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Strength of Materials Daniel Toney, University of West Georgia Introduction and Objectives At the start of this project the main goals were to understand.

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Presentation on theme: "Strength of Materials Daniel Toney, University of West Georgia Introduction and Objectives At the start of this project the main goals were to understand."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strength of Materials Daniel Toney, University of West Georgia Introduction and Objectives At the start of this project the main goals were to understand the properties and chacteristics of the three basic materials used in the automotive industry.These materials consist of metal, plastic, and ceramic. To help in understanding the properties of these materials test where preformed. These test focused on the strength, chemical resistance, and conductivity of the material. By learning the chacteristics of these materials this would allow the literature research on the materials uses in the auto industry clearer. The strength test will measure by the amount of pressure that a sample can withstand. Chemical test will simulate weathering conditions found in our daily lives. Conductivity test show if the materials will make better conductors or insulators of electricity. Knowing these variables makes understanding the uses of these materials recognizable. Methodology The graph were obtained through the use of logger pro data collector combined with a force meter to determine the maximum load the materials listed could withstand. Plastics the Material of the Present. Lightweight, good insulator, and highly corrosion resistant are characteristics of plastics. They are flexible and able to retain their shape when placed under different stresses. Plastics with the addition of certain material can be made stronger than most metals. In some forms they can be stronger than steel and lighter than aluminum. Plastics are an important part of our daily lives, especially plastics used in the automotive industry. One of the most important applications of plastic is in the front and rear fascia and other side body panels. In addition to saving weight, plastics lower the risk of damaging a vehicle in minor collisions and road debris due to its ability to flex and maintain its original shape. Plastics are also used in the interior of the vehicle primarily to lower production cost of most vehicles. Plastics will always be weight saver compared to any other material on the market. Besides interior and exterior paneling on vehicles, plastics serve other important function such as insulators. Plastic not only has the ability to insolate metal wire for electrical components it is flexible enough too routed with ease through out the vehicle. Plastic is taking the place of glass in many new vehicles in part to its translucent properties. Headlights are able to produce with clear plastic, and taillights can be form from transparent plastic with added red tint. Plastics, though durable, whether resistance, and corrosion resistant are not perfect. Plastics do not have the structure to withstand high temperature or the ability to be flam resistant. These inabilities render plastic useless in the structure of an internal combustion engine. Leaving plastic good for light weight body components and insulators. Study conclusions and ideas for new research Ceramics the Material of the Future. Ceramics are lightweight, wear and corrosion resistant. Ceramics have excellent thermal insulating properties. These properties make ceramics a material that has many applications in the automotive industry. The fact that ceramics have high working temperatures and thermal conductivity allow for more uses in the automotive industry. Much work is being done to make ceramics tougher and to join ceramics to metals to have strength and increased heat resistance. Ceramics are being used in components of automobiles such as clutches, catalytic converters, and spark plugs. In addition, engineers have been trying to make a ceramic engine strong enough to resistant the strain and vibration that daily driven vehicle experience. Ceramic brakes are already in use, but their cost is an average of $6000 per car. Testing has confirmed the heat resistant properties of ceramics, slow dissipation of heat, and good insulation properties. In its pure form ceramic has poor resistance to strong acid. Yet, ceramic is show to be resistant to strong bases. However, it is sensitive to oxidation agents causing it to discolor. However, ceramic has some problems that have yet to be resolved. If the automobile industry is to make best use of ceramics, the following problems need a solution. Improve reliability, by increasing the strength of the material. Reduce the number and size of flaws in the ceramics by developing better methods of form the ceramic products. Develop methods to test mechanical behavior to understand the material flaws of the ceramics. Most reduce the cost of production for the benefit of the common people. Metals in the Auto Industry The use of lightweight material in manufacturing a car is important for many reasons. The need for good fuel economy is a driving force in the development of lightweight materials. The largest growing metal used in the automotive industry is high strength steel (HSS). Aluminum, magnesium, and other alloys are being used in the industry, but HSS has had the greatest increase in the light vehicle market. Steel had always been a major part of the automobile, and it will always be included in some way. However, the steel industry realized the need to develop new steels. The properties of HSS allow thinner gauges of steel in the small cars. This lowers the weight of the cars without reducing the strength of the cars. HSS is five times stronger than mild steels. The HSS have made cars lighter, safer, more fuel efficient at a price the average care buyer can afford. There is also a lot of aluminum in the average car. The aluminum found in the car is mostly in the engine blocks and cylinder head that were once made of cast iron. Aluminum can be found radiators and heat exchangers. HSS is found mostly in the body of the car on in body components, because it is still the cheapest material to use. There is strong competition to the primary material for the production of the automobile. The rivalry is not just for the bodies of the cars but there is also competition for the engine and other components of the engine compartment. Magnesium is a possible material for a lightweight replacement for cast iron and steel parts. Magnesium and its alloys could be used in the seat frames, instrument panels, steering wheels, as well as engine and transmission components. There is a problem with magnesium in the untreated form magnesium has poor corrosion resistance. Magnesium is also more expensive than steel. HSS has many advantages it is lightweight, strong. x Discussions After the characteristics and properties of the materials were tested the results could be used to relate their uses to the present day automotive industry and possible future uses. Funding Source NSF STEP grant # DUE


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