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Group #16 Jason Chern Justin Hosp Ben Ward Ahmed Omar

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1 Materials for Aesthetic, Energy-Efficient, and Self-Diagnostic Buildings
Group #16 Jason Chern Justin Hosp Ben Ward Ahmed Omar Main Paper Used: Materials for Aesthetic, Energy-Efficient, and Self-Diagnostic Buildings John E. Fernández Science , New Series, Vol. 315, No (Mar. 30, 2007), pp Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science Article Stable URL: More sources listed in REFERENCES slides 39-40

2 Overview Materials for Building Structures
Materials for Exterior Enclosures Materials for Building Services Material Innovations for Buildings

3 Materials for Building Structures

4 Purpose The most basic purpose of materials science when building structures is to make sure the structures remain structures. As construction companies look to test the limits of science and engineering buildings, it is important to have a thorough understanding of all materials used to make sure the buildings are safe and standing for as long as they are in use. VS Citations:

5 Basics of Structure Design
Superstructure (above ground) Collects and distributes all elements of the building weight and imposed loads from environment. Diverts forces from all directions down towards the substructure. Substructure (below ground). Supports mass of entire structure. Distributes all forces into the ground without damaging underground formation stability. Materials Question: How to collect and distribute load using the most efficient and effective material properties? Citations:

6 Traditional Materials
Natural Clay/Mud Stone Timber Man-made Concrete Steel Citations:

7 Challenges Lifetime Service Reliability Material Efficiency
Use technology to make sensors and materials that administer a useful level of repair and self-healing. Use materials to increase lifetime of buildings (currently ~ 100 years). Use new materials to withstand catastrophic conditions. Material Efficiency Reduce cost per unit weight of materials as well as overall environmental and resource waste during construction. 60% of non-industrial waste comes construction and demolition of buildings. Reduce resource demands for building structures. Energy Efficiency How to reduce energy consumption of building and running modern buildings. 40% of total energy and 60% of electricity in developed countries consumed by buildings. Citations:

8 Solution Examples: Engineered Woods
By combining wood scraps and particles with adhesives and polymer materials, new wood products can be designed with optimized properties. Engineered woods are often stronger and lack many mechanical weaknesses of natural wood. Material Efficiency Made from a variety of wood waste products. Customizable properties Can be engineered for specific purpose and properties, rather than relying importing specific types of timber. Increased dimensional Stability Current research includes textile and fiber reinforcement for higher strength and stiffness than that offered by natural woods. Layers of engineered woods can be used to optimize properties for each application. Citations:

9 Solution Examples: Advanced Steel Alloys
Thermal Stability A common hazard in building structures from steel is the potential for melting in case of fire. Using alloying methods, the thermal stability of steel can be raised above fire temperatures. Earthquake Stability Use steel-polymer-steel sandwich in substructure for earthquake resistance. By combining the strength of steel with nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of rubber materials, isolation bearings for buildings in seismic zones can withstand catastrophic conditions. Citations:

10 Solution Examples: Concrete Additives
Ultahigh-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRC) Aerated Autoclaved Concrete Steel whiskers distributed in highly engineered an compacted concrete. Recent work has produced nano-enabled flexible concrete. Foamed concrete material. Light and soft enough to be cut with a saw and stacked like masonry Relative to conventional concrete: 500x as resistant to cracking 40% lighter per unit weight Citations:

11 Materials for Exterior Enclosures

12 Materials for Exterior Enclosures
*Fernandez, J. E.. Science (2007): Print. Materials for Exterior Enclosures The exterior enclosure plays a very crucial role in making the inside of a building reliable and habitable no matter the conditions outside the building. A list of the main conditions that are maintained are seen below. Air Water Acoustic pressure Pollutants Radiant heat Visible Without advances in the materials used to safeguard the building from these conditions, the building would become obsolete or need expensive and constant upkeep. However, advances in these materials reduce the need for further maintenance while reducing cost. *Wroblaski, Kylie. “Self-Cleaning Glass Saves Time, Money, and Water.” Chris Olson, 01,Mar Web. 13 Apr. 2013

