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Lesson 6 Fingers, Chopsticks or Forks 1. All the world is divided into three parts— finger-feeders, chopstick-feeders, and fork- feeders. Why people fall.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson 6 Fingers, Chopsticks or Forks 1. All the world is divided into three parts— finger-feeders, chopstick-feeders, and fork- feeders. Why people fall."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson 6 Fingers, Chopsticks or Forks 1. All the world is divided into three parts— finger-feeders, chopstick-feeders, and fork- feeders. Why people fall into these categories, however, is a mystery. 1. All the world is divided into three parts— finger-feeders, chopstick-feeders, and fork- feeders. Why people fall into these categories, however, is a mystery. Be divided into… Be divided into…

2 Fall into… --Did you fall asleep when he came back? (Become, pass into a special state) --The house fell into decay. --Christmas falls on a Saturday this year. (Happen or occur) --That novel falls naturally into four parts. (Be able to be divided into sth) --We played a trick on them and they fell right into it. (Be trapped by sth) --Their marriage finally fell apart. (Break, fall to pieces)

3 outnumber 2. This means that fork-feeders are outnumbered two to one. Outnumber—be more in number than sb else --We were outnumbered by the enemy soldiers at that battle. --The students in this class are outnumbered three to two by those in Ms. Green’s class. Prefix “out-”: to a greater extent, surpassing (vt.) Out-+V/N: Outburst, outcast, outfight, outgrow, outlive, outrival, outsell, outshine, etc.

4 Historically, existence 3. Fork-feeders have historically been in the minority. People have eaten with their fingers for most of human existence. As little as three centuries ago, most Western Europeans still used their fingers. 3. Fork-feeders have historically been in the minority. People have eaten with their fingers for most of human existence. As little as three centuries ago, most Western Europeans still used their fingers. 1) Historical vs. historic 1) Historical vs. historic 2) As little as three centuries ago: little  short time “ 短短三个世纪之前 ” 2) As little as three centuries ago: little  short time “ 短短三个世纪之前 ”

5 Preacher, diabolical luxury, instrument 4. The preacher thought the fork was evil and called it a “diabolical luxury; God would not have given us fingers if he had wished us to use such an instrument.” 4. The preacher thought the fork was evil and called it a “diabolical luxury; God would not have given us fingers if he had wished us to use such an instrument.” 1) Diabolical: 恶魔的 1) Diabolical: 恶魔的 2) If-condition sentence + subjunctive mood 2) If-condition sentence + subjunctive mood

6 Win favor, handle 5. Forks and chopsticks won favor because they made it easier to handle hot food. 5. Forks and chopsticks won favor because they made it easier to handle hot food. 1) Win favor: become popular 1) Win favor: become popular --After making efforts, finally Tim won favor over John. --After making efforts, finally Tim won favor over John. --As a Prime Minister, he is in favor with his people. (He has the people’s respect.) --As a Prime Minister, he is in favor with his people. (He has the people’s respect.) --The game is now in our favor. (Possibly we would win the game.) --The game is now in our favor. (Possibly we would win the game.) 2) Handle 2) Handle

7 Exception 6. The exception was in China, where flat bread was probably not eaten. 6. The exception was in China, where flat bread was probably not eaten. Exception: Exception: --There is no exception to this rule. --There is no exception to this rule. --You are no exception to the rule of this library. --You are no exception to the rule of this library.

8 Portion, come along to meet, date from 7. Chinese food was served in small portions which did not require cutting with a knife or fork. …Chopsticks came along to meet that need. Some of the oldest Chinese chopsticks date from 1200 B.C. 7. Chinese food was served in small portions which did not require cutting with a knife or fork. …Chopsticks came along to meet that need. Some of the oldest Chinese chopsticks date from 1200 B.C.

