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Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University In-Residence Shelters An Alternative to Evacuation presented to National Hurricane Conference New Orleans,

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Presentation on theme: "Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University In-Residence Shelters An Alternative to Evacuation presented to National Hurricane Conference New Orleans,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University In-Residence Shelters An Alternative to Evacuation presented to National Hurricane Conference New Orleans, LA April 18, 2003 presented by Ernst W. Kiesling, P.E., Ph.D. National Storm Shelter Association (NSSA) and Texas Tech University

2 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Hurricane Threats Real Real Frequent Frequent They give us a common purpose

3 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University

4 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Hazard Mitigation and Sheltering Each approach Each approach –Accompanied by its own set of issues and challenges Some technological Some technological Some sociological Some sociological Some grow out of our freedom of choice Some grow out of our freedom of choice In-Residence shelters are not a panacea In-Residence shelters are not a panacea –Can protect some people directly and increase the effectiveness of other measures

5 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Objectives: In-Residence Sheltering From Hurricanes Reduce Reduce –Anxiety suffering –Evacuation volumes –Economic losses individual individual public public

6 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Sheltering from Man-Made Hazards Can adapt storm shelters to protect against: Can adapt storm shelters to protect against: –Ballistics –Chemical hazards –Biological hazards –Blast loads

7 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Inspiration of the Shelter Concept Inspiration of the Shelter Concept

8 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Design room or module to protect: Design room or module to protect: –occupants –critical functions –critical contents Improve building envelope Improve building envelope to reduce damage to to reduce damage to building and contents building and contents Approach to Design

9 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Shelter Options With Slabs or Foundations Closet Closet Bathroom Bathroom Study Study Utility room Utility room Multiple use is important in is important in assessing cost assessing cost Works for new construction or retrofit

10 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Shelter Options Without Slab or Foundation

11 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Shelter Options Without Slab or Foundation

12 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Benefits of Shelter Use Individual Benefits Reliable storm protection Reliable storm protection Avoided costs of evacuation Avoided costs of evacuation –Room and board –Travel –Extensive time off work Increased home security; protection of valuables Increased home security; protection of valuables Peace of mind Peace of mind Pet care Pet care Convenience of staying at home Convenience of staying at home More time to secure residence More time to secure residence Immediate attention to damage repair Immediate attention to damage repair Increased value & marketability of house Increased value & marketability of house

13 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Benefits of Widespread Shelter Use Public Benefits –Decrease lead time for evacuation notices –Increase accuracy of forecasts –Reduce evacuation costs –Avoid highway gridlock –Reduce business interruptions

14 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Evacuees 0rdered Evacuees by choice Forecast Necessary evacuation notice ; “Lead=X hours” Highway Demand vs. Evacuation Lead Time Demand Flow Highway Demand Exceeds Capacity LOS “F” Capacity Lead time Number of evacuees Highway demand Highway capacity Are interdependent

15 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Highway Demand Exceeds Capacity LOS “F” Ordered Evacuees Evacuees by choice Forecast Necessary evacuation notice ; “Lead=X hours” Demand Capacity Flow Highway Demand Equals Capacity LOS “D” or “E” Necessary evacuation notice DECREASES Highway Demand vs. Evacuation Lead Time

16 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Encouraging Widespread Use Provide information on Provide information on –Benefits –Products and technology available –Costs Institute an incentive grant program Institute an incentive grant program –Sensitive to income, cost of house Establish quality control program Establish quality control program

17 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Incentive Grant Program Willingness to pay: Based on Perceived risks Perceived benefits Ability to pay Incentive grant amount: Related to public benefit

18 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Incentive Grants Needed Shelter Cost Willingness to Pay Incentive Grant Willingness to Pay Incentive Grant High-End Houses Moderately Priced Houses Low-Cost Houses Shelter Cost

19 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Shelter Design Criteria for reliable protection Shelters must have: Structural integrity to withstand wind loads Structural integrity to withstand wind loads Anchorage to prevent overturning Anchorage to prevent overturning Strength to prevent structural failures Strength to prevent structural failures Ability to prevent perforation by wind-borne debris Ability to prevent perforation by wind-borne debris

20 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Shelter Criteria For widespread acceptance, shelters must be: –Economical –Aesthetically pleasing

21 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Shelter Design Criteria for reliable protection Shelters must have: –Structural integrity to withstand wind loads Anchorage to prevent overturning Anchorage to prevent overturning Strength to prevent collapse Strength to prevent collapse

22 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Wind Pressures On Roof And Walls

23 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Structural Integrity Demands good connections Demands good connections –Wall-to-floor –Roof-to-wall Demands proven doors and hardware Demands proven doors and hardware In small residential shelters, structural integrity is relatively easy to attain Debris impacts usually control design In large community shelters, structural considerations usually control design

24 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Shelter Design Criteria for reliable protection Shelters must have: –Structural integrity to withstand wind loads Anchorage to prevent overturning Anchorage to prevent overturning Strength to prevent collapse Strength to prevent collapse –Ability to prevent perforation by wind-borne debris

25 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Debris in Urban Area

26 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Oklahoma City

27 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Spencer, SD

28 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Some debris gets inside!

29 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Missile Launcher

30 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Missile Impact Simulation

31 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Successful Performance

32 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Goal : Increase number of reliable In-Residence shelters Process: Optimize shelter designs –Develop reliable analysis methods to support designers Texas Tech is making good progress with NIST support Texas Tech is making good progress with NIST support –Establish design criteria for hurricane shelters ICC/NSSA Committee will address ICC/NSSA Committee will address –Develop optimum prescriptive designs for residential shelters FEMA 320 results in overly conservative designs for hurricanes FEMA 320 results in overly conservative designs for hurricanes Quantify benefits & costs of In-Residence shelters Quantify benefits & costs of In-Residence shelters Implement education programs for all stakeholders Implement education programs for all stakeholders –Demonstration projects are very effective Establish incentive grant program to stimulate growth Establish incentive grant program to stimulate growth Adopt quality control mechanisms for shelter design and construction Adopt quality control mechanisms for shelter design and construction

33 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University FEMA Design Guides

34 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Standards NSSA Industry Standard on web NSSA Industry Standard on web ICC/NSSA Consensus Standard in development ICC/NSSA Consensus Standard in development

35 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University Quality Control NSSA MEMBER requirements NSSA MEMBER requirements –Pledge to produce only those shelters that meet the NSSA standard –Test shelters for debris impact resistance –Have independent third party compliance check –Affix a seal bearing serial number –File a Certificate of Installation with NSSA for each shelter installed

36 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University The Elements of Success Avoid catastrophic loss of life Avoid catastrophic loss of life Reduce anxiety and suffering Reduce anxiety and suffering –Keep people safely at home –Facilitate required evacuations Reduce economic loss Reduce economic loss –Property damage –Business interruptions –Loss in productivity Widespread use of In-Residence shelters will not solve all of our problems but it can help! Widespread use of In-Residence shelters will not solve all of our problems but it can help!

37 Wind Science and Engineering Texas Tech University In-Residence Shelters An Alternative to Evacuation Thank you! for your attention


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