13 Modern Insulation Materials
Compared to mineral wood and natural fibers that were once used for insulation, modern day materials are 1.5 to 3 times as resistant to the flow of heat. There are many different types of materials that can be used, which can be arranged in many different manners depending on the consumer. Typical materials include: Blankets of loose nonwoven glass fibers Treated cellulose A variety of different polymer foams “There is also an option for high-performance systems which have vacuum and gas filled panels encased in aluminized Mylar pillows as well as aerogel materials of foamed silica capable of thermal resistance as low as .008 W m^-1 K^-1 The figure above depicts a worker filling a cavity wall with Polyurethane foam. Citation:

14 The Advantages of Cellulose Insulation
1. Materials used in the production of cellulose insulation come from recycled paper 2. This in turn keeps the paper from going to landfills where they would release green house gases when they decompose. Citations: If all the paper that was put into landfills each year was converted to cellulose insulation, it would cut out approximately 8 million tons of CO2 emissions.

15 Material Advances in Windows
One of the products that could help in the fight against outside conditions are windows. In today’s world it seems as though everyone wants more windows. However, with more windows comes higher operation costs due to heat, glare and cleaning. There have been advances in window technology that can decrease thermal conductance by as high as 17.5 times. However, at this time the materials that exist are relatively expensive and have to be installed carefully. Another promising advance deals with an active glaze that is placed on the outside of the window. These materials could potentially reject unwanted solar heat while maximizing sunlight. Finally, there have been self-cleaning materials developed . These materials are in one of two categories: hydrophobic and hydrophilic. This Figure above shows the thermal conductivity of different window technology that is known today. Citation:

16 Self-cleaning Glass Breakthroughs in self-cleaning window technology will eventually allow windows to stay clean without any human help. The process uses a coating on the window that contains TiO2. This coating helps the windows clean themselves in two ways. (4) The breakdown of organic materials deposited on the glass The sheeting of rainwater, which washes the glass The TiO2 takes around 5 days to become activated from UV light. This UV light also helps break down the organic dirt and other materials on the window through hydrolysis. The surface of the glass is also hydrophilic and tends to dry quicker than other windows because of the coating. The windows also show reduced amounts of streaks and bubbles. The dome of the newly renovated Robson Square ice rink in Vancouver, BC, is covered with nearly 9,000 square feet of self-cleaning glass, combined with low-E glass. PHOTO COURTESY OF PILKINGTON NORTH AMERICA INC. *Wroblaski, Kylie. “Self-Cleaning Glass Saves Time, Money, and Water.” Chris Olson, 01,Mar Web. 13 Apr. 2013

17 Self-cleaning Glass If the glass is used in a region where large deposits of inorganic materials are present, the glass will lose some of its effects. For example, if the window has inorganic materials on it the photo catalytic process will not work. This is because the inorganic material will be in contact or connected to the organic materials. This means the window would act as if no coating had ever been applied. However, another upside to this coating is that it is said that the photo catalytic performance of the coating will remain the same as long as the window stays the same. Russell Davies explained this by saying, “It’s a catalyst, so it’s not sacrificial; it maintains itself. It’s integral with the glass and shouldn’t degrade over time. Citation:

18 Assessment of Topic & Further Research
I would recommend: Looking into more ways to use recycled goods in insulation in efficient and cost effective ways Find cheaper production techniques to mass produce windows that have self-cleaning and heat reducing properties Citation:

19 Materials for Building Services

20 Purpose of Building Services Engineering
Optimization of Interior Environment of Buildings Create an interior work environment tailored to the needs of employees Careful regulation of heating, cooling, lighting, and other systems in modern buildings Minimization of Building Wastes and Overall Environmental Burden of Buildings Research of new materials to decrease electricity consumption and waste production Interior office space at Almac Group Headquarters Citations: Science. 315, , 2007. Image:

21 Cooling Solutions: PECW
Passive Evaporative Cooling Walls (PECW) Control increased surface temperatures of walls during warm summer months Use pipe-shaped porous ceramics to soak up water using capillary force Allow wind to penetrate the wall and reduce surface temperature using evaporation Decrease air temperature between 3-8 oC during summer months Capillary Action: a phenomenon associated with surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries Cooling effectiveness and directionality is dependent on the direction and velocity of incoming air, as well as shade Schematic showing how PECW walls work Citations: Building and Environment. 45, , 2010. Definition of Capillary Action: Images:

