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Steve McMahon RAL Towards Phase II tracking at ATLAS

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1 Steve McMahon RAL Towards Phase II tracking at ATLAS
Mini-Workshop on ATLAS Upgrades for High Luminosity May 20th 2014 Prague S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

2 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID)
Initial Specifications & Limitations 3 layers of Pixels (PIX), 4 layers of Si micro-strips (SCT), straw tracker (TRT) Additional PIX-layer (IBL) to be inserted in Long Shut-Down 1 (LS ) ID designed for 10 years of operation, peak luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1 The assumed pile up (m) was 23, bunch crossing frequency 25ns and the L1 trigger rate of 100kHz. 2 Tesla Magnetic field Current Inner Detector PIX: designed to withstand MeV neq/cm2 or about 400fb-1 IBL: designed to about 850fb-1 SCT: designed to withstand 2x1014 1MeV neq/cm2 or about 700fb-1 Radiation Damage Both SCT and PIX apply zero suppression to accommodate <m> up to 50 This is being expanded in LS1 to get bveyond 75 (3 x ns) However, there are “hard wired” limitations which mean one cannot go beyond this. PIX-Limits pixels per 25ns. For SCT data rate between FE chip and ReadOut Driver (ROD) limit us to 3 x 1034 cm-2s-1 Bandwidth Limitation With the occupancy expected at the HL-LHC the SCT would not be able to resolve close-by tracks in the core of High PT jets The TRT will approach 100% occupancy and tracking efficiency will suffer accordingly Occupancy limits S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

3 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID)
Initial Specifications & Limitations 3 layers of Pixels (PIX), 4 layers of Si micro-strips (SCT), straw tracker (TRT) Additional PIX-layer (IBL) to be inserted in Long Shut-Down 1 (LS ) ID designed for 10 years of operation, peak luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1 The assumed pile up (m) was 23, bunch crossing frequency 25ns and the L1 trigger rate of 100kHz. 2 Tesla Magnetic field Current Inner Detector PIX: designed to withstand MeV neq/cm2 or about 400fb-1 IBL: designed to about 850fb-1 SCT: designed to withstand 2x1014 1MeV neq/cm2 or about 700fb-1 Radiation Damage Both SCT and PIX apply zero suppression to accommodate <m> up to 50 This is being expanded in LS1 to get bveyond 75 (3 x ns) However, there are “hard wired” limitations which mean one cannot go beyond this. PIX-Limits pixels per 25ns. For SCT data rate between FE chip and ReadOut Driver (ROD) limit us to 3 x 1034 cm-2s-1 Bandwidth Limitation With the occupancy expected at the HL-LHC the SCT would not be able to resolve close-by tracks in the core of High PT jets The TRT will approach 100% occupancy and tracking efficiency will suffer accordingly Occupancy limits S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

4 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID)
Initial Specifications & Limitations 3 layers of Pixels (PIX), 4 layers of Si micro-strips (SCT), straw tracker (TRT) Additional PIX-layer (IBL) to be inserted in Long Shut-Down 1 (LS ) ID designed for 10 years of operation, peak luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1 The assumed pile up (m) was 23, bunch crossing frequency 25ns and the L1 trigger rate of 100kHz. 2 Tesla Magnetic field Current Inner Detector PIX: designed to withstand MeV neq/cm2 or about 400fb-1 IBL: designed to about 850fb-1 SCT: designed to withstand 2x1014 1MeV neq/cm2 or about 700fb-1 Radiation Damage Both SCT and PIX apply zero suppression to accommodate <m> up to 50 This is being expanded in LS1 to get bveyond 75 (3 x ns) However, there are “hard wired” limitations which mean one cannot go beyond this. PIX-Limits pixels per 25ns. For SCT data rate between FE chip and ReadOut Driver (ROD) limit us to 3 x 1034 cm-2s-1 Bandwidth Limitation With the occupancy expected at the HL-LHC the SCT would not be able to resolve close-by tracks in the core of High PT jets The TRT will approach 100% occupancy and tracking efficiency will suffer accordingly Occupancy limits S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

