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©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 1 Electrical measurement safety Understanding hidden hazards and new safety standards.

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Presentation on theme: "©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 1 Electrical measurement safety Understanding hidden hazards and new safety standards."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 1 Electrical measurement safety Understanding hidden hazards and new safety standards

2 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 2 Goals Awareness of electrical measurement hazards Understand international safety specifications for DMMs and scopes Understand the four installation overvoltage categories Learn how to minimize and avoid electrical measurement hazards Outline What electrical power can do to a DMM Common safety hazards Meter safety inspection IEC Safety Standards Arc blast Meter and scope safety check list Goals of this education program

3 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 3 Handheld test tool safety Last known earthly residence of automotive fuse used to replace original fuse Test leads survived intact How not to save time...

4 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 4 Handheld test tool safety Test leads destroyed 13.8 kV arced over to test probes. Insides were barbecued. This DMM had a hot date with 13.8 kV.

5 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 5 Handheld test tool safety Probe tips burned off 250V fuse didn’t open in time The wrong meter to use on a power circuit. Poor quality leads and probes led to injury.

6 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 6 Handheld test tool safety The electrician suffered severe burn injuries on his hand and arm. Fingerprints burned into probes

7 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 7 Handheld test tool safety Typical work environment

8 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 8 Handheld test tool safety Aftermath of an accident

9 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 9 Handheld test tool safety If it melts metal, what does it do to people?

10 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 10 Arc from transients (lightning, load switching) Protection: Independent certification to meet CAT III-1000 V or CAT IV 600 V Voltage contact while in continuity or resistance Protection: Overload protection in OHMs up to the meter’s volt rating Measuring voltage with test leads in current jacks Protection: High energy fuses rated to the meter’s voltage rating Use meters / testers without current jacks Shock from accidental contact with live components Protection: Test Leads double insulated, recessed / shrouded, finger guards, CAT III – 1000 V. Replace when damaged Using meter or tester above rated voltage Protection: Good karma Common DMM / tester hazards

11 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 11 Three common errors that are avoidable Common DMM safety hazards Measuring voltage while test leads are in the current jacks: short-circuit! Protection:Fluke meters use high energy fuses. Contact with ac or dc power source while in Ohms mode. Protection:Use a meter with “Overload Protection”. Functions are self-protected to the meter’s rated voltage. Using meter above rated voltage, i.e., on medium voltage circuits. Protection: Good karma

12 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 12 Check test lead resistance: Step 1: Insert leads in V/  and COM inputs. Step 2: Select , touch probe tips. Good leads are . How do you check a single test lead? Visually check for: CAT III-1000 V/CAT IV-600 V rating Double insulation Shrouded connectors, finger guards Insulation not melted, cut, cracked, etc. Connectors not damaged: no insulation pulled away from end connectors Probe tips: not loose or broken off Safety inspection Test leads and probes

13 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 13 Safety inspection Step 1: Plug test lead in V/  input. Select . Step 2: Insert probe tip into mA input. Read value. Step 3: Insert probe tip into A input. Read value. Is the fuse okay? What would an open fuse read? Checking meter fuses on most meters

14 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 14 With leads in V/  and COM inputs: Step 1: Select V and put probes in a live outlet. Will you damage the meter if you... Step 2:Select mV Step 3:Select  Step 4:Select A. Overload protection is only to DMM’s rated voltage. Overload protection on volts inputs Safety Inspection

15 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 15 New IEC Safety Standards

16 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 16 International Electrotechnical Commission IEC is the new standard for low voltage “test, measurement and control equipment”. IEC provides much improved protection against “overvoltage impulse transients” - voltage spikes. IEC is the basis for: ANSI/ISA-S (US) CAN C22.2 No (CAN) EN :1993 (EUR)

17 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 17 IEC key concepts CATEGORIES: CAT I to CAT IV The greatest danger from transients is in the high categories, because they could trigger an arc blast. IMPULSE TESTING: No failure allowed Meters must be tested by being hit with a specified number of transients, with specified peak voltages. INTERNAL SPACING: increased Clearance (distance through the air) and Creepage (surface distance) are increased. Protection against overvoltage transients

18 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 18 Overvoltage category The level and energy of voltage impulses is dependent on the location. The closer the location is to the power source, the higher the available fault current, the higher the category IEC defines four locations or categories: CAT IV“Origin of installation” Utility level and any outside cable run CAT IIIDistribution wiring, including “mains” bus, feeders and branch circuits; permanently installed loads. CAT IIReceptacle outlet circuit; plug-in loads. CAT IProtected electronic circuits

19 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 19 Category locations

20 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 20 Common sense ways to think of categories Overvoltage category The higher the short circuit fault current available, the higher the category High energy transients are much more dangerous, because they can trigger an arc blast The greater the source impedance, the lower the category Transients are dampened by system impedance as they travel from the point where they were generated. TVSS (transient voltage surge suppression) devices are sized larger (more joules) at the panel than at the receptacle outlet.

