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Forging new generations of engineers

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The following MATERIAL PROPERTIES can be evaluated / determined by TENSILE TESTING: STRENGTH DUCTILITY ELASTICITY STIFFNESS Tensile Testing

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STRENGTH - the greatest stress that the material can withstand prior to failure. DUCTILITY - a material property that allows it to undergo considerable plastic deformation under a load before failure. ELASTICITY - a material property that allows it to retain its original dimensions after removal of a deforming load. STIFFNESS - a material property that allows a material to withstand high stress without great strain. Material Properties

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A machine which applies a tensile force (a force applied in opposite directions) to the specimen, and then measures that force and also the elongation: This machine usually uses a hydraulic cylinder to create the force. The applied force is determined by system pressure, which can be accurately measured. The Tensile Tester

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Applied Force is hydraulic pressure times the area of the cylinder’s piston. F = PRESSURE x AREA = 0.6N/mm 2 x 1962.25mm 2 =1177.35 N The Tensile Tester

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Tensile TesterData Acquisition Unit

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Stress - Strain Curve

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THE SAMPLE Area of measured test

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Marking the sample: A precision punch with two points exactly 2.000” apart is used to mark the sample in the tested region. This establishes the original length.

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This device, called an EXTENSOMETER, measures the distance between the two prongs very precisely while the test is in progress.

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BeforeAfter

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A Stainless Steel sample is loaded in the tester.

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Necking : The localized decrease in diameter in a specimen near the rupture point. Elastic Deformation Region: The area of a stress - strain curve where the specimen will deform under load, yet return to its original shape when the load is removed. Plastic Deformation: Deformation that occurs once the object has been stressed past its elastic limit. The deformation is no longer reversible. Terms

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“Necking” occurs as the sample leaves the elastic deformation region and begins to deform plastically. Necking

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The classic cup & cone shape of a fairly ductile tensile fracture is visible here.

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Upon completion of the test, the sample is reassembled and final measurements for total elongation and minimum diameter are made using a vernier caliper.

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For maximum precision, the points of the vernier caliper must be placed exactly at the center of the marks made by the punch prior to the test.

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Compare the material properties of these three metal samples. All three failed under tension

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PLASTIC DEFORMATION REGION ELASTIC DEFORMATION REGION

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In the elastic region, the slope of this line is the material’s Modulus of Elasticity. The point of departure from the elastic deformation region is known as the “yield point.”

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Stress - Strain Plot

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ELASTICITY. Elasticity Elasticity is a branch of Solid mechanics that deals with the elastic behavior of solids. It is the property of material of a.

ELASTICITY. Elasticity Elasticity is a branch of Solid mechanics that deals with the elastic behavior of solids. It is the property of material of a.

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