5 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID)
Initial Specifications & Limitations 3 layers of Pixels (PIX), 4 layers of Si micro-strips (SCT), straw tracker (TRT) Additional PIX-layer (IBL) to be inserted in Long Shut-Down 1 (LS ) ID designed for 10 years of operation, peak luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1 The assumed pile up (m) was 23, bunch crossing frequency 25ns and the L1 trigger rate of 100kHz. 2 Tesla Magnetic field Current Inner Detector PIX: designed to withstand MeV neq/cm2 or about 400fb-1 IBL: designed to about 850fb-1 SCT: designed to withstand 2x1014 1MeV neq/cm2 or about 700fb-1 Radiation Damage Both SCT and PIX apply zero suppression to accommodate <m> up to 50 This is being expanded in LS1 to get bveyond 75 (3 x ns) However, there are “hard wired” limitations which mean one cannot go beyond this. PIX-Limits pixels per 25ns. For SCT data rate between FE chip and ReadOut Driver (ROD) limit us to 3 x 1034 cm-2s-1 Bandwidth Limitation With the occupancy expected at the HL-LHC the SCT would not be able to resolve close-by tracks in the core of High PT jets The TRT will approach 100% occupancy and tracking efficiency will suffer accordingly Occupancy limits S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

6 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector A few selected silicon highlights (with personal bias)
S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

7 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector A few selected silicon highlights (with personal bias)
S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

8 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector A few selected silicon highlights (with personal bias)
S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

9 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector A few selected silicon highlights (with personal bias)
S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

10 The Current ATLAS Inner Detector A few selected highlights (with personal bias)
S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

11 IBL : Phase-0 upgrades (LS-1)
Insertable B Layer (IBL) Inserted at small radius (see insert) Closest measurement 3.3cm from IP Significantly improves light jet rejection 3→ 4 layer pixel device n-in-n planar & 3D sensors Installed in May 2014 Uses the 2cm x 2cm FEI4 rad hard chip produced in 130nm CMOS IBL stays in place to Phase II NOW With IBL Just one slide with a picture of IBL and one plot of performance improvement due to IBL S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

12 ID Pixel : Phase-0 consolidation (LS-1)
Improvements to the Existing pixel services The so –called NSQP Extraction April 2013 Return December 3rd 2013 Surface Clean Room S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

13 The LHC roadmap (updated December 2013)
S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

14 The Future Phase II ATLAS Tracker General ITk Requirements
Guided by the physics requirements (see Phil’s talk) Maintain and improve performance of existing ATLAS - ID to 3,000fb-1 Tracking to <m> ~ , expect 1000 tracks per unit of rapidity Measure PT and direction of isolated particles (e and m), reconstruct vertices of pile-up events identify vertex of hard scatter Identify secondary vertices in b-jets with high efficiency and purity Measure tracks in the core of dense jets with good resolution Identify the decays of t leptons, including impact parameter resolution Reconstruct tracks associated with converted photons The tracking must be robust against minor losses of acceptance Tracking at first level of triggering General ITk Requirements Pixel ITk Pixels. Fluences up to 2x1016 1MeV neq/cm2 Low mass to reduce multiple scattering (<1.5%Xo Inner, < 2.0%Xo Outer) Inner layers removable/replaceable in a short LHC stop (clam shell) Approximately 10m2 of pixels ITk Strips. Fluences up to 2x1016 1MeV neq/cm2 Low mass to reduce multiple scattering (<2.5%Xo Inner, < 2.0%Xo Outer) Approximately 200m2 of strips Strip Detector S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

15 The Future Phase II ATLAS Tracker General ITk Requirements
Guided by the physics requirements (see talk by Takanori Kono Monday) Maintain and improve performance of existing ATLAS - ID to 3,000fb-1 Tracking to <m> ~ , expect 1000 tracks per unit of rapidity Measure PT and direction of isolated particles (e and m), reconstruct vertices of pile-up events identify vertex of hard scatter Identify secondary vertices in b-jets with high efficiency and purity Measure tracks in the core of dense jets with good resolution Identify the decays of t leptons, including impact parameter resolution Reconstruct tracks associated with converted photons The tracking must be robust against minor losses of acceptance General ITk Requirements ITk Pixels. Fluences up to 2x1016 1MeV neq/cm2 Low mass to reduce multiple scattering (<1.5%Xo Inner, < 2.0%Xo Outer) Inner layers removable/replaceable in a short LHC stop (clam shell) Approximately 10m2 of pixels , good bandwidth required, low cost Pixel ITk Strips. Fluences up to 2x1016 1MeV neq/cm2 Low mass to reduce multiple scattering (<2.5%Xo Inner, < 2.0%Xo Outer) Approximately 200m2 of strips Strip Detector S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