21 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 21 Determining the true voltage withstand rating WITHIN each Category: There are designated “working voltages” (50, 150, 300, 600, 1000 V). A higher voltage has a higher transient withstand CAT IV example: CAT IV – 600 V: 8 kV impulse CAT III example: CAT III – 600 V: 6 kV impulse CAT III – 1000 V: 8 kV impulse CAT II example: CAT II – 600 V: 4 kV impulse CAT II – 1000 V: 6 kV impulse

22 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 22 When is 600 V more than 1000 V? CAT III-600 V or CAT II-1000 V? The greater the source impedance,the lower the Category: CAT IV-600 V: 8 kV impulse CAT III-600 V: 6 kV impulse 2 ohm test source CAT II-1000 V: 6 kV impulse 12 ohm test source A CAT III-600 V 6k V test impulse has 6 times the current of a CAT II-1000 V 6 kV test impulse!

23 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 23 First the CAT, then the voltage Voltage rating by itself can be misleading. CAT III-1000 V (8 kV transient) is safer than CAT III-600 V (6k V transient) But CAT III-600 V is safer than CAT II-1000 V First know the category you are working in, then choose the appropriate voltage rating. If you ever measure power circuits, you should use a CAT III-600 V or CAT IV 600 V/CAT III-1000 V meter. And CAT IV 600 V/CAT III-1000 V test leads and probes.

24 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 24 CAT III- 600 V CAT III V CAT IV-600 V CAT III-1000 V Look for CAT III or CAT IV markings

25 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 25 Levels of CAT III protection CATTransient with Fuse andClearance Creepage 2  Source overload (air) (surface) Rating III-1000 V 8000 V1000 V16.0 mm16.0 mm IV-600 V III-600 V 6000 V1000 V11.5 mm14.0 mm II-1000 V II-600 V6000 V600 V11.5 mm11.5 mm

26 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 26 IEC sets standards but does not test or inspect for compliance. A manufacturer can claim to “design to” a standard with no independent verification. To be UL-Listed, CSA or TUV-Certified, a manufacturer must employ the listing agency to TEST the product’s compliance with the standard. Look for the listing agency’s emblem on the meter. “Listed” vs. “designed to”

27 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 27 Brand ABrand BBrand C Markings CAT II – 750 VCAT III D of C to 1000 V Input IEC CAT II – 1000 VCat III – 1000 VCAT III – 1000 V Creepage clearance 3.7 mm2.5 mm7.5 mm Doesn’tDoesn’tDoesn’t complycomplycomply with 5.7 mmwith 16 mmwith 16 mm Transient tests Input protectionDisplayInput protection componentswindowcomponents openedbreakdownopened under CAT II level voltage But can the product pass testing... “Designed to IEC ”

28 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 28 1 Flashover inside meter 3 Arcing at the terminals4 Arc blast 2 Fault current in test leads

29 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 29 Misuse of DMM in ammeter mode

30 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 30 Fuse protection on amps inputs

31 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 31 CAT IV-600 V CAT III-1000 V What’s the bottom line? If you work on power circuits, you need a CAT III-600 V or CAT IV-600 V/ CAT III 1000 V meter. Look for the CAT rating and voltage rating marked near the input jacks. CAT or voltage rating alone can be misleading Look for independent certification. UL 3111

32 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 32 What’s the bottom line? If you use a scope on power circuits, you need a CAT III-600 V scope and scope probes. Look for the CAT rating and voltage rating marked near the input jacks. CAT III-600 V

33 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 33 CAT IV-600 V CAT III-1000 V What’s the bottom line? Safety must be built-in An industrial grade meter devotes 10 % - 15 % of components exclusively to protection. Built-in protection against the most common safety hazards: High voltage transients and danger of arc-over Voltage contact while in continuity or resistance mode High integrity components Voltage measurement while test leads are plugged into amps jacks High energy fuses Overload protection on all functions 1000V high energy fuses

34 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 34 Unless a meter was specifically designed to meet CAT III-600 V or higher, it is not safe to use on power circuits. Most meters produced before 1997 do not meet the standard. Older Fluke 70 Series-III CAT II-600 V UNDER RATED New 170 Series CAT IV-600 V CAT III-1000 V Original Fluke 70 Series NOT RATED Newer meters also have additional features and capabilities Larger displays Back light 1000 Vac capability Capacitance Frequency Magnetic hangers Temperature 3X dc accuracy 2X ac accuracy Min / Max Record Probe holders Battery door What about my old meter?

