The ability to read, comprehend, and write—in other words, to organize information into knowledge—can be viewed as tantamount to a skill.
There is a between the interrelated meaning-making activities of reading and writing. (Tierney, 1992, p. 250)
ESSENTIAL QUESTION FOR TODAY How can teachers tap into the “synergism” between reading and writing to teach the POWER of content knowledge to our students?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY Participants will be able to … 1. Explain how to determine level of text complexity for authentic text in their courses 2. Explain three ways to create argument prompts from using the texts they have the students read 3. Lead their PLTs in designing ongoing complex text/argument cycles for the content they teach.
R R Standard 10 By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical history/social studies literary nonfiction texts in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. R igorous Thinking ests on igorous Reading CCSS Reading for Science, Social Studies, Technical Subjects, and ELA Grades 11-12
INCREASINGLY COMPLEX TEXT The Key to Thinking and Learning And… research shows that the knowledge and skills needed for college are now equivalent to those needed in the workplace ( And… research shows that the knowledge and skills needed for college are now equivalent to those needed in the workplace ( American Diploma Project, 2004)
TEXT COMPLEXITY– HOW CAN I KNOW IT WHEN I SEE IT? Door Prize! You’re a Winner!
LET’S PRACTICE! VET A TEXT Find a Text. Room for Debate http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebatehttp://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate Find out the Quantitative Level. Flesch-Kincaid Readability Score. http://www.readability-score.com/ http://www.readability-score.com/ Assess the Qualitative Level. Continuum of Qualitative Features (placemat) Decide on Reader and Task Connections. Where student abilities and complexity of concepts/text structures intersect.
FIND THE TEXT http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate A Diploma in 10th Grade? Should High School Last Six Years? The End of Cash The Cost of Being an Artist Can Playing Ball Be Bad for Children? Who Won the Civil War? You, the Jury Is North Carolina a Model for State Budgets? http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/11/is-north-carolina-a-model-for-state- budgets
Flesch-Kincaid Readability Score. http://www.readability-score.com/ Highlight and Copy the digital text (Room for Debate website). Try to avoid the ads! Paste into Readability Score Text Box. Look at the F-K score on the right.
ASSESS THE QUALITATIVE LEVEL CCSS Qualitative Features of Text
CONSIDER READER AND TASK Complexity of Text Complexity of Task Scaffolds and Structures
are more likely to prompt critical thinking …“Reading and writing in combination (Tierney et al., 1989, p. 134) than when reading is separated from writing writing or when …combined with… answering questions."
Because writing is thinking, at least about the topic of study. (Fisher and Frey, 2013) they probably are not thinking fluently, thinking, if students are not writing fluently
WRITING TO THINK Everything’s an Argument! Cross-curricular CCSS Writing Standards Standard 1a Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
WRITING TO THINK Everything’s an Argument! Cross-curricular CCSS Writing Standards Standard 1b Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
WRITING TO THINK Everything’s an Argument! It’s developmentally appropriate for adolescents!
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY Claim Counterclaim Significance of Claim Evidence What facts, details, anecdotes, examples, stats show that the student’s assertion is right? What facts, details, anecdotes, examples, stats show that the other people’s ideas are not as good? What does the student assert ? What might other people who disagree say? What is valuable about the student’s assertion?
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY Reasoning Biases Discipline- appropriate format What format is normal and conventional for the discipline? Why is the student’s assertion better than the opposing points of view? What facts, details, anecdotes, examples, stats show that the student’s assertion is right? What facts, details, anecdotes, examples, stats show that the other people’s ideas are not as good? What preconceived notions and opinions do the sources have?
“Reading and writing intersect in natural ways when literate persons are actively using reading and writing to learn." (Hanson et. al, 1991, p. 58). intersect in natural ways
DAILY IN YOUR CLASSROOM IF THEY … Use a reading protocol THEY WRITE BCRs “Brief Constructed Responses” 3-2-1 Notes As you read, record… 3 Ideas the author gives thorough and relevant evidence for 2 Ideas the author gives weak or insufficient evidence for 1 Idea the author ignored, omitted for some reason, or didn’t think of Argument BCR Using your 3-2-1 notes to help you provide evidence, argue your position on this statement: The author of this source is a sneaky writer trying to manipulate his audience unfairly to accept his ideas unquestionably.
DAILY IN YOUR CLASSROOM IF THEY … Use a reading protocol THEY WRITE BCRs “Brief Constructed Responses” 4A’s As you read, record… Something you AGREE with Something you would ARGUE with Something you think the author wants you to just ASSUME without questioning Something that you would like to ASPIRE to Argument BCR Use your Agree With idea as your Claim. What are at least 3 Counterclaims that people who might disagree would present? What is the fallacy of each of the Counterclaims? You may bullet your ideas for this BCR.