16 The Future Phase II ATLAS Tracker General ITk Requirements
Guided by the physics requirements (see talk by Takanori Kono Monday) Maintain and improve performance of existing ATLAS - ID to 3,000fb-1 Tracking to <m> ~ , expect 1000 tracks per unit of rapidity Measure PT and direction of isolated particles (e and m), reconstruct vertices of pile-up events identify vertex of hard scatter Identify secondary vertices in b-jets with high efficiency and purity Measure tracks in the core of dense jets with good resolution Identify the decays of t leptons, including impact parameter resolution Reconstruct tracks associated with converted photons The tracking must be robust against minor losses of acceptance General ITk Requirements ITk Pixels. Fluences up to 2x1016 1MeV neq/cm2 Low mass to reduce multiple scattering (<1.5%Xo Inner, < 2.0%Xo Outer) Inner layers removable/replaceable in a short LHC stop (clam shell) Approximately 10m2 of pixels Pixel ITk Strips. Fluences up to ~1x1015 1MeV neq/cm2 Low mass to reduce multiple scattering (<2.5%Xo Inner, < 2.0%Xo Outer) Approximately 200m2 of strips , optimal cost choices Strip Detector S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

17 Baseline (LoI) Layout http://cds.cern.ch/record/1502664?ln=en
ITk S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

18 Baseline (LoI) Layout http://cds.cern.ch/record/1502664?ln=en
ITk Polyethane Moderator Pixel Barrel x 4 Beam Pipe 33mm Pixel Discs x 6 S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

19 Baseline (LoI) Layout http://cds.cern.ch/record/1502664?ln=en
PIXELS 8.2 m2 638x106 channels Baseline (LoI) Layout STRIPS 193 m2 74x106 channels ITk Stub Layer x 1 Disc Strips x 7 Long (23.8mm) Strips x 2 Short (47.8mm) Strips x 3 Pixel Barrel x 4 Pixel Discs x 6 S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

20 ITk - Radiation Fluences : 1 MeV neq.cm-2
Small radius dominated by flux from IP, larger radius significant contributions from cascades in Calorimeter. Factor of flux at large radius with and without polymoderator Simulations with FLUKA, for integrated luminositiy to 3,000fb-1 S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

21 ITk - Radiation Fluences : 1 MeV neq.cm-2
216kGy , 5.3x1014n cm-2 63kGy , 2.9x1014n cm-2 288kGy , 8.1x1014n cm-2 7.7MGy , 1.4x1016n cm-2 0.9MGy , 1.7x1015n cm-2 0.9MGy , 1.8x1015n cm-2 Simulations with FLUKA to 3,000 fb-1 S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

22 Performance of the ATLAS Phase II Tracker Compared with the existing ID + IBL
The expected performance of the ATLAS Phase II tracker compared to the performance of the existing ID with the addition of the IBL. sx(∞) refers to sx for PT → ∞ which allows one to remove the effect of material. Performance parameters extracted from full ATLAS simulation including realistic service routing and appropriate engineering considerations. S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

23 Performance of the ATLAS Phase II Tracker Number of hits on Track
fakes Sample of tt events S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

24 Performance of the ATLAS Phase II Tracker Number of hits on Track
fakes Sample of tt events S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

25 Performance of the ATLAS Phase II Tracker Number of hits on Track
2.7 ? Pattern Rec Number of hits on muon tracks with PT > 5GeV as a function of pseudo-rapidity (Z=0,150mm) Optimization in progress S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

26 Construction of the ATLAS Phase II Tracker Detector Occupancies
Hit occupancies in different sub-detectors in the presence of 200 pile up events (peak around 0.9) S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

