Presentation on theme: "Power System Reliability: adequacy-long term planning, planning criteria, states of power system ERLDC, POSOCO."— Presentation transcript:
Power System Reliability: adequacy-long term planning, planning criteria, states of power system ERLDC, POSOCO
Outline of presentation Power system reliability –Adequacy and security Concepts and terminologies Generation planning Transmission planning criteria –States of power system
Reliability--definitions A measure of the ability of a system, generally given as numerical indices, to deliver power to all points of utilisation within acceptable standards and in amounts desired. Power system reliability (comprising generation and transmission & distribution facilities) can be described by two basic functional attributes: adequacy and security. (Cigré definition) Reliability is the probability of a device or a system performing its function adequately, for the period of time intended, under the operating conditions intended. (IEEE PES definition)
Reliability SecurityAdequacy Adequacy relates to the existence of sufficient facilities within the system to satisfy the consumer load demand at all times. Security relates to the ability to withstand sudden disturbances
Definitions……contd/- Adequacy: A measure of the ability of the power system to supply the aggregate electric power and energy requirements of the customers within components ratings and voltage limits, taking into account planned and unplanned outages of system components. Adequacy measures the capability of the power system to supply the load in all the steady states in which the power system may exist considering standards conditions. (Cigré definition)
Analysis of reliability….hierarchial levels 1. Generation only (Level 1) 2. Generation + Transmission (Level 2) 3. Generation + Transmission+ Distribution (Level 3) Analysis involving level 3 are not generally done due to enormity of the problem. Most of the probabilistic techniques for reliability assessment are with respect to adequacy assessment.
Power system operating states Normal Emergency Alert Restorative In extremis
Power system operating states (2) Normal state –All system variables are in the normal range and no equipment is being overloaded. The system operates in a secure manner and is able to withstand a contingency without violating any of the constraints.
Power system operating states (3) Alert state –Security level falls below a certain limit of adequacy or if the possibility of a disturbance increases due to adverse weather conditions such as the approach of severe storms. All system variables are still within the acceptable range and all constraints are satisfied. However the system has weakened to a level where a contingency may cause equipments to get overloaded and reach an emergency state. If the contingency is very severe we could land up directly in the in extremis state (extreme emergency). –Preventive actions such as a generation re-dispatch could bring the system back to normal state else it might remain in alert state.
Power system operating states (4) Emergency state –Sufficiently severe disturbance under alert state leads to an emergency state. Voltages at many buses become low and equipment loading exceeds the short term emergency ratings. System is still intact. –System can be restored back to alert state by emergency control actions such as fault clearing, excitation control, fast valving, generation tripping, generation runback, HVDC modulation and load shedding.
Power system operating states (5) In extremis state –If the emergency measures are not applied or are ineffective, the system goes to in extremis state, the result is cascading outages and the possibility of shutdown of major part of the system. –Control actions such as load shedding and controlled separation could save much of the system from a possible blackout.
Power system operating states (6) Restorative state –This represents a condition where control action is being taken to reconnect all the facilities as well as the affected loads. –System could either go directly to the normal state or through the alert state depending on the conditions.
Contingency – a future event 1) the chance that a future event will jeopardize reliability, and 2) the consequences once that event happens. Credible Contingency 1) plausibility (believable), and 2) likelihood (probable). E.g. Single element contingency : Loss of 1 element out of ‘n’ elements (n-1) Critical Contingency – Two contingencies with the same likelihood and plausibility may have very different consequences (impacts).
