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Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. The Biosphere Chapter 49.

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Presentation on theme: "Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. The Biosphere Chapter 49."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. The Biosphere Chapter 49

2 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Outline Climate and the Biosphere – Global Wind Circulation Terrestrial Communities Aquatic Communities – Life Zones – Lakes – Estuaries – Seashores – Oceans

3 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Climate and the Biosphere Climate refers to prevailing weather conditions in a region. – Dictated by temperature and precipitation.  Influenced by a multitude of factors including tilt of the earth’s axis and topography.

4 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Effect of Solar Radiation Distribution of solar energy due to a spherical planet and the rotation and path of the Earth around the sun affect how the wind blows and the amount of rainfall various regions receive.

5 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Global Wind Circulation

6 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Rain Shadow As winds cross a coastal mountain range, they rise and release their moisture on the windward side of the mountain. – Leeward side receives relatively little rain and is said to lie in a rain shadow.

7 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Formation of a Rain Shadow

8 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Terrestrial Communities Biome has a particular mix of plants and animals adapted to living under certain environmental conditions. – Often delineated by climate.  Temperature and precipitation varies according to latitude and altitude.

9 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Biome Distribution

10 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Climate and Biomes

11 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Tundra Arctic tundra encircles Earth just south of ice-covered polar seas in Northern Hemisphere. – Covers 20% of Earth’s land surface.  Trees are not found in the tundra because growing season is too short.  Roots cannot penetrate permafrost.

12 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Tundra

13 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Coniferous Forests Taiga typifies coniferous forest with cone- bearing trees. – Trees well adapted to cold.  Leaves and bark have thick covering.  Needle-like leaves can withstand weight of heavy snowfall. Temperate Rainforest (Old-Growth Forests) of Pacific Northwest. – Evergreen forest.

14 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Temperate Deciduous Forests Found south of taiga in eastern North America, eastern Asia, and much of Europe. – Well defined season with long growing seasons. – Tallest trees form a canopy. – Ground-life is plentiful.

15 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Temperate Deciduous Forest

16 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Tropical Forests Found in equatorial regions. – Plentiful rainfall. – Most animals live in trees.  Abundant insect life. – Epiphytes grow in many areas. – Soils are nutrient-poor.  Rapid recycling of nutrients. – Swidden agriculture successful but destructive.

17 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Shrublands Tend to occur along coasts that have dry summers and receive most of their rainfall in the winter. – Shrubs adapted to withstand arid conditions. – Dense shrubland in California known as chaparral.

18 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Grasslands Grasslands occur where annual rainfall is greater than 25 cm, but generally insufficient to support trees. – Grasses well adapted to changing environment. – Temperate Grasslands – Savannas

19 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Temperate Grassland

20 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Savanna

21 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Deserts Usually found at latitudes of about 30 o in both north and south hemispheres. – Descending winds lack moisture.  Annual rainfall less than 25 cm. – Large temperature differential between day and night.

22 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Deserts

23 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Aquatic Communities Lakes – Bodies of water classified by their nutrient status.  Oligotrophic - Nutrient-poor.  Eutrophic - Nutrient-rich. – Lake Stratification  In temperate zones, deep lakes are stratified in the summer and winter.

24 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.

25 Life Zones Plankton are important community components in fresh water and salt water. – Phytoplankton - Algae – Zooplankton - Animals Life Zones – Littoral zone - Closest to shore. – Limnetic zone - Sunlit areas. – Profundal zone - Below light penetration. – Benthic zone - Soil-Water interface.

26 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Zones of a Lake

27 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Coastal Communities Estuaries – Partially enclosed bodies of water where fresh water and seawater meet and mix.  Organisms must be able to adapt to changing salinity.  Estimated over half of all marine fishes develop in protective environment of estuaries.

28 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Estuary Structure and Function

29 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Seashores Littoral zone lies between high and low water marks. – Littoral zone of rocky beach divided into subzones. – Organisms cannot attach to shifting, unstable sands; therefore nearly all permanent residents dwell underground.

30 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Seacoasts

31 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Oceans Major ocean currents move heat from the equator to cooler parts of the biosphere. – Gulf Stream warms east coast of North America and parts of Europe. – El Nino Southern Oscillation  Cold upwelling off west coast of South America subsides.

32 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Ocean Currents

33 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Oceans Pelagic Division – Neritic Province  High concentration of organisms due to sunlight penetration and supply of inorganic nutrients.  Coral Reefs  Oceanic Province  Lacks inorganic nutrients and thus does not have high concentration of phytoplankton.

34 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.

35 Oceans Benthic Division – Includes organisms that live on or in the:  Continental Shelf (sublittoral zone)  Continental Slope (bathyal zone)  Abyssal Plain (Abyssal zone)  Interrupted by hydrothermal vents. – Organisms are dependent on debris floating down from above.

36 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Review Climate and the Biosphere – Global Wind Circulation Terrestrial Communities Aquatic Communities – Life Zones – Lakes – Estuaries – Seashores – Oceans

37 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.


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