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Plastic Manufacturing Processes Brenda Jones Category Manager.

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Presentation on theme: "Plastic Manufacturing Processes Brenda Jones Category Manager."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plastic Manufacturing Processes Brenda Jones Category Manager

2 Confidential 2 There are two main types of plastic raw materials: Plastic Raw Materials ThermosetsThermoplastics The main difference between these materials is that Thermosets are resistant to heat and once formed cannot be re-shaped Thermoplastics can’t be used in situations where they get very hot because they can be reshaped by heating

3 Confidential 3 Injection Moulding Injection Moulding is the most common of the plastic processing methods Injection Moulding is a batch process It is used to produce large quantities of identical items, it is economically viable in mass production and gives a very low unit production cost Products commonly produced by injection moulding include computer enclosures, milk crates, CD cases, and mobile phones

4 Confidential 4 1. Plastic powder or granules are fed from a hopper into a hollow steel barrel which contains a rotating screw. The barrel is heated which melts the plastic material as it is carried along the barrel by the screw towards the mould. 2. The screw is forced back as the melted plastic collects at the end of the barrel High-level: Granulated or powdered thermoplastic material is heated, melted and then forced under pressure into a mould. Once in the mould the plastic cools, forming a component that is identical to the shape of the mould cavity. Injection Moulding Process Injection Moulding

5 Confidential 5 3. When enough melted plastic has collected a hydraulic ram forces the screw forward injecting the thermoplastic through into the mould. 4. Pressure is kept on the mould until the plastic has cooled enough for the mould to be opened and the component ejected. Injection Moulding

6 Operating Conditions: Extreme high heat Extreme high pressures Key Problems: Hydraulic oils that degrades and causes sludge and varnish build-up and shorter oil life Key Product: HYDREX AW Key Selling Points: HYDREX lasts 3X longer than leading N. Am competitor HYDREX Resists degradation for better equipment protection Proof: Õ Show performance proof in HYDREX sell sheet Õ Show savings through the cost model and testimonials WHAT ABOUT GREASE?: Customer research shows that plastic processors frequently encounter problems with grease. Key Problems: Finding a grease that will withstand the heat and protect equipment. Plastics Processing Product Bundle Key Product: Precision Gold Key Selling Points: Synthetic grease that lasts longer in high heat and protects equipment better Proof: Performance proof with sell sheet and techdata

7 Confidential 7 Blow moulding is a process for converting thermoplastics into hollow objects The most common methods of blow moulding are extrusion, injection, and injection-stretch blow moulding Products commonly produced by blow moulding include drink bottles, shampoo bottles, water drums, and plastic barrels Blow Moulding

8 Confidential 8 High-level: The process of producing a hollow part by forcing air into a soft parison inside a mould (extrusion blow moulding), or of forcing air into a heated pre-form that has been made beforehand by injection moulding (injection blow moulding). Blow Moulding Process A tube of molten plastics (called a parison) is extruded into an open mould. The mould closes and then the tube is inflated so that it takes on the shape of the mould. It is then cooled and released as a fully formed container. Blow Moulding

9 Operating Conditions: High heat (for hydraulics) Moderate pressures Key Problems: Compressor fluid that breakdowns too quickly Key Product: SUPER COMPRESSOR FLUID (SCF) Key Selling Points: SCF lasts up to 8,000 hours between fluid changes SCF has 4x the life of conventional based mineral oils Proof: Õ Show performance proof in SCF techdata and future sell sheet (Q1 2004) Plastics Processing Product Bundle WHAT ABOUT GREASE?: Customer research shows that plastic processors frequently encounter problems with grease. Key Problems: Finding a grease that will withstand the heat and protect equipment. Key Product: Precision Gold Key Selling Points: Synthetic grease that lasts longer in high heat and protects equipment better Proof: Performance proof with sell sheet and techdata

10 Confidential 10 Extrusion Extrusion is the process of melting plastic pellets, flake or powder by means of heat and pressure, then forcing the melt through a die to produce film or a three-dimensional profile shape Extrusion is a continous process, unlike injection moulding Products commonly produced by extrusion include pipes, guttering, window sills and insulation on wires

11 Extrusion High-level: Extrusion is the process that moulds plastic into a form with constant cross-secion, usually a pipe. This is achieved by passing molten plastic polymer through a metal die. Extrusion Process Dry plastic material is loaded into a hopper, then fed into a long heating chamber through which it is moved by the action of a continuously revolving screw. At the end of the heating chamber the molten plastic is forced out through a small opening or die with the shape desired in the finished product. As the plastic extrusion comes from the die, it is fed onto a conveyor belt where it is cooled, most frequently by blowers or by immersion in water