What is adequate level of reliability ? 1.The System remains within acceptable limits; 2.The System performs acceptably after credible contingencies; 3.The System contains instability and cascading outages; 4.The System’s facilities are protected from severe damage; and 5.The System’s integrity can be restored if it is lost. The bulk power system will achieve an adequate level of reliability when it is planned and operated such that:
Reliability / Cost Trade-off
LOLE is the expected number of days per year for which available generating capacity is insufficient to serve the daily peak demand (load). is usually measured in days/year or hours/year. is sometimes referred to as loss of load probability (LOLP) VOLL When it is necessary, the system operator must ration demand by shedding load. In this case, the value of another megawatt of power equals the cost imposed by involuntary load curtailment. This value is called the value of lost load, VOLL. VOLL depends on the customer, the time of the loss, and the nonlinear dependence of loss on the duration of the loss Reliability - Common indices
Loss of Load Probability (LOLP)
Optimal value of reliability (2) The costs of the producer = CR The costs of the consumers = CIC CIC = Customer Interruption Costs (= VOLL = Value of Lost Load) At the optimum : ∆CR = - ∆ CIC (= -∆ VOLL)
Reliability Indices (1) SAIFI =System Average Interruption Frequency Index (int/yr. cust)= Total number of customer interruptions / Total number of customers served SAIDI = System Average Interruption Duration Index (h/yr. cust) = Customer interruption durations / Total number of customers served CAIFI = Customer Average Interruption Frequency Index (int./yr. cust) = Total number of customer interruptions / Total number of customers interrupted CAIDI = Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (h/y. cust.) = Customer interruption durations/ Total number of customer interruptions = SAIDI/SAIFI CTAIDI = Customer Total Average Interruption Duration Index (h/ y. cust)= Customer interruption durations / Total number of customers interrupted
Reliability Indices (2) ENS = Energy Not Supplied = (kwh/y.) = Total energy not supplied = UE = Unserved Energy AENS = Average Energy Not Supplied = (kwh/y. Cust.) = Total energy not supplied / Total number of customers served LOLP = Loss of Load Probability =The probability that the total production in system cannot meet the load demand
Definitions……contd/- Security: A measure of power system ability to withstand sudden disturbances such as electric short circuits or unanticipated losses of system components or load conditions together with operating constraints. Another aspect of security is system integrity, which is the ability to maintain interconnected operation. Integrity relates to the preservation of interconnected system operation, or avoidance of uncontrolled separation, in the presence of specified severe disturbances. (Cigré definition)
Generation planning In a competitive market also, the mix of plant types are arrived at similar to centralized planning except that it is through a decentralized price discovery and profitability analysis.
Transmission planning Once we have the load forecast and generation location, it is easy to identify ‘where to build lines and how many’. In India the transmission planning is done as per the Manual on Transmission Planning Criteria prepared by CEA in January 2013
CEA Transmission planning criteria (1) Section 3.11:The following options may be considered for strengthening of the transmission network. Addition of new transmission lines/ substations to avoid overloading of existing system including adoption of next higher voltage. Application of Series Capacitors FACTS devices and phase-shifting transformers in existing and new transmission systems to increase power transfer capability. Upgradation of the existing AC transmission lines to higher voltage using same right-of-way. Reconductoring of the existing AC transmission line with higher size conductors or with AAAC. Adoption of multi-voltage level and multi-circuit transmission lines.
CEA Transmission planning criteria (2) Section 3.11:(contd.). Use of narrow base towers and pole type towers in semi-urban / urban areas keeping in view cost and right-of-way optimization.. Use of HVDC transmission – both conventional as well as voltage source convertor (VSC) based.. Use of GIS / Hybrid switchgear (for urban, coastal, polluted areas etc).