9 Portion 1) Portion: part or share; amount of food suitable for or served to one person 1) Portion: part or share; amount of food suitable for or served to one person --He divided his property and gave a portion to each of his children. --He divided his property and gave a portion to each of his children. --Joy got a great portion of roast duck. --Joy got a great portion of roast duck. Cf. proportion (fraction, ratio, size, etc.) Cf. proportion (fraction, ratio, size, etc.) --The proportion of the population still speaking that dialect is very small. --The proportion of the population still speaking that dialect is very small. --What is the proportion of female teachers to male teachers in this university? --What is the proportion of female teachers to male teachers in this university?

10 Come along to do 2) Come along to do: appear to do, come to exist for a purpose 2) Come along to do: appear to do, come to exist for a purpose --Josephine is waiting for the right man to come along. --Josephine is waiting for the right man to come along. --When the opportunity comes along, he’ll take it. --When the opportunity comes along, he’ll take it. --Come along with me. (Follow me.) --Come along with me. (Follow me.)

11 Meet the need/demand 3) Meet the need/demand 3) Meet the need/demand --That family was poor but still managed to meet the ends. --That family was poor but still managed to meet the ends. --The company made efforts to meet the demands of its clients. --The company made efforts to meet the demands of its clients.

12 Date from/back to 4) Date from/back to 4) Date from/back to --The castle dates back to the 12 th century. --That tradition in that country can date from the 15 th century.

13 Make one’s way 8. The fork made its way to Western tables several hundred years later, but it was not immediately accepted. 8. The fork made its way to Western tables several hundred years later, but it was not immediately accepted. Make one’s way, fight one’s way, feel one’s way, elbow one’s way, etc. Make one’s way, fight one’s way, feel one’s way, elbow one’s way, etc.

14 Extend vs. expand 9. The Byzantine Empire extended through southeast Europe, southwest Asia, and northern Africa, including what is now Greece and parts of Turkey, Italy, and Egypt. Extend: make sth longer or larger (in space or time); stretch out the body or a limb at full length; offer or give sth Extend: make sth longer or larger (in space or time); stretch out the body or a limb at full length; offer or give sth

15 Extend --Extend a fence, wall, railway, etc --The road extends for miles and miles. --My land extends as far as the river. --He extended his hand to the new colleague. --The host has extended great hospitality to us at the party.

16 Expand Expand: become greater in size, number or importance; spread out or unfold --Metals expand when they are heated. --His business eventually expanded into a supermarket empire. --Our foreign trade has expanded greatly in recent years.

17 Bridge the gap 10. They strongly disagreed about the correct way of bridging the gap between plate and mouth. 10. They strongly disagreed about the correct way of bridging the gap between plate and mouth. Bridge the gap: fill an awkward or empty space; reduce the distance Bridge the gap: fill an awkward or empty space; reduce the distance --He is really good at bridging a gap in conversations. --The government still gets lots of work to bridge the gap between the poor and the rich.

18 As late as…, consider 11. As late as 1897, sailors in the British Navy were not permitted to use knives and forks because using them was considered unmanly. 11. As late as 1897, sailors in the British Navy were not permitted to use knives and forks because using them was considered unmanly. 1) As late as ) As late as ) Consider : consider sth/sb as … 2) Consider : consider sth/sb as … considerate, considerable, consideration considerate, considerable, consideration

19 Withstand, the passage of time 12. Not only has finger-feeding withstood the passage of time, but some scholars believe that it may be enjoying a comeback. 1) Withstand: (fml.) endure sth without giving in, collapsing, wearing out, etc. resist 1) Withstand: (fml.) endure sth without giving in, collapsing, wearing out, etc. resist --Withstand attacks, pressure, and wind --Withstand attacks, pressure, and wind --Their friendship withstands both good and hard times. --Their friendship withstands both good and hard times. 2) The passage of time: process of time passing by 2) The passage of time: process of time passing by

20 See forks as …, status symbols, grow with 13. In most of these finger-feeding areas, only Westernized people see forks as status symbols and continue to use them. Finger- feeding is growing with each new generation. 1) See sth/sb as… 1) See sth/sb as… 2) Status symbol (cf. statue, stature) 2) Status symbol (cf. statue, stature) 3) Be growing with: become more popular or more with the development of … 3) Be growing with: become more popular or more with the development of …