22 Heating Solutions: Phase Change Wallboards
Phase Change Wallboards (PCMs) are traditional gypsum wallboards embedded with phase-change microcapsules Reduce heating and cooling costs during warm summer months and cold winter months In high temperatures, phase change materials (PCMs) thaw in high temperature and absorb heat from rooms In cool temperatures, PCMs absorb overhead heat at night and release heat during the day Can potentially reduce need and usage for extensive commercial air conditioning systems How PCMs Work Citation: Envelope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency. 2, 1-5, 2006. Images: Effect of PCM on Room Temp. over Several Days

23 Solar Panel Technology
Silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) cells Absorb and convert sunlight directly into energy Account for 99% of all solar panel production Single-crystal and amorphous currently in use have an average efficiency of 12.5% Environmentally-friendly Challenges: Increasing efficiency of cells to compete will other energy sources such as coal, oil, and natural gas Creating new photovoltaic devices that are more economically feasible Silicon-based PV cells atop G. Wayne Clough Undergraduate Learning Commons at Georgia Tech University Citations: Science. 315, , 2007.: Image:

24 Advancements in PV Cells
Research into PV Cells using New Materials: CuInSe2 and CdTe cells have been produced in laboratories have shown efficiencies near 20% TiO2 nanorod cells have been developed that can absorb light over a wide range of wavelengths using quantum dots Recently developed Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film cells have claimed the world record for PV cell efficiency - beyond 20% efficiency! Citations: Science. 315, , 2007. Photovolt: Res. Appl., 19: 894–897. doi:  /pip.1078

25 Artificial Lighting in Buildings
Energy Consumption in the U.S. Artificial lighting accounts for 8% of total energy consumption Accounts for 20% of nationwide electrical energy consumption Current Technology used for Artificial Lighting Incandescent Bulbs Electric currents produce light using a heated filament Consume 42% of electrical energy lighting Highly inefficient power consumption Short lifetimes 90% of power consumed by these lights is lost as heat Leads to increased cooling costs Citations: Science. 315, , 2007. Image: Incandescent Light Bulb

26 Solutions: Solid-State Lighting
Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Convert electricity directly via semiconducting materials - no filament required Some examples of SSL include: light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) LED lighting is currently being used in high-end displays, headlights in luxury vehicles, and decorative lighting in buildings Challenges: Designing SSL sources capable of producing bright white light Lowering costs and increasing service life The cost of implementing SSL in buildings is between times more expensive than convention lighting Increasing service life for SSLs Still a new fairly new field Full LED headlamp lighting in Lexus Sedan Citations: Science. 315, , 2007. Images: (car) (oslo) LED lighting in Oslo Opera House (Oslo, Norway)

27 A New Era of Material Innovations for Buildings
Polyamide Titanium Dioxide Coating A New Era of Material Innovations for Buildings Citation Box

28 Abstract Polyamide Titanium Dioxide Coating
Has been a popular material for many non-building uses for decades Due to additional research, its previously overlooked vapor barrier properties are now utilized as sheeting inside building walls to prevent moisture build-up As a result, polyamide has greatly reduced rot, mold, corrosion, and mildew Originally used for its self-cleaning and aesthetic properties Due to unintended consequences, its pollutant removing properties were discovered Because of its discovery as a “green” building material, lots of research is being done to optimize its manufacturing and ensure its safety Citation Box

29 Titanium Dioxide Used as a exterior coating for the walls and roofs of buildings Use #1: Self Cleaning Use #2: Decreases Pollutants in Area Citation Box Use #3: Visual Qualities

30 Titanium Dioxide How it Works
1 The Titanium Dioxide coating on the tile oxidizes harmful Nitrogen Oxides released from vehicles. This results in cleaner air that is safer to breathe. 2 The coating is a photo-catalyst, activated by the UV rays of the sun. The nitrogen oxides are converted into calcium nitrates. 3 As it rains, calcium nitrates are washed off the roof. Citation Box Tiles

31 Titanium Dioxide Challenges for the Future Manufacturing Pollution
The synthesis of titanium dioxide releases huge amounts of compounds that are toxic: Sulfuric acid Chlorine gas Sulfur trioxide Sulfur dioxide Also compounds that create smog are released: Nitrous oxide Citation Box