CEA Transmission planning criteria (3) 3.12Critical loads such as - railways, metro rail, airports, refineries, underground mines, steel plants, smelter plants, etc. shall plan their interconnection with the grid, with 100% redundancy and as far as possible from two different sources of supply, in coordination with the concerned STU The planned transmission capacity would be finite and there are bound to be congestions if large quantum of electricity is sought to be transmitted in direction not previously planned. 3.14Appropriate communication system for the new sub-stations and generating stations may be planned by CTU/STUs and implemented by CTU/STUs/generation developers so that the same is ready at the time of commissioning. 4.2The grid may be subjected to disturbances and it is required that after a more probable disturbance i.e. loss of an element (‘N-1’ or single contingency condition), all the system parameters like voltages, loadings, frequency shall be within permissible normal limits
CEA Transmission planning criteria (4) 4.3However, after suffering one contingency, grid is still vulnerable to experience second contingency, though less probable (‘N-1-1’), wherein some of the equipments may be loaded up to their emergency limits. To bring the system parameters back within their normal limits, load shedding/re-scheduling of generation may have to be applied either manually or through automatic system protection schemes (SPS). Such measures shall generally be applied within one and a half hour(1½) after the disturbance.
Reliability Criteria(1) 6.1 Criteria for system with no contingency (‘N-0’) a) The system shall be tested for different load-generation scenarios viz. a. Annual Peak Load b. Seasonal variation in Peak Loads for Winter, Summer and Monsoon c. Seasonal Light Load (for Light Load scenario, motor load of pumped storage plants shall be considered) b) For the planning purpose all the equipments shall remain within their normal thermal loadings and voltage ratings. c) The angular separation between adjacent buses shall not exceed 30 degree.
Reliability Criteria(2) 6.2 Criteria for single contingency (‘N-1’) Steady-state : a) All the equipments in the transmission system shall remain within their normal thermal and voltage ratings after a disturbance involving loss of any one of the following elements (called single contingency or ‘N-1’ condition), but without load shedding / rescheduling of generation: - Outage of a 132kV or 110kV single circuit, - Outage of a 220kV or 230kV single circuit, - Outage of a 400kV single circuit, - Outage of a 400kV single circuit with fixed series capacitor(FSC), - Outage of an Inter-Connecting Transformer(ICT), - Outage of a 765kV single circuit -Outage of one pole of HVDC bipole. b) The angular separation between adjacent buses under (‘N-1’) conditions shall not exceed 30 degree.
Reliability Criteria(3) Transient-state : a) The system shall be able to survive a permanent three phase to ground fault on a 765kV line close to the bus to be cleared in 100 ms. b) The system shall be able to survive a permanent single phase to ground fault on a 765kV line close to the bus. Accordingly, single pole opening (100 ms) of the faulted phase and unsuccessful re-closure (dead time 1 second) followed by 3-pole opening (100 ms) of the faulted line shall be considered. c) The system shall be able to survive a permanent three phase to ground fault on a 400kV line close to the bus to be cleared in 100 ms.
Reliability Criteria(4) Transient-state (contd): d) The system shall be able to survive a permanent single phase to ground fault on a 400kV line close to the bus. Accordingly, single pole opening (100 ms) of the faulted phase and unsuccessful re-closure (dead time 1 second) followed by 3-pole opening (100 ms) of the faulted line shall be considered. e) In case of 220kV / 132 kV networks, the system shall be able to survive a permanent three phase fault on one circuit, close to a bus, with a fault clearing time of 160 ms (8 cycles) assuming 3-pole opening. f) The system shall be able to survive a fault in HVDC convertor station, resulting in permanent outage of one of the poles of HVDC Bipole. g) Contingency of loss of generation: The system shall remain stable under the contingency of outage of single largest generating unit or a critical generating unit (choice of candidate critical generating unit is left to the transmission planner).
Reliability Criteria(5) 6.3 Criteria for second contingency (‘N-1-1’) Under the scenario where a contingency as defined at 6.2 has already happened, the system may be subjected to one of the following subsequent contingencies (called ‘N-1-1’ condition): a) The system shall be able to survive a temporary single phase to ground fault on a 765kV line close to the bus. Accordingly, single pole opening (100 ms) of the faulted phase and successful re-closure (dead time 1 second) shall be considered. b) The system shall be able to survive a permanent single phase to ground fault on a 400kV line close to the bus. Accordingly, single pole opening (100 ms) of the faulted phase and unsuccessful re-closure (dead time 1 second) followed by 3-pole opening (100 ms) of the faulted line shall be considered. c) In case of 220kV / 132kV networks, the system shall be able to survive a permanent three phase fault on one circuit, close to a bus, with a fault clearing time of 160 ms (8 cycles) assuming 3-pole opening.
