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1 INTRODUCTION 1.The Bulk Power Supply 2.Reliability criteria The 2 components Security assessment from operators view Requirements of a reliable electric.

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Presentation on theme: "1 INTRODUCTION 1.The Bulk Power Supply 2.Reliability criteria The 2 components Security assessment from operators view Requirements of a reliable electric."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 INTRODUCTION 1.The Bulk Power Supply 2.Reliability criteria The 2 components Security assessment from operators view Requirements of a reliable electric service NERC 3.Reliability criteria Disturbance-performance table How are they used Security states 4.System operating limits

2 2 INTRODUCTION 1.The Bulk Power Supply System Elaborate, complex, interconnection of power components which make up an interconnected power system. When we talk about reliability and security of power systems, we are interested in what we call “THE BULK POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM” The part of the network which connects the power plants, the major substations, and the main EHV/HV lines. Interruptions in the bulk power supply are very serious - Many users are affected by these interruptions - They can be costly They are to be avoided, and much effort is spent to do that

3 3 2. RELIABILITY CRITERIA Power Systems are built and operated with the following goal: TO ACHIEVE A RELIABLE and ECONOMIC ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY. For the consumer to have a reliable and economic electric power supply, a complex set of engineering analysis and design solutions need to be implemented. Reliability of a power system refers to the probability of its satisfactory operation over the long run. It denotes the ability to supply adequate electric service on a nearly continuous basis, with few interruptions over an extended time period. - IEEE Paper on Terms & Definitions, 2004

4 4 Security and Adequacy Security is the ability of the electric systems to withstand sudden disturbances such as electric short circuits or unanticipated loss of system elements. Adequacy is the ability of the electric systems to supply the aggregate electrical demand and energy requirements of their customers at all times, taking into account scheduled and reasonably expected unscheduled outage of system elements. Security of a power system refers to the degree of risk in its ability to survive imminent disturbances (contingencies) without interruption of customer service. It relates to robustness of the system to imminent disturbances and, hence, depends on the system operating condition as well as the contingent probability of disturbances. (IEEE TermsDefs-’04)

5 5 Difference between reliability and security Reliability is the overall objective in power system design and operation. To be reliable, the power system must be secure most of the time. Security is a time-varying attributes which can be judged by studying the performance of the power system under a particular set of conditions. Reliability, on the other hand, is a function of the time-average performance of the power system; it can only be judged by consideration of the system’s behavior over an appreciable period of time. - IEEE Paper on Terms and Definitions, 2004

6 6 An operator’s view of “security” Security Overload Security Voltage Security Angle/ Frequency security Trans- former Overload Line Overload Voltage magnitude out of limits Unstable Voltage Frequency instability Rotor angle instability “Any consequence of a credible disturbance that requires a limit” Static security (our interest)Dynamic security

7 7 Another View of “Security” Security = dynamic security Adequacy = static security This view is strongly held by engineers that have been deeply involved with “reliability”assessment tools for planning such as TRELLS, Tplan, etc., which compute probabilistic indices based on static security assessment. They will tell you that their tools are concerned with adequacy, not security. You must note the person’s background who uses the term “Security” in order to understand the meaning being implied.

8 8 REQUIREMENTS OF A RELIABLE ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE Steady-state and transient voltages and frequency must be held within close tolerances Steady-state flows must be within circuit limits Synchronous generators must be kept running in parallel with adequate capacity to meet the load demand Maintain “integrity” of bulk power network: avoid cascading outages NERC, North American Electric Reliability Corporation: Mission is to ensure reliability of the bulk power system in North America. They develop/enforce reliability standards; assess reliability annually via 10-year and seasonal forecasts; monitor the bulk power system; evaluate users, owners, and operators for preparedness; and educate, train, and certify industry personnel. NERC is a self- regulated organization, subject to oversight by the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission & governmental authorities in Canada. It is composed of 9 regional reliability councils & encompasses virtually all power systems in US & Canada. NERC’s activities play an essential role in preventing contingencies and mitigating their consequences.

