid-solid chromatography IEC = ion-exchange chromatography TLC = thin-layer chromatography BPC = bond-phase chromatography EC = exclusion chromatography LLC = liquid-liquid chromatography GPC = gel permeation chromatography GFC = gel filtration chromatography
Separation Process and Chromatogram for Column Chromatography
13 From Liquid Chromatography to High Performance Liquid Chromatography Higher degree of separation! Refinement of packing material (3 to 10 µm) Reduction of analysis time! Delivery of eluent by pump Demand for special equipment that can withstand high pressures The arrival of high performance liquid chromatography!
Advantages of HPLC High separation capacity, enabling the batch analysis of multiple components. Superior quantitative capability and reproducibility. Moderate analytical conditions. Unlike GC, the sample does not need to be vaporized. Generally high sensitivity. Low sample consumption. Easy preparative separation and purification of samples.
Fields in Which High Performance Liquid Chromatography Is Used Biogenic substances Sugars, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids, proteins, peptides, steroids, amines, etc. Medical products Drugs, antibiotics, etc. Natural products alkaloid, terpenoid, phenylpropanoid, polyketide, etc. Food products Vitamins, food additives, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, etc. Environmental samples Inorganic ions Hazardous organic substances, etc. Organic industrial products Synthetic polymers, additives, surfactants, etc.
Flow Channel Diagram for High Performance Liquid Chromatograph
Water Water “Ultrapure water” can be used with confidence. Commercial “distilled water for HPLC” is also acceptable. Organic Solvent Organic Solvent HPLC-grade solvent can be used with confidence. Special-grade solvent is acceptable depending on the detection conditions. Care is required regarding solvents containing stabilizers (e.g., tetrahydrofuran and chloroform) Mobile Phase
SEVERAL COLUMN TYPES can be classified as 1. Normal phase 2. Reverse phase 3. Size exclusion 4. Ion exchange
NORMAL PHASE In this column type, the retention is governed by the interaction of the polar parts of the stationary phase and solute. For retention to occur in normal phase, the packing must be more polar than the mobile phase with respect to the sample.
REVERSE PHASE In this column the packing material is relatively nonpolar and the solvent is polar with respect to the sample. Retention is the result of the interaction of the nonpolar components of the solutes and the nonpolar stationary phase. Typical stationary phases are nonpolar bonded hydrocarbons (such as C18, C8, etc.) and the solvents are polar aqueous-organic mixtures such as methanol- water or acetonitrile-water.
SIZE EXCLUSION In size exclusion the HPLC column is consisted of substances which have controlled pore sizes and is able to be filtered in an ordinarily phase according to its molecular size. Small molecules penetrate into the pores within the packing while larger molecules only partially penetrate the pores. The large molecules elute before the smaller molecules.
ION EXCHANGE In this column type the sample components are separated based upon attractive ionic forces between molecules carrying charged groups of opposite charge to those charges on the stationary phase. Separations are made between a polar mobile liquid, usually water containing salts or small amounts of alcohols, and a stationary phase containing either acidic or basic fixed sites.
Basic Settings for Eluent Used in Reversed Phase Mode Water (buffer solution) + water-soluble organic solvent Water-soluble organic solvent: Methanol Acetonitrile Tetrahydrofuran etc. The mixing ratio of the water (buffer solution) and organic solvent has the greatest influence on separation. If a buffer solution is used, its pH value is an important separation parameter.
Important Information Concerning Sample Composition and Properties Number of compounds present Chemical structures (functionality) of compounds Molecular weights of compounds pK a values of compounds UV spectra of compounds Concentration range of compounds in samples of interest Sample solubility
Qualitative Analysis Identification based on retention time Acquisition of spectra with detector UV spectra MS spectra Transfer to other analytical instruments after preparative separation
Quantitative Analysis Quantitation performed with peak area or height. Calibration curve created beforehand using a standard. Absolute calibration curve method Internal standard method Standard addition method