Presentation on theme: "Radioactive Waste Transportation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Radioactive Waste Transportation With contributions from by:Prof. John Poston, Sr (Texas A&M University)Brian Wolf (Purdue University)Alex Elman (Purdue University)
2 History First regulations by U.S. Post Office in 1936. IAEA regulations on safe transport issued in 1973.Adopted by the Department of Transportation on July 1, 1983.Adopted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on September 6, 1983.
3 Regulatory Organizations Department of Transportation Act of 1966.Transportation Safety Act of 1974.DOT has regulatory authority on all modes of transport in interstate and foreign commerce.Exception are postal shipments – U.S. Postal Service .Non-interstate or foreign shipments are subject to state control.
4 Regulatory Organizations Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.Nuclear Regulatory Commission has responsibility for safety in the possession and use, including transport, of by-product, source and special nuclear materials.These regulations are found in 10CFR71.
6 10CFR 71 Transport of Radioactive Materials Subpart A-generalB-ExemptionsC-general licensesD-ApplicationsE- approvalsF-packagesG-Operation proceduresH-QA
7 Transport Regulations Place primary responsibility on packagingShipper is primarily responsibleCarrier is less responsiblePackaging requirements are commensurate with hazards
8 HAZMAT Transportation Classes There are nine (9) classes of hazardous cargo as defined by the DOT:ExplosivesGasesFlammable LiquidsFlammable SolidsOxidizing MaterialsToxic & Infectious MaterialsRadioactive MaterialsCorrosive MaterialsMisc. Dangerous Goods
14 Where is it going? Proposed routes for Yucca Mtn.
15 Preparation The shipper The carrier Prepares materials Classifies and packages materialsMarks and labels packagesPrepares shipping papersSigns papers certifying correct informationThe carrierExamines certification papersChecks packages for proper labelingPlacards vehicleSecures packages
16 Factors Determining Packaging Requirements 1) Type of waste: >0.002 цCi/g? 2 nCi/g? 74 Bq/g?2) Quantity of radionuclides: Total activity in Bq?3) Forms of the radionuclidesSpecial formNormal form
17 Types of Packaging Containers De minimusBelow threshold – no regulation.Type A – Low to Modest Activity WasteA1 – Special Form (non-dispersible)A2 – Normal Form (dispersible)Type B - High activity wasteSpent nuclear fuelHigh Level WasteTRU WasteTRUPACT-II
19 De minimus Requirements Lowest transportation categorySpecific activity < 2 nCi/g (< 74 Bq/g).Poses no radiological safety problems.Essentially “unregulated”Limited quantitiesSpecified allowable package activity.Allowable quantities in 49CFRNo exterior marking or labeling required.Packages containing less than one-tenth of these quantities are “mailable.”
20 Type A Shipping Containers Contain Low Specific Activity (LSA) WastePose low risk and are “inherently safe”Low activity solidsTritiated waterCertain naturally occurring materialsSurface contaminated objects (SCO)Designed to withstand normal handling and minor accidents.Fiberboard boxWooden BoxSteel Drum
21 Packaging Requirements Type A quantity limitsRely only partially on package integrity.Considers the radiation exposure from an unshielded source.Considers the possible uptake of radioactive material.Packages are designed to withstand certain test and environmental conditions.
22 Type A1 ad A2 Defined Activity Limits A1 is “nondispersible” after release from packageLimits defined assuming an emergency exposure for 3 hours not exceeding 1 rem/h at 3 meters from the source.A2 limit is for material assumed to be “dispersible”Assumes 0.1% of package contents is released.Assumes 0.1% of the amount released is taken into the body.Limits intake to one-half allowable intake values.
23 Special /Normal Form - Special form source Normal form double encapsulatedHas to undergo specific tests for pressure, penetration, submersionSource has certificateNormal formAny source that does not have this special form certificationUsually single encapsulated, Be window
24 Type A Package Quantity Limits for Selected Radionuclides
25 Activity Limits for Limited Quantities, Instruments and Articles
26 Type A Low level radiation materials radioisotopes(medical, industry, agriculture, and research)Small packages tested to withstand rigors of routine transportation(rain, rough handling, slight mishaps)Type A containers are small packages (about the size of a pint container) that contain low levels of radioactive material and are designed and tested to withstand the rigors of routine transportation, such as exposure to rain, rough handling, and slight mishaps, but not necessarily of transportation accidents. Since the radioactive material content is low, the hazard is low even if the container is badly damaged in an accident. All packaging is leak-tested and transported liquids are packaged to contain any spills, in the same manner as any transported hazardous liquid (e.g., acid in glass bottles). The NRC certifies Type A packages. Materials transported in type A packages are radioisotopes from the medical world, the industry, agriculture and research.
27 Industrial Low specific activity materials Contaminated toolsMine wasteMedical isotopesWaste from soil cleanupOrdinary strong industrial packagesVery low specific activity materials like slightly contaminated tools and other solid objects, mine waste, some medical and research radioisotopes, and waste from soil cleanup are transported as low-specific activity materials. The quantitative criteria for low-specific activity classification are described in the cited regulations. Low-specific activity material can be transported in ordinary strong industrial packaging appropriate to the physical nature of the material.