9 9 Interconnections

10 10

11 11 The Disturbance-Performance Table is the heart of reliability criteria Disturbance

12 12

13 13 HOW ARE RELIABILITY CRITERIA USED? A) In System Planning or Design –Make decisions on size, type and timing of new generation and transmission facilities –Design transmission network to withstand normal & prescribed abnormal conditions –The latter includes such things as short circuits (faults) followed by loss of major components (to isolate the fault). B) In System Operation –Establish most economic operating conditions under “normal” conditions –Operate the system such that if an unscheduled event occurs, it does not result in violation of reliability criteria. –Establish “Safe Operating Limits” for all situations

14 14 Off-economic dispatch Power system operational “states” & actions (given with respect to credible contingency list) Normal (secure) Emergency Restorative Extreme emergency. Separation, cascading delivery point interruption, load shedding Alert, Not secure Other actions (e.g. switching) Controlled load curtailment

15 15 Some comments about the previous slide: The use of criteria ensures (and the diagram illustrates that), for all credible contingencies, the system will, at worst transit from the normal state to the alert state, rather than to a more severe state such as the emergency state or the in extremis state. If a system is operated according to criteria, the system can transition from normal state to emergency or in extremis state only for a non-credible (extreme) contingency. When the alert state is entered following a contingency, operators can take actions to return the system to the normal state, but such actions should not include load shedding. Load shedding should only be performed under emergencies.

16 16 System operating limits (SOLs) System Operating Limits (SOL) are the values of operating parameters (MW, MVar, Amperes, Frequency or Volts) that satisfies the most limiting of the prescribed operating criteria for a specified system configuration to ensure operation within acceptable reliability criteria. SOL are based upon ensuring operating conditions are within pre- and post-contingency… Facility Ratings Transient Stability Ratings Voltage Stability Ratings System Voltage Limits

17 17 System operating limits 1200 MW 300 MW 900 MW Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Question 2: What is maximum cct 1-3 flow such that reliability criteria is satisfied? Continuous rating=1200MW Emergency rating=1300 MW X 13 =1 X 12 =1 X 23 =1 Question 1: Is it “secure”?

18 18 Treating power as if it is current…. A very basic relation for power system engineers expresses the real power flow across a transmission circuit as: (1) Here, φ is the angle by which the voltage leads the current and is called the power factor angle. If we assume that electric loads are purely resistive, so that only real power flows in the network, then φ≈0 (φ will not be exactly zero because of line reactance). In this case, eq. (1) is: (2)

19 19 Treating power as if it is current…. A basic fact of power system is that the voltages usually do not deviate significantly from their nominal value. Under a system of normalization (called per-unit), where all voltages are normalized with respect to this nominal voltage, it will be the case that |Vk|≈1.0. As a result, eq. (2) becomes: (3) In other words, the numerical value of the real power flowing on the circuit is the same as the numerical value of the current magnitude flowing on that circuit (under the system of normalization). Useful conclusion: If we assume voltage magnitudes are all unity, and all loads are purely resistive, then whatever rules we have of dealing with currents also work with real pu power flows! (or S base ×pu pwr flws)

20 20 Two good approximations for parallel flows 1. Current division: For 2 parallel paths A and B, power flows on path A according to 900 MW Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 X 23 =1 X 13 =1 X 12 =1 300

21 MW Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 1. Current division: For 2 parallel paths A and B, power flows on path A according to 100 X 23 =1 X 13 =1 X 12 =1 Two good approximations for parallel flows

22 MW 300 MW MW Total=700 Total=200 Total=500 Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Continuous rating=1200MW Emergency rating=1300 MW IS IT SATISFYING RELIABILITY CRITERIA? 2. Superposition: Results of 2 independent calculations will add Two good approximations for parallel flows

23 23 System operating limits 1200 MW 300 MW 900 MW Continuous rating=1200MW Emergency rating=1300 MW IS IT SATISFYING RELIABILITY CRITERIA? Total=1200 Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Lose Cct 2-3! YES!!! The answer to Question 1: Is it “secure”?

24 24 System operating limits 1200 MW 300 MW 900 MW Total=700 Total=200 Total=500 Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Question 2: What is maximum cct 1-3 flow such that reliability criteria is satisfied?  Depends on how flow is increased: assume stress direction of Bus1/Bus3.  Desire precontingency limits to reflect postcontingency effects

25 25 System operating limits 1300 MW 300 MW MW Total=767 Total=233 Total=533 Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Continuous rating=1200MW Emergency rating=1300 MW IS IT SATISFYING RELIABILITY CRITERIA? Question 2: What is maximum cct 1-3 flow such that reliability criteria is satisfied?

26 26 System operating limits 1300 MW 300 MW 1000MW Continuous limit=1200MW Emergency limit=1300 MW IS IT SATISFYING RELIABILITY CRITERIA? Total=1300 Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Lose Cct 2-3! It is right at the limit!

27 27 System operating limits 1200 MW 300 MW 900 MW Total=700 Total=200 Total=500 Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Question 2: What is maximum cct 1-3 flow such that reliability criteria is satisfied? SOL=767 Answer

28 28 System operating limits It is common to develop x-y plots of operational parameters to communicate system limits. Such plots are called nomograms. They may communicate limits for any kind of security problem (overload, voltage, transient or oscillatory instability) INSECURE! SECURE!


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