12 Extrusion Operating Conditions: Most extreme heat Extreme high pressures Key Problems: Heat Transfer Oil that requires frequent change outs due to poor thermal stability Key Product:: CALFLO AF Key Selling Points: CALFLO has longer oil life than leading competitors Proof: Õ Show performance proof in CALFLO AF sell sheet and benchmark package. Õ Show savings proof in testimonials Plastics Processing Product Bundle WHAT ABOUT GREASE?: Customer research shows that plastic processors frequently encounter problems with grease. Key Problems: Finding a grease that will withstand the heat and protect equipment. Key Product: Precision Gold Key Selling Points: Synthetic grease that lasts longer in high heat and protects equipment better Proof: Performance proof with sell sheet and techdata

13 Confidential 13 Lamination Lamination is a process where a number of plastic and non plastic films are sandwiched between dies and heated (generally by steam) until they fuse and cool There are seven methods of lamination: 1. Thermal or Heat Lamination 2. Hot-melt or Wax Lamination 3. Non-solvent Lamination 4. Wet Lamination 5. Dry Lamination 6. Extrusion Coating Lamination 7. Co-extrusion Lamination Common products produced by lamination include flexible packaging, printed materials, and light weight packaging materials such as dry food packaging

14 Confidential 14 High-level: The lamination process generally involves bonding or impregnating profiles with plastics resins and compressing them under heat. Continuous Lamination Lamination

15 Operating Conditions: Extreme high heat High pressures Key Problems: Many use open-lube systems, therefore they change-out oil frequently Key Product:: CALFLO AF Key Selling Points: CALFLO has longer oil life than leading competitors Proof: Õ Show performance proof in CALFLO AF sell sheet and benchmark package. Õ Show savings proof in testimonials Plastics Processing Product Bundle WHAT ABOUT GREASE?: Customer research shows that plastic processors frequently encounter problems with grease. Key Problems: Finding a grease that will withstand the heat and protect equipment. Key Product: Precision Gold Key Selling Points: Synthetic grease that lasts longer in high heat and protects equipment better Proof: Performance proof with sell sheet and techdata

16 Confidential 16 Thermoforming is a process that uses heat and pressure and/or vacuum to form parts from an extruded (flat) sheet of plastic Thermoforming is used primarily in low-cost applications for the simple embossing of thin plastic sheets and can’t be used to form as rigid shapes as vacuum forming is capable of Products commonly produced from Thermoforming include yoghurt containers and simple trays (ie. trays for cookie packages, etc.) Thermoforming

17 Confidential 17 Thermoforming High-level: Thermoforming is the process that moulds sheet plastic into the desired shape through the pressing of formers into the warmed plastic.

18 Confidential 18 Compression Moulding Compression moulding is the process that moulds molten plastic, through compression, into the desired shape of the moulding Compression moulding is the only plastic moulding process that can mould thermosetting plastics because due to their cross-linked structure, preheating as used in other moulding processes would make the product assume the wrong final shape, by ‘curing’ earlier in the process Common products produced by Compression Moulding include 3-pin plugs, electrical switches, sockets, ashtrays, dinnerware, telephones, and television set frames

19 Confidential 19 High-level: Compression moulding uses a technique similar to the way a waffle iron forms waffles from batter. Compression moulding is simply the squeezing of a material into a desired shape by application of heat and pressure to the material in a mold. Compression Moulding

20 Confidential 20 Reaction Injection Moulding Similar to injection moulding except that normally thermosetting plastics are used. Two or more kinds of fluid plastics are mixed, often without being heated, and then injected into a mould where the mixture solidifies. Stiffness of the parts produced can be increased using different kinds of fibre reinforcement. Common products produced by reaction injection moulding include: strong, sizable, and durable plastic products such as automotive body panels, bumpers and spoilers, skis, business machine housings, and some disposable cups and plates, and meat trays (from supermarkets) are formed by reaction injection moulding.

21 Confidential 21 Reaction Injection Moulding Two or more kinds of fluid plastics are mixed, often without being heated, and then injected into a mould where the mixture solidifies. Stiffness of the parts produced can be increased using different kinds of fibre reinforcement. High-level: Injection moulding using plastics such as polyurea or polyurethane, that cure when two components are combined inside a mould.

22 Confidential 22 Transfer Moulding Process similar to compression moulding, except that the moulding compound, usually thermoset, is heated to plasticity in a pot before being forced into the closed mould Used for intricate products with small deep holes or numerous metal inserts

23 Confidential 23 Transfer Moulding  Use heat and pressure as compression.  The curing time and the loading time are less for transfer molding than for compression molding.  The method is adaptable fort parts requiring small metal inserts.  Die costs may be greater than for compression molding. High-level: Thermoset moulding compound is fed from hopper into a transfer chamber where it is then heated to plasticity; it is then fed by a plunger through sprues, runners, and gates into a closed mould where it cures; mold is opened and part ejected.

24 Confidential 24 All information contained in the Appendix came from various websites on the Internet. If you would like more information on plastics and plastic processes please visit the following links:


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