31 Shipping Requirements - LSA Non-exclusive use vehiclesLow levels only.Individual packages are labeled.Exclusive use vehiclesPackages are excepted from specific packaging, marking and labeling.Specific requirements and administrative controls apply.Exclusive use requirements“Strong and tight” packaging.Loaded by consignor and unloaded by consignee from transport in which originally loaded.Packages blocked and braced to prevent movement.Vehicle must be placarded by consignor.Exclusive Use RequirementsPackages marked “radioactive LSA.”Specific instructions for maintenance of shipment must be provided by shipper to the carrier.Higher package/vehicle radiation levels are allowed.
32 Exclusive Use – Allowed Radiation Levels 1 rem/hour at package surface.200 mrem/hour at vehicle surface.10 mrem/hour at 2 meters from the lateral surfaces of the vehicle.2 mrem/hour in cab of vehicle.
33 Type B Shipping Containers Designed for the transport of very radioactive material (e.g., spent fuel).Meet all ‘A’ requirementsMust also withstand serious accident conditions.Certified by NRC to withstand severe accident conditions.Very strong – can weigh up to 125 tonsVery radioactive material like irradiated (spent) nuclear fuel is transported in Type B casks, certified by the NRC to withstand severe accident conditions as well as conditions of normal transportation. Type B packages may have 10 inches of lead shielding to protect the environment from radiation, and weigh a ton. These accident conditions include a drop of 30 feet onto an unyielding surface, a drop onto a metal pin 6 inches in diameter; engulfing fire at 1480?F that lasts half an hour; and immersion in water for eight hours. "Withstanding" these conditions means that in accident producing these conditions, a container will not release more than the allowed amount of its radioactive contents.
34 Packaging Requirements Type B quantities are also called a “Highway Route-Controlled Quantity”Formerly called “large quantity”Provide a high degree of integrity in a severe accidentInvolve SNF and HLWDOT regulations prescribe highway routes
35 Type B Package Tests (examples) 30 ft. drop on an unyielding surface40 inch drop onto a 6 inch diameter steel pinThermal exposure at 1475 °F (800 °C) for 30 min.Submersion to 3 ft. for 8 hours (fissile materials)Submersion to 50 ft. for 8 hours
55 The cask always wins!web.em.doe.gov/ emprimer/emorg4.html
56 Type B Packages NRC maintains list of certified package designs Shipper may use a container that meets the license requirementsMust have a quality assurance program approved by the USNRCMust comply with 49CFR and 10CFR172
59 Identification Please! Markings on package indicate shipping name, identification number, and shipper’s name and addressLabels applied to package identify material, level of radioactivity, and transport indexTransport index- indicates maximum radiation level at 1 meter from packageMarkings on package must be visible on all sidesMarkings on package must indicate what type of package it isPlacards are placed on front, rear and both sides of vehicleDetailed shipping papers carried in cab of vehicleContainers are labeled I (white), II (yellow), and III (yellow)Higher the number, the greater the precautions required for safety
60 Radioactive I LabelRadioactive I or Rad-White I is for materials in which there is a low external radiation levelSurface Radiation LevelRadiation Level at 1m>0.5 mrem/hrNA
61 Radioactive II LabelRad-Yellow II indicates that external radiation levels require consideration.Surface Radiation LevelRadiation Level at 1mmrem/hr<1 mrem/hr
62 Radioactive III LabelRad-Yellow III indicates that radiation levels should be closely monitored and that the vehicle MUST be placarded “Radioactive”.Surface Radiation LevelRadiation Level at 1m> 50 mrem/hr>1 mrem/hr
63 Radioactive Vehicle Placard If any package on the vehicle has a Radioactive III label, the vehicle requires a RADIOACTIVE placard.49 CFR
64 Placards: More than Meets the Eye Emergency responders should know that only the most hazardous condition is placarded.Perchloric Acid for example under 50% concentration is placarded corrosive but above 50% it’s placarded as an oxidizer.If a radioactive material has a non-radioactive hazard greater than the radioactive hazard it WON’T be placarded radioactive.
65 MonitoringTransportation Communication (TRANSCOM) uses communication equipment and a satellite positioning and reporting system to track DOE shipments of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive materials.Transportation Communication (TRANSCOM) uses communications equipment and a recently upgraded satellite positioning and reporting system to track DOE shipments of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive materials.web.em.doe.gov/ emprimer/emorg4.html
66 No Secrets.On all shipments of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel, State authorities are notified in writing in advance of transporting through that State.This written notice includes the planned schedule, route, shipment description, and carrier name and address.States and Tribal govenments can become authorized to use TRANSCOM 24 hrs a day to observe movement of shipments
67 Leak TestingLeak testing is used to determine if a sealed source is damagedIf it is damaged you may not ship it unless you get approvalWhy would a source leakDamaged physicallyDamaged chemicallyImproper manufacturing
68 Leak TestingLeak testing is done by wiping the source with a smear, wipe, Qtip, etc and counting it on an appropriate instrumentInstrument has to be able to “see” 50% of the limitLimit for leak testing is .005 microcuries
69 Leak Testing When does a leak test need to be done? At time of manufactureBefore shippingAt time of receiptIn the fieldEvery six months for normal form sourcesEvery six months or time period suggested by the manufacturer (usually 3 years for special form sources)Any time the unit has been damaged