35 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 35 Meter safety checklist Insist on these safety features: Fused current inputs (high energy fuses). Overload protection on the ohms function. Test leads that have shrouded connectors and finger guards. Recessed input jacks. Meet the latest safety standards (CAT III-600 V or CAT IV 600 V/CAT III 1000 V) and are independently certified.

36 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 36 Meter safety checklist Watch for: Cracked or oily case Broken input jacks No meter is safe when improperly used. Use meters within their rating. Use meters designed for measurements on power circuits. Use replacement fuses approved by the manufacturer.

37 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 37 Test lead safety checklist Don’t let test leads be a weak point CAT III-1000 V or CAT IV 600 V/ CAT III 1000 V rating Double insulation Shrouded connectors Arc Flash Hazard consideration using specialized probes and PPE materials Finger guards Insulation not damaged: not melted, cut, cracked, stretched Connectors: no insulation pulled away from end connectors Probe tips: not loose or broken off (too short)

38 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 38 Safety first Safe practices include but are not limited to: Whenever possible, work on de-energized circuits. Follow proper lock-out/tag-out procedures. Use well maintained tools and appropriate safety gear Safety glasses, insulated tools, insulating gloves, flash suits, insulating mats, etc. Don’t work alone. Practice safe measurement techniques. Always connect the grounded lead first, hot second. Disconnect the hot lead first, grounded lead second. Use the three-point test method. Test known circuit, measure target circuit, then re-test known circuit.

39 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 39 Oscilloscope safety Category ratings Select a scope and probes and clamps for the worst case category Voltage ratings Working voltage Transient voltage OvervoltageWorking voltagePeak impulseTest source category(dc or ac – rms to grnd)transient(Ohm = V/A) (20 repetitions) CAT I600V2500 V30 ohm source CAT I1000V4000 V30 ohm source CAT II600V4000 V12 ohm source CAT II 1000V 6000 V12 ohm source CAT III600V 6000 V 2 ohm source CAT III 1000V 8000 V 2 ohm source

40 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 40 Oscilloscope safety Line powered bench scopes Use a differential or isolation probe to separate the earth ground connection of the scope from high energy circuits that are also referenced to earth ground. Isolate bench scope grounds only in conjunction with differential/isolation probes. Differential Input + – 50Ω BNC Output

41 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 41 Typical use of a differential probe Oscilloscope safety Typical use of a differential probe DC VOLTAGE TO MOTOR

42 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 42 Oscilloscope safety Battery powered scopes - Have inherent ground isolation for superior common mode noise rejection Some come standard with CAT III 600 volt probes for measurements in high energy circuits

43 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 43 Oscilloscope safety Probes Beware of bench scope probes - they are usually CAT I volts Don’t use CAT I or II divider probes on CAT III circuits Don’t use probes with exposed metal parts Don’t use probes without specified ratings Read the manual for safe probe connections - they may vary greatly between instruments

44 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 44 Oscilloscope safety Safe practices De-energize circuits Use protective gear Do not exceed instrument voltage and category ratings Use dc coupling - ac coupling may not reveal dangerous voltages Use 3-point test method Test known live circuit Test target circuit Test known live circuit again Avoid holding or touching the scope if possible

45 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 45 CAT III circuits - Make sure you use Cat III leads AND scope AND current clamp Oscilloscope safety Current clamps Clamps have category and working voltage ratings Do not exceed them

46 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 46 CAT III-600 V What’s the bottom line? If you use a scope on power circuits, you need a CAT III-600 V scope and scope probes. CAT II scopes and probes are mainly for loads that plug into a receptacle outlet.

47 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 47 Equipment of overvoltage category IV is for use at the origin of the installation (utility service). Outside and service entrance Service drop from pole to building Run between meter and panel Overhead line to detached building Underground line to well pump22 CAT IV

48 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 48 Premises wiring: “mains”circuits, i.e., bus and feeders and distribution panels Permanently installed loads: motors, lighting systems, drives, load centers Typically separated from utility service by at least a single level of transformer isolation Does not include receptacle plug-in loads, except in the case of heavy appliance outlets with “short” connections to service entrance CAT III

49 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 49 Loads that plug in at receptacle outlet Examples of such equipment are appliances, portable tools and other household and similar loads All outlets at more than 10 m (30 ft) from Category III All outlets at more than 20 m (60 ft) from Category IV CAT II

50 ©2003 Fluke Corporation Electrical measurement safety 50 Equipment in which measures are taken to limit transient overvoltages to an appropriately low level Examples are protected electronic circuits. A copier that has an internal step-up transformer and 1000 Vdc is still a CAT I-1000 V machine, because the current levels are so low CAT I

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