27 Construction of the ATLAS Phase II Tracker ITk Material
Particular attention put into reducing the material in the tracker volume Note that everywhere less than 0.7Xo while in ID (+IBL) ~1.2% Achieved through carful choice of materials, service routing etc S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

28 Alternate Layouts of Phase II Pixels
Conical (Barrel area 5.1 → 4.6 m2) Fifth Pixel (optimized pattern rec) Alpine (reduced area ∟ modules) Work also ongoing with coverage out to a pseudorapidity of 4 S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

29 Alternate Layouts of Phase II Pixels
Conical (Barrel area 5.1 → 4.6 m2) Fifth Pixel (optimized pattern rec) Alpine (reduced area ∟ modules) Work also ongoing with coverage out to a pseudorapidity of 4 S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

30 Alternate Layouts of Phase II Pixels
Conical (Barrel area 5.1 → 4.6 m2) Fifth Pixel (optimized pattern rec) Alpine (reduced area ∟ modules) Work also ongoing with coverage out to a pseudorapidity of 4 S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

31 Alternate Layouts of Phase II Pixels
Conical (Barrel area 5.1 → 4.6 m2) Fifth Pixel (optimized pattern rec) Alpine Stave Alpine (reduced area ∟ modules) Work also ongoing with coverage out to a pseudorapidity of 4 S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

32 ATLAS Phase II Pixels Candidate Sensor Technologies
Choices largely driven by radiation tolerance requirements. Standard Planar Sensors Thin (150mm) High Resistivity Silicon [n-in-n (inner layers) or n-in-p (outer)] Demonstrated to HL-LHC fluxes, Lots of experience and known vendors, mass production understood. 3D sensors Used in the IBL, Low depletion voltage after irradiation, radiation tolerant Diamond Sensors Good radiation tolerance , Low capacitance (noise), no cooling, BUT expensive Used in ATLAS beam monitoring, current and replacement in 2014 CMOS Emergent technology (used on STAR and baseline for ALICE ITS), low power, varying degrees of sensor-hybrid integration (move away from standard implementation) to a more MAPS like approach, Cheap, Need to demonstrate radiation tolerance and readout speed. Developments & Choices Extensive R&D in progress, wait for appropriate time to make decisions S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

33 ATLAS Phase II Pixels Electronics Technologies & Challenges
Specifications and Challenges. Radiation tolerance, Low power consumption per channel, Low noise High density of channels -> interconnects (TSV, bump-bonding=cost) Move towards deep(er) sub-micron technologies 65nm. CERN - RD53 now established and operational. On detector power conversion (DC-DC (baseline) and Serial Power under consideration) FEI4 Currently being used for IBL, requirement well matched to outer layers of ITk pixel detector. To limit cooling requirements chip plus sensor power should not exceed 450mW/cm2. RD65 to develop the next generation of chips Choices Note that we do not necessarily need the same technologies at large and small r Extensive R&D in progress, wait for appropriate time to make decisions, cost is a driver S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

34 ATLAS Phase II : Changes to trigger architecture
New design in time for Phase II 2-level system at Phase II Phase-I L1 becomes Phase-II L0, new L1 includes tracking Make use of improvements made in Phase 1 (NSW, L1Calo) in L0 Introduce precision muon and inner tracking information in L1 Better muon pT resolution Track matching for electrons,… Requires changes to detector FE electronics feeding trigger system Drives ITk bandwidth requirements. ~3,200 optical links running at 5.6Gb/s New (post Q2-2014) Requirements Level-0 Rate ~ 1,000 kHz, Lat. ~10 ms Level-1 Rate ~400 kHz, Lat. ~30 ms S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

35 Ongoing Evolution of ITK Organisation
ITK chair S. McMahon Pixel P. Morettini M.G.Sciveres Strips I.Gregor T. Affolder Collaboration Institute Matters Upgrade Coordinator P. Allport Software M. Elsing Performance & Layout H.Hayward A. Korn Mechanics A. Catinaccio G. Viehhauser Costing and Finance C. Buttar + SJM Technical Coordinator B. Di Girolomo Readout A. Grillo Rap-5 Task Force K. Einsweiler A. Henriques Upgrade-Physics Groups P. Wells Production Prep & Test Facilities Test Beams Strip and Pixel coordinators, nominated by the community and selected by 2 search committees by November 2013 AUW. In December they were endorsed by the ITK community S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