Reliability Criteria(6) (a) In the ‘N-1-1’ contingency condition as stated above, if there is a temporary fault, the system shall not loose the second element after clearing of fault but shall successfully survive the disturbance. (b) In case of permanent fault, the system shall loose the second element as a result of fault clearing and thereafter, shall asymptotically reach to a new steady state without losing synchronism. In this new state the system parameters (i.e. voltages and line loadings) shall not exceed emergency limits, however, there may be requirement of load shedding / rescheduling of generation so as to bring system parameters within normal limits.
Reliability Criteria(7) 6.4 Criteria for generation radially connected with the grid For the transmission system connecting generators or a group of generators radially with the grid, the following criteria shall apply: The radial system shall meet ‘N-1’ reliability criteria as given at Paragraph: 6.2 for both the steady-state as well as transient-state For subsequent contingency i.e. ‘N-1-1’ (of Paragraph: 6.3) only temporary fault shall be considered for the radial system If the ‘N-1-1’ contingency is of permanent nature or any disturbance/contingency causes disconnection of such generator/group of generators from the main grid, the remaining main grid shall asymptotically reach to a new steady-state without losing synchronism after loss of generation. In this new state the system parameters shall not exceed emergency limits, however, there may be requirement of load shedding /rescheduling of generation so as to bring system parameters within normal limits.
Substation Reliability Criteria 15.2 The maximum short-circuit level on any new substation bus should not exceed 80% of the rated short circuit capacity of the substation. The 20% margin is intended to take care of the increase in short-circuit levels as the system grows. The rated breaking current capability of switchgear at different voltage levels may be taken as given below: 15.6 Size and number of interconnecting transformers (ICTs) shall be planned in such a way that the outage of any single unit would not over load the remaining ICT(s) or the underlying system
Substation Reliability Criteria 15.7 A stuck breaker condition shall not cause disruption of more than four feeders for the 220kV system and two feeders for the 400kV system and 765kV system. Note – In order to meet this requirement it is recommended that the following bus switching scheme may be adopted for both AIS and GIS and also for the generation switchyards: 220kV – ‘Double Main’ or ‘Double Main & Transfer’ scheme with a maximum of eight(8) feeders in one section 400kV and 765kV – ‘One and half breaker’ scheme
Reliability Criteria – wind & solar projects 16. Additional criteria for wind and solar projects 16.1 The capacity factor for the purpose of maximum injection to plan the evacuation system, both for immediate connectivity with the ISTS/Intra-STS and for onward transmission requirement, may taken as follows: 16.2 The ‘N-1’ criteria may not be applied to the immediate connectivity of wind/solar farms with the ISTS/Intra-STS grid i.e. the line connecting the farm to the grid and the step-up transformers at the grid station As the generation of energy at a wind farm is possible only with the prevalence of wind, the thermal line loading limit of the lines connecting the wind machine(s)/farm to the nearest grid point may be assessed considering 12 km/hour wind speed.
Reliability Criteria – Nuclear power stations 16. criteria for wind and solar projects (contd) 16.4 The wind and solar farms shall maintain a power factor of 0.98 (absorbing) at their grid inter-connection point for all dispatch scenarios by providing adequate reactive compensation and the same shall be assumed for system studies. 17. Additional criteria for nuclear power stations 17.1 In case of transmission system associated with a nuclear power station there shall be two independent sources of power supply for the purpose of providing start-up power. Further, the angle between start-up power source and the generation switchyard should be, as far as possible, maintained within 10 degrees The evacuation system for sensitive power stations viz., nuclear power stations, shall generally be planned so as to terminate it at large load centres to facilitate islanding of the power station in case of contingency.