21 Uncivilized, barbaric 14. Those who use one utensil often think people who don’t are uncivilized or even barbaric. 1) Uncivilized: 未开化的,不文明的 1) Uncivilized: 未开化的,不文明的 2) Barbaric: 野蛮的,粗野的,毫无约束的 2) Barbaric: 野蛮的,粗野的,毫无约束的

22 Elaborately, sympathize with sb 15. Anyone who has ever eaten at a formal table elaborately set with many different kinds of knives, spoons, and forks can sympathize with Oscar Wilde, who said, “The world was my oyster, but I used the wrong fork.” 15. Anyone who has ever eaten at a formal table elaborately set with many different kinds of knives, spoons, and forks can sympathize with Oscar Wilde, who said, “The world was my oyster, but I used the wrong fork.”

23 Elaborately, sympathize with sb 1) Elaborately: 精心制作地 / 布置地 1) Elaborately: 精心制作地 / 布置地 --an elaborately decorated room --an elaborately decorated room elaborate: adj./vt. elaborate: adj./vt. --He refused to tell me his elaborate plans. --He refused to tell me his elaborate plans. --She went to the hairdresser for an elaborate hairstyle. --She went to the hairdresser for an elaborate hairstyle. --I needn’t elaborate this plan since you all know. --I needn’t elaborate this plan since you all know. 2) Sympathize with sb

24 I’d suggest going to the flea market. Suggest/require/prohibit/avoid +v-ing --I’d suggest going out for a walk after dinner. --There is a rule to prohibit parking in the city center. (prohibit sb from doing sth) --That homework requires doing experiment outside classroom. --Try to avoid making mistakes when writing.

25 Advice I’d suggest doing… Why don’t you do…? How about doing…? Have you tried doing…? You could do… If I were you, I’d…

26 Gerund vs. it as subject Gerund: Speaking in public makes me nervous. Riding bicycle in big cities is very dangerous. It: It makes me nervous to speak in public. It is very dangerous to ride bicycle in big cities.

27 Exercises for Gerund and It 1. It’s never easy to understand other people.  1. It’s never easy to understand other people.  2. It becomes increasingly necessary to understand each other.  2. It becomes increasingly necessary to understand each other.  3. It is also desirable to learn about others’ social customs.  3. It is also desirable to learn about others’ social customs.  4. It is best to actually work or live with people in a different culture.  4. It is best to actually work or live with people in a different culture.  5. It is most important to be an acute observer.  5. It is most important to be an acute observer. 

28 Exercises for Gerund and It 1. Understanding those from different cultures is even more difficult.  2. Studying foreign languages is certainly valuable.  3. Reading about an unfamiliar culture can be extremely helpful.  4. Carefully watching and listening to others as well as understanding and accepting what they do is vital. 

29 Must, mustn't, have to 1. Must vs. have to  obligation --I must finish the report tomorrow. --I must finish the report tomorrow. --I have to finish the report because tomorrow is the last day to hand in. --I have to finish the report because tomorrow is the last day to hand in. 2. Mustn't vs. don’t have to --You must not come late again.(Prohibition) --You must not come late again.(Prohibition) --You don’t have to come early every morning. (not necessary) --You don’t have to come early every morning. (not necessary)

30 Must 表示逻辑性判断 1. 对现在或将来的推测 : must do --Your father must be waiting for you. --He must be very tired after working for the whole day. --He must be calling tonight. --There must be some mistake. --It must be George.

31 Must 表示逻辑性判断 2. 对过去的推测 : must have done --You must have left your handbag in the theatre. --You must have left your handbag in the theatre. --Her eyes are red. She must have been crying. --Her eyes are red. She must have been crying. --You must have called me between eight and nice because I was home the rest of the evening. --You must have called me between eight and nice because I was home the rest of the evening.


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