e-Learning e-learning refers to computer-enhanced learning (but it considers also other electronic devices like PDAs, cells,..) It includes the use of: web-based teaching materials, multimedia CD- ROMs or web sites, discussion boards, collaborative software, , blogs, wikis, text chat, computer aided assessment, simulations, games, learning management software, electronic voting systems and more.
eLearning Issues Standardization and eLearning content reusability moving courses from one Learning Management System to another reusing content pieces across different courses Designing eLearning courses sequencing reusable content for branching, remediation and other tailored strategies tailored on users Knowledge Management searching content libraries across different LMS envirnoments
Learning Objects LTSC ( ) definition “Learning Objects are defined here as any entity, digital or non- digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning.” Examples: multimedia content, instructional content, learning objectives, instructional software and software tools, persons, organizations, or events referenced during technology supported learning. Wiley’s definition “Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning” From “Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: a definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy”
ADL Initiative ADL (Advanced Distributed Learning*) Initiative was formed as a developer and implementer of learning technologies across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) (1997) public and private sectors Goals: developing the standards, tools and learning content for the learning environment of the future providing access to the highest-quality learning and performance aiding that can be tailored to individual needs and delivered cost-effectively, anytime and anywhere *
Standard ADL SCORM SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) a set of rules that learning management systems (LMS) and learning content should follow to be compatible with each other collection of standards and specifications adapted from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive suite of e-learning capabilities that enable interoperability, accessibility and reusability of Web-based learning content.
SCORM main features (1/2) Durability the ability to withstand technology changes over time without costly redesign, reconfiguration or recoding Interoperability the ability to take instructional components developed in one system and use them in another system Accessibility the ability to locate and access instructional components from multiple locations and deliver them to other locations SCO: Sharable Content Object
SCORM main features (2/2) Reusability the ability to use instructional components in multiple applications, courses and contexts Maintainability the ability to withstand content evolution and changes without costly redesign, reconfiguration or recoding Adaptability the ability to change to satisfy differing user needs
Sharable Content SCORM enables content to be shared through Content Model (Assets, SCOs) Content Aggregation Content Packaging
ASSET Elementary eLearning content Web-page Text Image Movie Sound...
SHARABLE CONTENT OBJECTS (SCOs) Single unit delivering eLearning content Collection of one or more assets Independent, self-contained, transportable package Lowest level of granularity tracked by a LMS Mini-applications launched from an LMS Web-based and script-enabled
CONTENT AGGREGATION It represents the process of content aggregation Grouping asset/SCOs in to one or more Content Structures (Course, Chapter, Topic, …) to the end of building eLearning experiences
Content Package Manifest Describe the content Describes the organization Enumerates the resources contained Physical files The actual content
Communications SCORM enables content to interoperate with diverse SCORM Conformant Learning Management Systems (LMSs) through the SCORM Run-time Environment A LMS is a software application supporting the managements of learning objects The SCORM Run-time Environment defines API which allows communications between LMS and SCOs
Sequencing SCORM enables the delivery of learning activities in an instructionally meaningful manner through sequencing Designers may specify sequencing behaviors at authoring stage Activities may be sequenced at time of delivery based on a learner’s actions or performance Sequencing behaviors are external the content to facilitate reuse
Metadata They describe what a content object or package contains (learning objects annotation) They specify properties of a content object such as language or level of difficulty They enable meaningful searches for content In SCORM, they concern resources type (e.g., course, lesson, survey) supporting an LMS in visualizing and storing Learning Objects resources content (e.g., French Revoultion, II World War) Supporting the retrieval, accessibility and re/use of LOs
LMS: Learning Management System eLearning software environment Main functionalities learning-content management designing (learning-objects sequencing) execution monitoring users management (e.g., user profiles, track of learner progress) Es., Moodle, Spaghetti Learning, EduPlone...
Moodle Software package designed to support educators in creating online courses Course Management system (CMS) Learning Management System (LMS) Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
Moodle Main Features Social constructionist pedagogy (which includes collaboration, activity-based learning, critical reflection, etc) Suitable for online classes as well as supplementing face-to-face learning Simple, lightweight, efficient, compatible, low-tech browser interface Categorization of courses Most text entry areas (resources, forum postings, journal entries etc) can be edited using a capable, embedded WYSIWYG HTML editor
Moodle Technical Features Unix, Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, Netware and any other system that supports PHP modular easy upgrade only one database (and it can share it with other applications if necessary) it supports many major brands of database emphasis on strong security throughout
Moodle elements (1/2) Courses different formats (by week, by topic) Assignments grading electronically submitted material or 'offline' submissions Chats real-time synchronous discussion via the web MultiChoice Questions Forums different formats, attachments Glossaries The entries can be searched or browsed in many different formats
Moodle elements (2/2) Lessons usually multiple pages, ending with a multiple choice question navigation through the lesson can be straight forward or complex Quizzes Resources prepared files uploaded to the course server pages edited directly in Moodle external web pages made to appear part of this course SCORM Packages collection of specifications that enable interoperability, accessibility and reusability of web-based learning content Surveys Wiki collectively authored documents Workshops