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Radioactive Waste Transportation

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Presentation on theme: "Radioactive Waste Transportation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Radioactive Waste Transportation
With contributions from by: Prof. John Poston, Sr (Texas A&M University) Brian Wolf (Purdue University) Alex Elman (Purdue University)

2 History First regulations by U.S. Post Office in 1936.
IAEA regulations on safe transport issued in 1973. Adopted by the Department of Transportation on July 1, 1983. Adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on September 6, 1983.

3 Regulatory Organizations
Department of Transportation Act of 1966. Transportation Safety Act of 1974. DOT has regulatory authority on all modes of transport in interstate and foreign commerce. Exception are postal shipments – U.S. Postal Service . Non-interstate or foreign shipments are subject to state control.

4 Regulatory Organizations
Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has responsibility for safety in the possession and use, including transport, of by-product, source and special nuclear materials. These regulations are found in 10CFR71.

5 Sources of Federal Regulations

6 10CFR 71 Transport of Radioactive Materials
Subpart A-general B-Exemptions C-general licenses D-Applications E- approvals F-packages G-Operation procedures H-QA

7 Transport Regulations
Place primary responsibility on packaging Shipper is primarily responsible Carrier is less responsible Packaging requirements are commensurate with hazards

8 HAZMAT Transportation Classes
There are nine (9) classes of hazardous cargo as defined by the DOT: Explosives Gases Flammable Liquids Flammable Solids Oxidizing Materials Toxic & Infectious Materials Radioactive Materials Corrosive Materials Misc. Dangerous Goods

9 DOE Shipments question_answers.html

10 Materials Transported
Uranium ores Nuclear fuel assemblies Spent fuel Radioisotopes (research, defense, commercial) Radioactive waste Summary of Radioactive Shipment Destinations (Excluding weapons and weapons components) Data taken from: Tranportation of Hazardous Materials

11 How is it transported? Trucks Railcars Barge Ships
Air- some medical isotopes that are short-lived require fast travel to a destination, but most waste is not transported in this manner.

12 Regulating Agencies U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Postal Service State Agencies

13 Yucca Mountain Proposed routes for Yucca Mtn.

14 Where is it going? Proposed routes for Yucca Mtn.

15 Preparation The shipper The carrier Prepares materials
Classifies and packages materials Marks and labels packages Prepares shipping papers Signs papers certifying correct information The carrier Examines certification papers Checks packages for proper labeling Placards vehicle Secures packages

16 Factors Determining Packaging Requirements
1) Type of waste: >0.002 цCi/g? 2 nCi/g? 74 Bq/g? 2) Quantity of radionuclides: Total activity in Bq? 3) Forms of the radionuclides Special form Normal form

17 Types of Packaging Containers
De minimus Below threshold – no regulation. Type A – Low to Modest Activity Waste A1 – Special Form (non-dispersible) A2 – Normal Form (dispersible) Type B - High activity waste Spent nuclear fuel High Level Waste TRU Waste TRUPACT-II

18 TRUPACT II (for TRU Waste)
More on this later

19 De minimus Requirements
Lowest transportation category Specific activity < 2 nCi/g (< 74 Bq/g). Poses no radiological safety problems. Essentially “unregulated” Limited quantities Specified allowable package activity. Allowable quantities in 49CFR No exterior marking or labeling required. Packages containing less than one-tenth of these quantities are “mailable.”

20 Type A Shipping Containers
Contain Low Specific Activity (LSA) Waste Pose low risk and are “inherently safe” Low activity solids Tritiated water Certain naturally occurring materials Surface contaminated objects (SCO) Designed to withstand normal handling and minor accidents. Fiberboard box Wooden Box Steel Drum

21 Packaging Requirements
Type A quantity limits Rely only partially on package integrity. Considers the radiation exposure from an unshielded source. Considers the possible uptake of radioactive material. Packages are designed to withstand certain test and environmental conditions.

