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Pongamia Pinnata as a Bio-energy Resource P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi Better.

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Presentation on theme: "Pongamia Pinnata as a Bio-energy Resource P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi Better."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pongamia Pinnata as a Bio-energy Resource P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi Better Planning to Maximize Yield ….

2 BIO-ENERGY SOLUTION S for IIT Campus

3 Pongamia Trees At IIT Delhi Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens

4 Recognition of Complete Resource

5 Current Technology of Bio-diesel Production Fruits Shells Decorticator Oil Expeller Reactor Oil Biodiesel Cake Glycerol Mechanical or Electrical Energy Electrical and Thermal Energy Seeds

6 How Truthful is Our Vision/Understanding?

7 Various local names in India for Pongamia pinnata StateLocal name for pongamia Andhra Pradeshgaanug, pungu karchaw, poonga Karnatakahonge, huligili, batti, uggemara Keralaminnari, punnu Orrissakoronjo, konga Tamil Nadupongam, ponga, kanga Dalkaramcha Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh karanja and karanj Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, sukhchain, karanj, papri

8 Botanical description of pongamia pinnata Pongamia tree is native to humid and subtropical environments and it readily grows in areas where annual rainfall range from 500 to 2500 mm. In can withstand a maximum temperature from 50 0 C to a minimum of 5 0 C in its natural habitat. Mature trees can survive water logging and slight frost. This species has been found to grow up to elevations of 1200 m, but in the Himalayan foothills is not found above 600 m. Pongamia can grow on a wide range of soil types, which may range from stony to sandy to clayey. It is highly tolerant of salinity and does not do well on dry sands. The tree is common along waterways or seashores, with its roots in fresh or salt water. Well drained soils with assured moisture have observed highest growth rates

9 Forms of Biomass Yields

10 Other Benefits Pongamia tree has immense medicinal and economic value in Indian society. The reason for this being that almost every part has some traditional utility. Pongamia tree parts Economic valueMedicinal value Flower Good sources of pollen for honey bees.  Flowers are edible.  Useful to quench dipsia in diabetes, for alleviating vata and kapha and for bleeding piles.

11 Pongamia tree parts Economic valueMedicinal value Leaf  Used as cattle fodder (in some regions).  Used in stored grains to repel insects.  Used as manure for rice and sugarcane fields. Juice of leaves is used for cold, cough, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, gonorrhoea, leprosy. Leaves are anthelmintic, digestive and laxative used for inflammations, piles and wounds.  As an infusion to relieve rheumatism.  As an extract to treat itches and herpes. Bark  String and rope can be made from the bark fibre. Used for paper pulp. For bleeding piles, for beriberi, reduce swelling of the spleen. Useful in mental disorder, cough and cold.

12 Stem  Used for stove top fuels, poles and ornamental carvings.  Ash of wood used for dyeing  Cabinet making, cart wheels, posts, agricultural implements, tool, handles and combs. Aqueous extracts of stem bark exhibit significant CNS sedative and antipyretic activity. Root Root is used as fish poison.  Juice of roots with coconut milk and lime water for treatment of gonorrhoea.  Used for cleaning gums, teeth and ulcers.  In vaginal and skin diseases, being anthelminic.  Juice of roots used for cleansing foul ulcers and closing fistulous sores. without destroying the accumulated propagating organization …… {Kauffman, 2000}

13 Technical Details of Pongamia Tree Height (m)15-25 Climate Grows almost throughout up to altitude of m. Requires of 500­2500mm annual rainfall; cannot withstand frost. Soil Tolerate to salinity k, alkaline and water logging soils Gestation Period (years)4-7 Economic lifespan (years) 60 Oil content per seed (in %)27-39 Yield per tree (kg)20-25 Oil / ha (t)1.5-3 Collection PeriodMay – June Density of Plant/ha500

14 Pongamia Fruits

15 Pongamia Collections

16 Mass Distribution of Pongamia Collections ~50%

17 Mass Distribution of Jatropha Collections ~40% ~60%

18 Oil Expeller set-up

19 Mass Distribution of Pongamia Seeds ~65% ~35%

20 Mass Distribution of Jatropha Seeds ~65% ~35%

21 Plant Capacity and Land Requirement Plant capacity : 1 ton per day of Bio Diesel. Requirement of Vegetable Oil : 1.1 tons per day. Quantity of Seeds required to produce above amount of oil: 3.15 tons per day. Quantity of dry fruits required per day : 6.30 tons. Quantity of dry fruits required per year : 1575tons. Land required to meet the demand: 300 hectares. Non Irrigated land required to meet the demand: 900 hectares.

22 Measurement of Calorific Value : Bomb Calorimeter

23 The Bomb & Fuel

24 Temperature of Water in Jacket

25 Energy Balance in Bomb Calorimetry

26 Calorific Value of Pongamia Fruit Derivatives Calorific value of Oil : 36 MJ/kg Calorific value of cake: 19 MJ/kg. Calorific value of shells: 15 MJ/kg.

27 Energy Audit of Sub-Species of Oil Seed Collections : 1ton of Oil Mass of produce: 6.3 tons. Mass of Oil: 1 ton. Mass of cake : 2.15 tons. Mass of Shells : 3.15 tons. Calorific value of Oil : 36 MJ/kg Calorific value of cake: 19 MJ/kg. Calorific value of shells: 15 MJ/kg. Total Energy value of Oil: 36 GJ Total Energy value of Cake: 40.8GJ Total Energy value of Shells: 47.25GJ

28 Characterization of Bio-resource Pongamia oil De-oiled cake Shells

29 Characterization of Derived Bio-resources Pongamia oil De-oiled cake Shells

30 Straight Vegetable Oil Chemistry C 63 H 122 O 6

31 Straight Vegetable Oil Chemistry The molecular formula is a triglyceride molecule that contains multiple Carbon double bonds. A molecule with multiple Carbon double bonds tends to be more reactive under heated conditions than a molecule containing fewer or no double bonds.


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