36 ITk: Draft Timetable : V1.0
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 CB Endorse Pixel TDR ~ 2019 Preproduction 2-3 Years Pixel Production ITk-IDR APR-OCT ITk Ready for Installation PIXEL UCG, LHCC, Pixel-MOU, RRB Begin Integration UCG, LHCC, Strip-MOU, RRB STRIP ITk Commission on Surface ITk-Kick off EB Approval Strips TDR ~ 2018 Preproduction 3-4 Year Strip Production YR=1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CB= collaboration board, EB=executive board, IMOU=interim memorandum of understanding, UCG=upgrade cost group, RRB= Resources review board, IDR=initial design review (internal), TDR=technical design report (external) S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

37 Some Open Questions Optimisation of the baseline layout for performance & cost Can we reduce the material in the baseline? Fewer layers, less material per layer? Can we extend the existing layout to higher rapidities? Effect of magnetic field, material and track length Can we readout the tracker in a more efficient way Now planned to readout the Pixels at L0 Does it make sense to readout the strips at L0 What are the penalties in terms of performance and cost? What about alternate technologies Can we exploit emergent detector technologies… CMOS? What about new chip technologies 65nm Can we source sensors (perhaps larger) from new vendors S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

38 ATLAS Phase II : Other Challenges
Low mass “high” pressure ON detector cooling Thermal and environmental management local and global supports and mechanics Alignment (with tracks and possibly lasers) Integration, decommissioning, installation commissioning and possibilities for access maintenance and repair Power supplies, cables, RAD hard fibres, possible reuse of existing servies. Multiplexed powering (HV and LV) DAQ, ATCA, Fast routing of data to L1-Track. DCS, now becomes part of the detector-data-stream Long term reliability issues...electronics, mechanics, infrastructure Can we exploit 3D printing Logistics …. S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

39 Some Open Questions How are we going to build the new detector?
Time to develop and qualify processes and institutes Which institutes will participate with what Unique production challenges in the scale (strips = 200m2) Difficult sociological challenges (see plot) Have we got all of the bases covered at the appropriate level How would we respond if/when The Funding Agencies ask “can you do the same job with 10% less….” The LHC changes the machine parameters Instantaneous luminosity increases Changes in the shape of the luminous region The interaction region changes and safety factors are decreased We need to be able to answer these questions efficiently and accuratly S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

40 The Open Questions Risks : How would we respond to
Instabilities in vendors (ref IBM) The ongoing needs to support the existing ATLAS detector. All of the above takes an enormous amount of effort Simulation is absolutely critical … still under resourced Software is critical … current priority is for RUN-2 Having a balanced, appropriate R&D program, covering all of the bases at the appropriate level, on the appropriate time scale, and that starts NOW. S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

41 ATLAS Phase II : Conclusions
The HL-LHC physics program will make very stringent demands of the ATLAS tracker beyond phase II It will be necessary to replace the existing tracker to meet all of these requirements. A baseline option (ITk) has been developed that builds on the performance and experience gained from the existing detector (ID) and our understanding of the harsh tracking environment at HL-LHC. We are now moving towards a TDR (2016) and construction in 2017 and we are continuing to develop There are a large number of challenges ahead of us. S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

42 ITk – Institutions : 81 in total

43 The End S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

44 ITk Mailing Lists : Please sign up
ITk general mailing list called: atlas-ITk-general This will be used for ITk collaboration wide mails. Suggest everybody on ITk signs up to this (currently 18 69, 140 members) https://mmmservices.web.cern.ch/mmmservices/ open with approval of owner/administrators Posting is restricted to the e-group members. ITk TWIKI https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/bin/viewauth/Atlas/ITK S. McMahon : Prague May 2014

45 ITk - LOI Costing : Total 131 MCHF

46 Known (to me) Institutional Affiliations
ITk – Institutional : Affiliation Known (to me) Institutional Affiliations 40 Strip 51 Pixel 17 Both 10 Not yet known.


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