22 Type A1 ad A2 Defined Activity Limits
A1 is “nondispersible” after release from package Limits defined assuming an emergency exposure for 3 hours not exceeding 1 rem/h at 3 meters from the source. A2 limit is for material assumed to be “dispersible” Assumes 0.1% of package contents is released. Assumes 0.1% of the amount released is taken into the body. Limits intake to one-half allowable intake values.

23 Special /Normal Form - Special form source Normal form
double encapsulated Has to undergo specific tests for pressure, penetration, submersion Source has certificate Normal form Any source that does not have this special form certification Usually single encapsulated, Be window

24 Type A Package Quantity Limits for Selected Radionuclides

25 Activity Limits for Limited Quantities, Instruments and Articles

26 Type A Low level radiation materials
radioisotopes (medical, industry, agriculture, and research) Small packages tested to withstand rigors of routine transportation (rain, rough handling, slight mishaps) Type A containers are small packages (about the size of a pint container) that contain low levels of radioactive material and are designed and tested to withstand the rigors of routine transportation, such as exposure to rain, rough handling, and slight mishaps, but not necessarily of transportation accidents.  Since the radioactive material content is low, the hazard is low even if the container is badly damaged in an accident.  All packaging is leak-tested and transported liquids are packaged to contain any spills, in the same manner as any transported hazardous liquid (e.g., acid in glass bottles).  The NRC certifies Type A packages.  Materials transported in type A packages are radioisotopes from the medical world, the industry, agriculture and research.

27 Industrial Low specific activity materials
Contaminated tools Mine waste Medical isotopes Waste from soil cleanup Ordinary strong industrial packages Very low specific activity materials like slightly contaminated tools and other solid objects, mine waste, some medical and research radioisotopes, and waste from soil cleanup are transported as low-specific activity materials.  The quantitative criteria for low-specific activity classification are described in the cited regulations.  Low-specific activity material can be transported in ordinary strong industrial packaging appropriate to the physical nature of the material.

28 DOT Spec. 17C Steel Drum (55 gal)

29 B-25 Container

30 Steel Container Box

31 Shipping Requirements - LSA
Non-exclusive use vehicles Low levels only. Individual packages are labeled. Exclusive use vehicles Packages are excepted from specific packaging, marking and labeling. Specific requirements and administrative controls apply. Exclusive use requirements “Strong and tight” packaging. Loaded by consignor and unloaded by consignee from transport in which originally loaded. Packages blocked and braced to prevent movement. Vehicle must be placarded by consignor. Exclusive Use Requirements Packages marked “radioactive LSA.” Specific instructions for maintenance of shipment must be provided by shipper to the carrier. Higher package/vehicle radiation levels are allowed.

32 Exclusive Use – Allowed Radiation Levels
1 rem/hour at package surface. 200 mrem/hour at vehicle surface. 10 mrem/hour at 2 meters from the lateral surfaces of the vehicle. 2 mrem/hour in cab of vehicle.

33 Type B Shipping Containers
Designed for the transport of very radioactive material (e.g., spent fuel). Meet all ‘A’ requirements Must also withstand serious accident conditions. Certified by NRC to withstand severe accident conditions. Very strong – can weigh up to 125 tons Very radioactive material like irradiated (spent) nuclear fuel is transported in Type B casks, certified by the NRC to withstand severe accident conditions as well as conditions of normal transportation.  Type B packages may have 10 inches of lead shielding to protect the environment from radiation, and weigh a ton. These accident conditions include a drop of 30 feet onto an unyielding surface, a drop onto a metal pin 6 inches in diameter; engulfing fire at 1480?F that lasts half an hour; and immersion in water for eight hours.  "Withstanding" these conditions means that in accident producing these conditions, a container will not release more than the allowed amount of its radioactive contents.

