21968 Election Nixon, Humphrey, G. Wallace Nixon appealed to “Silent Majority”“Peace with honor”Narrow Victory
3Vietnam Vietnamization Secret Bombing of Cambodia & Laos War Powers ActKent State & Jackson State University
4US-Vietnam War Ends: Paris Accords 1973 Ceasefire
5Foreign Policy Themes Détente: “relaxation of tension” Kissinger is EVERYWHERENixon believed US could play Sino-Soviet split to its advantageRealpolitikKeep balance of power
6China Visit, 1972 Nixon & Kissinger meet Mao “Shuttle Diplomacy” Recognize China & support China’s admission to UN
7Cold War DétenteCzechoslovakia invaded (Prague Spring crushed, 1968) –US preoccupied with Vietnam; did nothingVisit Moscow (1972) --Played “China card”SALT I & ABM Treaties
8Background to Energy Crisis, 1973 Causes: Yom Kippur War –surprise attack by Egypt & Syria but Israel winsArab countries divided between those backed by the Soviets (e.g. Libya & Syria) and those backed by the West (e.g. Saudi Arabia)Kissinger negotiates peace settlementU.S. President Richard Nixon and Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir meeting on November 1, Nixon's National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger is directly behind Nixon.Response to this Arab defeat OPEC issued oil embargo!War galvanized Arab opinion: furious at the emergency re-supply effort that had enabled Israel to withstand Egyptian and Syrian forces, the Arab world imposed the 1973 oil embargo against the US, W Euro, & Japan. By the early 1970s the great Western oil conglomerates suddenly faced a unified bloc of producers.
9Energy Crisis Gas prices doubled & inflation HIGH No gas rationing at first; shortagesThen ration –according to license plate odd/evensShah of Iran (2nd largest exporter of oil & closest ally of the US in ME):"Of course [the world price of oil] is going to rise … Certainly! And how...; You [Western nations] increased the price of wheat you sell us by 300 %, and the same for sugar and cement...; You buy our crude oil and sell it back to us, redefined as petrochemicals, at a hundred times the price you've paid to us...; It's only fair that, from now on, you should pay more for oil. Let's say 10 times more."
10Nixon Doctrine: peace thru partnerships Central to the Nixon policy toward the Third World was the effort to maintain a stable status quo without involving the US too deeply in local disputes.In 1969 and 1970, in response to the height of the Vietnam War, Nixon stated US would "participate in the defense and development of allies and friends" but would leave the "basic responsibility" for the future of those "friends" to the nations themselves.The Nixon Doctrine signified a growing contempt for the United Nations, where undeveloped nations were gaining influence through their sheer numbers, and increasing support to authoritarian regimes attempting to withstand popular challenges from within.Applied to Persian Gulf Region: military aid to Iran & Saudi Arabia (so these US allies could undertake responsibility of ensuring peace & stability in region).
11Nixon Doctrine: Implications in Chile Pinochet coup in ‘73 The CIA poured LOTS $$ into Chile to support the established government against a Marxist challenge. When the Marxist candidate for president, Salvador Allende, was elected, the United States began funneling more money to opposition forces to help "destabilize" the new government.In 1973, a U.S.-backed military junta seized power from Allende. The new, repressive regime of Gen. Augusto Pinochet received warm approval and increased military and economic assistance from the United States as an anti-Communist ally. Democracy was re-established in 1989.
12Domestic Policy: New Federalism Shortly after taking office, Nixon proposed a dramatic restructuring of American government. He argued that bloated federal bureaucracies buried creative entrepreneurship under mountains of red tape and fostered dependency on handouts.He called instead for a "New Federalism" -- a system which directed money and power away from the federal bureaucracy and toward states and municipalities. This system, Nixon said, could respond more efficiently to the needs of the people.
13Civil Rights –a mixed record Supportive of civil rights as a senator, but now mindful of alienating southern votersTried to block renewal Voting Rights ActSupreme Court ordered busing – Nixon proposed anti-busing – blocked by Congress.Philadelphia Plan –furthered Affirm. Action: Required potential federal contractors to submit affirmative action goals and timetables as a pre-condition to having their bids considered.
14Domestic EconomyInflation increased to 5.3% by 1970, due to Vietnam War deficits“Gradualism" of Nixon: cut budget, raised interest rates, caused recession.GNP declined, deficit grew, unemployment doubled to 6% by 1971Used troops to end postal strike 1970, allowing 12% pay increase, not 22%Announced economic plan in August 1971:Phase I froze wages and prices and rents for 90 days, devalued dollar in Dec.Phase II eased controls on profits and dividends and fresh produceUnemployment remained high but inflation began to decline.
15Culture of Nixon YearsPepsi Generation: era of restoration rather than protest, conservatism rather than reform, consumer culture rather than counterculture, detente rather than confrontationExample: Erich Segal's Love Story best seller of 1970, reflected commercialized emotion, political insensitivity, middle class consumer values, not the passion and idealism and liberal activism earlier.Apollo 11 landed on the moon July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong, Ed Aldrin, Mike Collins; called the "triumph of the squares" according to Eric HofferWoodstock in 1969 celebrated love and music, not the antiwar protest of SDS marchers
17The Pentagon PapersDaniel Ellsberg managed to get classified papers regarding the execution of the war. The documents revealed the knowledge that the war would not likely be won. Papers showed cynicism towards the public and a disregard for soldiers and civilians.Ellsberg knew that releasing these papers would most likely result in prison, so he secretly attempted to convince a few sympathetic senators to release the papers on the Senate floor (b/c senators can’t be prosecuted for statements on floor) –but no takers.Finally, Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers to The New York Times. On June 13, 1971, the Times began publishing the first installment of the 7000 page document. For 15 days, Nixon administration prevented NYT from publishing but the Supreme Court soon ordered publication to resume freely (New York Times v. US). Ellsberg went into hiding from FBI.Signif: 1st time gov’t attempted PRIOR (to publication) restraint of press – traditionally a major hallmark of authoritarian regimes.Public opinion waned EVEN MORE against Vietnam.Faith in gov’t falling
181972 Election Nixon & Agnew ® v. George McGovern & Shriver (D) George Wallace (American Independent Party) shot –McGovern associated with “Amnesty, Abortion, & Acid”Kissinger promises“peace is at hand” (Nixon's Sec. Of State)Nixon won landslide victory with 60.7% popular vote, 520 to 17 electoral votes
19BUT during the 1972 Campaign Watergate Burglary by “plumbers” paid & directed by CREEPNixon inner circle kept “enemies list”:“How can we maximize the fact of our incumbency in dealing with the persons known to be active in their opposition to our administration? Stated a bit more bluntly, how can we use the available federal machinery to screw our political enemies.”
20Caught! Woodward & Bernstein “Deep Throat” 18 ½ minute gap Saturday Night Massacre