Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 THE FIVE KINGDOMS. 2 Introduction to Bacteria 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA: Bacteria -Get food from an outside source Blue-green Bacteria -Make their own food.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 THE FIVE KINGDOMS. 2 Introduction to Bacteria 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA: Bacteria -Get food from an outside source Blue-green Bacteria -Make their own food."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 THE FIVE KINGDOMS

2 2 Introduction to Bacteria 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA: Bacteria -Get food from an outside source Blue-green Bacteria -Make their own food

3 3 BACTERIA Bacteria - small one celled monerans  Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment They are found almost everywhere: -water-air -soil-food -skin-inside the body -on most objects

4 4 Spiral: spirilla rod-shaped: bacilli, bacillus Round: cocci 3 Shapes of Bacteria Bacteria are classified by shape into 3 groups:

5 5 3 Shapes of Bacteria Bacillus anthracis – (bacillus) Neisseria meningitidis (coccus) Leptospira interrogans – (spirilla)

6 6 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Capsule Cell wall Ribosomes Nucleoid Flagella Pilli Cytoplasm

7 7 Capsule 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell  keeps the cell from drying out and helps it stick to food or other cells

8 8 Cell wall 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell  Thick outer covering that maintains the overall shape of the bacterial cell

9 9 Ribosomes 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell  cell part where proteins are made  Ribosomes give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs

10 10 Nucleoid 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell  a ring made up of DNA

11 11 Flagella 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell  a whip-like tail that some bacteria have for locomotion

12 12 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell Amimation of E.coli

13 13 Pilli 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell  hollow hair-like structures made of protein  allows bacteria to attach to other cells.  Pilli-singular  Pillus-plural

14 14 Cytoplasm 7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell  clear jelly-like material that makes up most of the cell

15 15 Binary Fission- the process of one organism dividing into two organisms Fission is a type of asexual reproduction Reproduction of Bacteria How?... The one main (circular) chromosome makes a copy of itself Then it divides into two Asexual reproduction- reproduction of a living thing from only one parent

16 16 BINARY FISSION Bacteria dividing Completed Reproduction of Bacteria

17 17 The time of reproduction depends on how desirable the conditions are Bacteria can rapidly reproduce themselves in warm, dark, and moist conditions Some can reproduce every 20 minutes (one bacteria could be an ancestor to one million bacteria in six hours) Reproduction of Bacteria

18 18 Bacterial Cell & Nucleiod DNA Ring DNA replication Cell wall synthesis Cell separation

19 19 Bacteria Survival Endospore- a thick celled structure that forms inside the cell they are the major cause of food poisoning they can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions it encloses all the nuclear materials and some cytoplasm allows the bacteria to survive for many years

20 20 Bacillus subtilis Endospore-the black section in the middle  highly resistant structures  can withstand radiation, UV light, and boiling at 120oC for 15 minutes. Bacteria Survival

21 21 Bacteria Survival – Food sources parasites – bacteria that feed on living things saprophytes – use dead materials for food (exclusively) decomposers – get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so other organisms can use them

22 22 Harmful Bacteria some bacteria cause diseases Animals can pass diseases to humans Communicable Disease – Disease passed from one organism to another This can happen in several ways: Air Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush Drinking water that contains bacteria

23 23 1 1 1 1 1 Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar (rough areas) Harmful Bacteria

24 24 Helpful Bacteria Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay Most are used to make antibiotics Some bacteria help make insulin Used to make industrial chemicals

25 25 1 1 1 1 1 E.coli on small intestines Helpful Bacteria

26 26 Used to treat sewage Organic waste is consumed by the bacteria, used as nutrients by the bacteria, and is no longer present to produce odors, sludge, pollution, or unsightly mess. foods like yogurt, cottage & Swiss cheese, sour cream, buttermilk are made from bacteria that grows in milk Helpful Bacteria

27 27 Controlling Bacteria 3 ways to control bacteria: 1) Canning- the process of sealing food in airtight cans or jars after killing bacteria endospores are killed during this process 2) Pasteurization- process of heating milk to kill harmful bacteria 3) Dehydration- removing water from food Bacteria can’t grow when H 2 O is removed example: uncooked noodles & cold cereal

28 28 Controlling Bacteria Antiseptic vs. Disinfectants Antiseptic- chemicals that kill bacteria on living things means – “against infection” Examples: iodine, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, soap, mouthwash Disinfectants- stronger chemicals that destroy bacteria on objects or nonliving things

29 29 BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA Autotrophs – make their own food through photosynthesis  commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams  larger than most bacterial cells  Some live in salt water, snow, and acid water of hot springs  food source for animals that live in the water

30 30 BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA Blooms- occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water  can be toxic to humans and animals

31 31 1 1 1 1 1

32 32 Bacteria Survival Endospore- a thick celled structure that forms inside the cell it encloses all the nuclear materials and some cytoplasm They can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions Allows the bacteria to survive for many years

33 33 Bacteria Survival – Food sources parasites – bacteria that feed on living things saprophytes – use dead materials for food decomposers – get food from breaking down dead matter into simple chemicals important- because they send minerals and other materials back into the soil so other organisms can use them

34 34 Harmful Bacteria some bacteria cause diseases Animals can pass diseases to humans Communicable Disease – Disease passed from one organism to another This can happen in several ways: Air Touching clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush Drinking water that contains bacteria

35 35 1 1 1 1 1 Human tooth with accumulation of bacterial plaque (smooth areas) and calcified tartar (rough areas) Harmful Bacteria

36 36 Helpful Bacteria Decomposers help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow Bacteria grow in the stomach of a cow to break down grass and hay Most are sued to make antibiotics Some bacteria help make insulin Used to make industrial chemicals

37 37 1 1 1 1 1 E.coli on small intestines Helpful Bacteria

38 38 Controlling Bacteria

39 39 BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA  Make their own food through photosynthesis  Bigger than most bacterial cells  Commonly grow on water and surfaces that stay wet…such as rivers, creeks and dams

40 40 BLUE-GREEN BACTERIA  It can be toxic to humans and animals  Blooms- occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water

41 41 Lake Champlain

42 42 1 1 1 1 1

43 43 1 1 1 1 1

44 44 1 1 1 1 1 Bacillus anthracis - rod, vegetative stage prokaryote (bacterium) Image Number: 21185A

45 45 1 1 1 1 1 Neisseria meningitidis - coccus prokaryote (bacterium) Image Number: 97214E

46 46 1 1 1 1 1 Leptospira interrogans - spiral shaped prokaryote (spirochete)

47 47 1 1 1 1 1 Strep animation http://www.hybridmedicalanimati on.com/pages/jjani_qt/strep_pne umo_qt.html Ecoli movement animatoin http://www.hybridmedicalanimati on.com/pages/jjani_qt/ecoli_qt.h tml

48 48 Ecoli movement animatoin http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/pa ges/jjani_qt/ecoli_qt.html

49 49 1 1 1 1 1 HIV movie http://www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk/Video/HIV.mov


Download ppt "1 THE FIVE KINGDOMS. 2 Introduction to Bacteria 2 TYPES OF BACTERIA: Bacteria -Get food from an outside source Blue-green Bacteria -Make their own food."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google