WEEKLY IN YOUR CLASSROOM ACT-STYLE “ARGUMENT LITE” ACT-STYLE “ARGUMENT LITE” RubricRubric Scores 6 (high) to 1 30-minute response on demand Synthesis of your week’s reading and learning Related to ongoing public or discipline-specific debate that uses the week’s learning (Where do even the experts disagree?) Essay format, but go easy on the grammar and spelling Pre-teach and use rubric for holistic grading Clear understanding of task Takes position Offers “critical context” for ideas Examines different perspectives Evaluates implications Responds to counterarguments Ample, specific, logical evidence Elaborates reasoning Clear organization Transitions that reflect writer’s logic Effective and well developed introduction and conclusion elements Good command of language Few errors to distract the reader
WEEKLY IN YOUR CLASSROOM ACT-STYLE “ARGUMENT LITE” The Structure for EVERY Prompt Thomas Hobbes theorized that governments impose themselves upon a society in order to keep people from engaging in a war of “each against all.” 1 st paragraph – 4 sentences General introduction statement or rhetorical question about topic Some people believe… Other people believe… What do you believe… 2 nd paragraph– same every time John Locke suggested that the people in a society agree to the government they have through an unspoken social contract. Human beings are social creatures, and governments have been part of society since the beginning of time. Based on your study and experience, which theory do you believe has the best claim? In your essay, take a position on this question. You may write about either one of the two points of view given, or you may present a different point of view on the question. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.
LET’S PRACTICE! WRITE AN ARGUMENT-LITE PROMPT Use the Topic and Readings from Room for Debate Use the Prompt “template” Go for it! 1 st paragraph – 4 sentences General introduction statement or rhetorical question about topic Some people believe… Other people believe… What do you believe… 2 nd paragraph– 2 nd paragraph– In your essay, take a position on this question. You may write about either one of the two points of view given, or you may present a different point of view on the question. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.
MONTHLY IN YOUR CLASSROOM DEVELOPED RESPONSE Template Tasks Fill-in-the-blank “shells” Cross-curricular, aligned to CCSS Designed to elicit high-quality student responses Designed for responses to reading or research Provides a sample list of audiences/products for authentic writing Provides a sample list of additional “demands” to add to basic template (Honors/AP/IB or to “grow into”) Literacy Design Collaborative http://ldc.org/sites/default/files/LDC-Template- Task-Collection-2.0.A.pdf At home (scaffolds as needed) Cumulative synthesis of course learning to date Related to “real world” problem that uses the course learning THINK: Whose job would need to know what these students learned this week? Essay format. Build in time and structure for peer discussion and formative feedback about logic, grammar, and spelling Pre-teach and use rubric for holistic summative feedback
TRY ONE! [Insert optional question]. After researching ________ (informational texts) on ________ (content), write ________ (an essay or substitute) in which you argue ________ (content). Support your position with evidence from your research. Does North Carolina really have The Answer to state budget problems? Support your position with evidence from the articles that you read. Remember to discuss not only your claim but other possible counterclaims. in which you argue that NC does or does not have The Answer. write an op-ed article for the News and Observer After researching information from 4 articles from Room for Debate,
TRY ANOTHER! Task 10: [Insert optional question or scenario]. After reading ________ (literature or informational texts) on ________ (content), write ________ (an essay or substitute) in which you argue the cause(s) of ________ (content) and explain the effect(s) ________ (content). Support your discussion with evidence from the text(s). [Extra Demand] You are an intern in a state senator’s office. There is a bill coming up for a vote on whether to rebuild the Bonner Bridge over the Outer Banks as it was, or to redesign the whole thing. Your senator asks you to review environmental studies and to research the particulars of this case. Support your discussion with evidence from the texts. In your discussion, address the credibility and origin of sources in view of your research topic. in which you argue the causes of the current problems and explain the effects of simply rebuilding the original bridge. write a policy brief After reviewing your notes on inlets and barrier islands, and reading 2 opposing reports on Outer Banks bridge proposals,
WRITING TO THINK Doesn’t have to be solo Collaborative Writing Google Docs Doesn’t have to be “graded” Feedback only for the first one Then scaffold using the rubric – one or two skills each time Teach self-grading (with explanation and evidence from their own papers), with your feedback Teach peer- feedback ( with explanation and evidence from papers) Non-threatening – Choose the best one per group; vote on best one per class Teach students to consider themselves as authors of reading that others will do. Are they writing complex text? Flesch-Kincaid on Word: Review command/Spelling and Grammar Check out Matti Jalasvuori
Those who enrich themselves by learning to read with understanding and write with skill and clarity do so not only for themselves and their families, but for our nation.
CAN YOU... PLT Next Steps Text Complexity – walkthroughs collecting reading assignments; judge Flesch-Kincaid grade levels Argument Writing – create Read-Write-Discuss cycles PLT Next Steps Text Complexity – walkthroughs collecting reading assignments; judge Flesch-Kincaid grade levels Argument Writing – create Read-Write-Discuss cycles Sara Overby Coordinating Teacher forSecondary Literacy firstname.lastname@example.org Explain how to determine the level of text complexity for authentic text in your courses? Explain three ways to create argument prompts using the texts your students read? Lead your PLT in designing ongoing complex-text/argument cycles for the content you teach?