Reliability Criteria- Protection 20. Guidelines for consideration of zone – 3 settings 20.1 In some transmission lines, the Zone-3 relay setting may be such that it may trip under extreme loading condition. The transmission utilities should identify such relay settings and reset it at a value so that they do not trip at extreme loading of the line. For this purpose, the extreme loading may be taken as 120% of thermal current loading limit and assuming 0.9 per unit voltage (i.e. 360 kV for 400kV system, 689 kV for 765kV system). In case it is not practical to set the Zone-3 in the relay to take care of above, the transmission licensee/owner shall inform CEA, CTU/STU and RLDC/SLDC along with setting (primary impendence) value of the relay. Mitigating measures shall be taken at the earliest and till such time the permissible line loading for such lines would be the limit as calculated from relay impedance assuming 0.95 pu voltage, provided it is permitted by stability and voltage limit considerations as assessed through appropriate system studies.
Permissible normal and emergency limits 5.2 (a) The loading limit for a transmission line shall be its thermal loading limit. The thermal loading limit of a line is determined by design parameters based on ambient temperature, maximum permissible conductor temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, absorption coefficient, emissivity coefficient etc. (c) The loading limit for an inter-connecting transformer (ICT) shall be its name plate rating. However, during planning, a margin of 10% shall be kept in the above lines/transformers loading limits. (d) The emergency thermal limits for the purpose of planning shall be 110% of the normal thermal limits.
Permissible normal and emergency limits 5.3 Voltage limits a) The steady-state voltage limits are given below. However, at the planning stage a margin of about + 2% may be kept in the voltage limits.
Permissible normal and emergency limits b) Temporary over voltage limits due to sudden load rejection: i) 800kV system 1.4 p.u. peak phase to neutral ( 653 kV = 1 p.u. ) ii) 420kV system 1.5 p.u. peak phase to neutral ( 343 kV = 1 p.u. ) iii) 245kV system 1.8 p.u. peak phase to neutral ( 200 kV = 1 p.u. ) iv) 145kV system 1.8 p.u. peak phase to neutral ( 118 kV = 1 p.u. ) v) 123kV system 1.8 p.u. peak phase to neutral ( 100 kV = 1 p.u. ) vi) 72.5kV system 1.9 p.u. peak phase to neutral ( 59 kV = 1 p.u. ) c) Switching over voltage limits i) 800kV system 1.9 p.u. peak phase to neutral ( 653 kV = 1 p.u. ) ii) 420kV system 2.5 p.u. peak phase to neutral ( 343 kV = 1 p.u. )
NERC Reliability Standards 175 Reliability standards over 14 areas Resource Demand and Balance, BAL………..12 Modeling Data and Analysis, MOD..21 Communications, COM….2Nuclear, NUC………………..1 Critical Infrastructure Protection, CIP……..17 Personnel Performance, Training and Qualifications, PER…………..7 Emergency Preparedness and Operations, EOP………….16 Protection and Control, PRC……..29 Facilities Design, Connections and Maintenance, FAC…………..13 Transmission Operations, TOP…12 Interchange Scheduling and Co- ordination, INT……………….10 Transmission Planning, TPL…..12 Interconnection Reliability Operations & Coordination, IRO….18 Voltage and Reactive, VAR……..5
References 1.Roy Billinton and Ronald N Allan, ‘Reliability Assessment of Large Electric Power Systems’, Kluwer Academic Publishers 2.Dr. Mohammad Shahidehpour, ‘Electricity Restructuring and the role of security in power systems operation and planning’, IEEE tutorial, April 2006, New Delhi 3.P Kundur, ‘Power System Stability and Control’, Mc Graw Hill Inc. 4.Brainstorming session and agenda for the first meeting of 18 th EPS Committee on 27 th August 2010 available at CEA website 5.‘Manual on Transmission Planning Criteria’, June 1994, CEA