34 Packaging Requirements
Type B quantities are also called a “Highway Route-Controlled Quantity” Formerly called “large quantity” Provide a high degree of integrity in a severe accident Involve SNF and HLW DOT regulations prescribe highway routes

35 Type B Package Tests (examples)
30 ft. drop on an unyielding surface 40 inch drop onto a 6 inch diameter steel pin Thermal exposure at 1475 °F (800 °C) for 30 min. Submersion to 3 ft. for 8 hours (fissile materials) Submersion to 50 ft. for 8 hours

36 Shipping Cask Tests

37 “Crunch” Test of Package

38 Schematic of Drop Test

39 Free Drop Test

40 Free Drop Test

41 Impact from 30 feet

42 Puncture Test

43 Steel Spike

44 Thermal Test

45 Thermal Test

46 Thermal Test

47 Thermal Test Results

48 Immersion Tests

49 Crash Testing of Casks

50 Crash Testing Sequence (Rocket powered truck at impact)

51 Crash Testing Sequence (Truck - 120 mph impact on target)

52 Crash Testing Sequence (End of Test)

53 Results of Crash Test

54 Crash Testing (Cask hit by train at 80 mph)

55 The cask always wins! web.em.doe.gov/ emprimer/emorg4.html

56 Type B Packages NRC maintains list of certified package designs
Shipper may use a container that meets the license requirements Must have a quality assurance program approved by the USNRC Must comply with 49CFR and 10CFR172

57 Shipping Cask on Truck

58 Radioactive Materials Packages Labeling Criteria (CFR Title 49 Section 172.403)

59 Identification Please!
Markings on package indicate shipping name, identification number, and shipper’s name and address Labels applied to package identify material, level of radioactivity, and transport index Transport index- indicates maximum radiation level at 1 meter from package Markings on package must be visible on all sides Markings on package must indicate what type of package it is Placards are placed on front, rear and both sides of vehicle Detailed shipping papers carried in cab of vehicle Containers are labeled I (white), II (yellow), and III (yellow) Higher the number, the greater the precautions required for safety

60 Radioactive I Label Radioactive I or Rad-White I is for materials in which there is a low external radiation level Surface Radiation Level Radiation Level at 1m >0.5 mrem/hr NA

61 Radioactive II Label Rad-Yellow II indicates that external radiation levels require consideration. Surface Radiation Level Radiation Level at 1m mrem/hr <1 mrem/hr

62 Radioactive III Label Rad-Yellow III indicates that radiation levels should be closely monitored and that the vehicle MUST be placarded “Radioactive”. Surface Radiation Level Radiation Level at 1m > 50 mrem/hr >1 mrem/hr

63 Radioactive Vehicle Placard
If any package on the vehicle has a Radioactive III label, the vehicle requires a RADIOACTIVE placard. 49 CFR

64 Placards: More than Meets the Eye
Emergency responders should know that only the most hazardous condition is placarded. Perchloric Acid for example under 50% concentration is placarded corrosive but above 50% it’s placarded as an oxidizer. If a radioactive material has a non-radioactive hazard greater than the radioactive hazard it WON’T be placarded radioactive.

65 Monitoring Transportation Communication (TRANSCOM) uses communication equipment and a satellite positioning and reporting system to track DOE shipments of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive materials. Transportation Communication (TRANSCOM) uses communications equipment and a recently upgraded satellite positioning and reporting system to track DOE shipments of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive materials. web.em.doe.gov/ emprimer/emorg4.html

66 No Secrets. On all shipments of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel, State authorities are notified in writing in advance of transporting through that State. This written notice includes the planned schedule, route, shipment description, and carrier name and address. States and Tribal govenments can become authorized to use TRANSCOM 24 hrs a day to observe movement of shipments

67 Leak Testing Leak testing is used to determine if a sealed source is damaged If it is damaged you may not ship it unless you get approval Why would a source leak Damaged physically Damaged chemically Improper manufacturing

68 Leak Testing Leak testing is done by wiping the source with a smear, wipe, Qtip, etc and counting it on an appropriate instrument Instrument has to be able to “see” 50% of the limit Limit for leak testing is .005 microcuries

69 Leak Testing When does a leak test need to be done?
At time of manufacture Before shipping At time of receipt In the field Every six months for normal form sources Every six months or time period suggested by the manufacturer (usually 3 years for special form sources) Any time the unit has been damaged

70 Questions?


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