32 Titanium Dioxide Challenges for the Future
Manufacturing Sustainability Testing and studies are currently ongoing to find a way to lower the negative environmental impact in manufacturing Titanium Dioxide. Due to many concerns that were posed in the previous slide, many environmentalists are worried about shifting the smog problem from skyscrapers to factories. Companies developing this technology are required to gradually improve their process to not exceed pollution limits set by the EPA. Environmentally friendly buildings and factories Citation Box

33 Titanium Dioxide Challenges for the Future Potential Health Hazard
Many studies have shown that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are both cytotoxic [leads to cell death] and carcinogenic. As a result, it is crucial to figure out how these titanium dioxide nanoparticles might degrade, and where they will be when they do degrade 60000x magnification of TiO2 Citation Box TiO2 Nanoparticles

34 Polyamide / Nylon Used as a “smart” vapor barrier in exterior envelopes Use #1: Increases water vapor Permeability in high humidity Use #2: Reduces risk of rot, corrosion, and growth of mold and mildew Citation Box

35 Polyamide / Nylon How it Works
When there is very little moisture inside the walls, the vapor molecules inside the buildings are repelled by the Polyamide vapor barrier. (Pores are closed) But, when moisture collects inside the wall, the polyamide vapor barrier becomes highly permeable, allowing the water vapor to escape from inside the wall. (Pores are open) Citation Box

36 Polyamide / Nylon Other Uses
Citation Box Polyamide / Nylon Other Uses It took a long time (approximately 60 years) for polyamide to become a popular building material. Before that, polyamide was used for various purposes: Waterproof Clothing and Fabric Car Parts Pipes and Tubing …And much, much more!

37 Assessment of Topic and Further Research
I would recommend: Continued research in titanium dioxide Further in-depth research of known materials! Maybe there are some properties we have missed Research in all types of materials to find if there are other innovative ways to use materials to build structures that are better looking, more materials and energy efficient, and less of a hassle to maintain Word “Research” in dictionary emphasized Citation Box

38 Conclusions The advances in insulation materials is very promising and has a bright future. I believe that if cellulose insulation becomes the industry standard for both residential and industrial buildings, the benefits will not only affect those today, but also future generations. The production of cheaper and more effective windows has huge potential Polyamide as a vapor barrier is a more developed and less risky material to use, compared to titanium dioxide coating. However, they have different benefits for this society, and improving both will definitely help us in the future! As efficiency becomes more important, the potential for improvement in performance from new materials, together with partnerships between material science and engineering, may offer real breakthroughs for the future. Greatest building ever. Citation:

39 References Materials for Aesthetic, Energy-Efficient, and Self-Diagnostic Buildings John E. Fernández Science , New Series, Vol. 315, No (Mar. 30, 2007), pp Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science Article Stable URL: dioxide-coats-buildings-structures-to-help-them-stand-up-to-smog-monster/ Hamed Babaizadeh, Marwa Hassan, Life cycle assessment of nano-sized titanium dioxide coating on residential windows, Construction and Building Materials, Volume 40, March 2013, Pages , ISSN , /j.conbuildmat ( ) "Insulation and the Environment." CIMA –. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr Fernandez, J. E.. Science (2007): Print.

40 References Wroblaski, Kylie. “Self-Cleaning Glass Saves Time, Money, and Water.” Chris Olson, 01,Mar Web. 13 Apr. 2013 Avril, F., Rahmé, R., Doux, M., Verchere, D., Sage, D. and Cassagnau, P. (2012), New Polymer Materials for Steel/Polymer/Steel Laminates in Automotive Applications. Macromol. Mater. Eng.. doi:  /mame S.G. Millard, T.C.K. Molyneaux, S.J. Barnett, X. Gao, Dynamic enhancement of blast-resistant ultra high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under flexural and shear loading, International Journal of Impact Engineering, Volume 37, Issue 4, April 2010, Pages , ISSN X, /j.ijimpeng ( X ) Keywords: UHPFRC; Dynamic increase; Fibre reinforcement; Blast Building and Environment.  45, , 2010. Envelope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency.  2, 1-5, 2006.

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