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Introducing the ‘Semantic Wave’ The making use of the Internet, the Web, and Service Orientated Architecture to define and query data in a new way Andy.

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Presentation on theme: "Introducing the ‘Semantic Wave’ The making use of the Internet, the Web, and Service Orientated Architecture to define and query data in a new way Andy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introducing the ‘Semantic Wave’ The making use of the Internet, the Web, and Service Orientated Architecture to define and query data in a new way Andy Mulholland CTO, Capgemini

2 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 20041 The Premise behind this presentation “ I wish to avail myself to all that is already known... “ Wilbur Wright in a letter to the Smithsonian about flight (100 years ago) "...unfortunately, we suffered from a persistent problem of not communicating the intelligence we had or being able to analyze the intelligence based on conventional models..." 9/11 Commission Report (July 2004) Its not about application’s recording transactions for historic reference purposes as in the past The need is for disparate facts to become associated as and when events trigger known or unknown needs The Internet and the Web has triggered changes, but what are they? Too much data to comprehend Too little information to act upon Too much data to comprehend Too little information to act upon

3 Some scene setting on Business and Technology The drivers and background

4 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 20043 The Business Headlines; its on line and its now! ‘e’ has had it’s day  Electronic interaction internally or externally is the norm  Everyone, every system, every device is connected at no cost  Redefines business communication Redesign of Process  Industry sectors and Enterprises can be dramatically more efficient  Standards suddenly become the most important aspect of IT  Redefines interaction & collaboration New Technology Emerges  The ‘Internet / Web’ model is leading to a new wave of technology & products  ‘Client – Services’ bring competitive edge to business solutions  Service Orientated Architecture lowers IT costs and integrates the new with old  Converged communications is occurring  Genuine Innovation has become possible

5 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 20044 Compliance means trading information threads Increasing legislation is driving technology spending in some areas Areas such as ‘SOX’ are being seen as ‘good practice by auditors everywhere Anti Software PiracyProposed?EUIntellect Property rights enforce Anti laundering of money FSIProposed?UKKnow your customer US health insurance portabilityIn effectUSHIPPA Review of corporate governanceProp. 2004UKCompanies Bill Integrity of financial report >$75mApril 2005USSarbanes-Oxley act Integrity of financial report <$75mJune 2004USSarbanes-Oxley act FSI Settlement on day after tradeJune 2005UST+1 FSI industry risk managementJan 2006GlobalBasel II Disclosure of info by public bodiesJan 2005UKFreedom of Information act Management of disposal of equipt.Aug 2004EUWaste Electric/Electronic eqpt Privacy & integrity of records1998UKData Protection Act Disclosure by e mail carriers2000UKReg. Investigatory Powers Internet Adverts and sales control2002EU Electronic Communications Act CommentEffectiveOriginTitle

6 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 20045 Changing behaviour; requires decision support The new jargon; Adaptive & Agile The ‘adaptive’ enterprise has the capability to organise its responses to market shifts having the ‘agility’ within its culture, processes and IT systems to readily change Expectations are changing in response to technology use; Letter, fax, phone, e mail 10 days to 10 minutes Customer - ResponseIndustry - Reaction Pressures to conform to reduce time to react in order to increase agility through collaboration Speed with which world events are impacting trading and market conditions World - Read Increasing role as an the externalisation medium creates new needs and places pressures on existing structure Technology The new jargon; Collaborative Building on its adaptive and agile investments internally to take advantage of increasing external capabilities for interactive communication allows ‘collaboration’ with partners to find the optimum decision in response to events

7 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 20046 A Technology Shift to ‘Client, or Web Services’ Applications, ERP & EAIProcesses, Services & EAI Events, Service Architect. Services Internal Use & Managmt.Shared Use with ControlFree Access & No Control Cost & Stability OptimisedValue & Agility InvestmentEffectiveness by Adapting Captured Historical DataPredictive Knowledge Info.Real Business Intelligence System Integration.Process DefinitionEvent Context Back Office Front Office Market Ecosystem Applications

8 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 20047 The Goal of the new Tech. Wave MOBILITY – promiscuous clients GRID – the availability of Resources Web or content Web Services or processes Semantic Stds OWL 1.0 WS-Eventing WS-RFURI Service Orientated Architecture Networking Services Agent Optimisation Standards Framework

9 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 20048 Service Orchestration needs Data Orchestration Goods Inwards Internal Integration to existing functional applications An internally specified EAI style integration framework with data marts or similar supporting shared data Book to Bill Orchestration of Order through to Invoice A shared set of processes between buyer, supplier and carrier Using externally standardised process and data is required for interchange

10 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 20049 Challenge; process and information together Information Flexibility Data Transaction Process Locally Unique Globally Standardised Globally Integrated Locally Co-ordinated Application Proprietary data ebXML Electronic Business XML WSDL Web Services Description Language UBL Universal Business Language XML Bus Doc DAM Digital Asset Management UDDI Universal Description Discovery & Integration XML eXtensible Mark-up language BPEL Business Process Execution Language Developing consistent approaches for data and processes External market standards are as important as internally developed choices

11 Moving from Proprietary Data to Standardised Data What XML does and does not do

12 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200411 XML is a starting point by providing a Format  XML itself conveys only content and structure, not presentation, behaviour, or meaning, and it’s Tags have no predefined meaning  The meaning or language must be specified outside of XML prose, namespace, ontology, UML diagram.. ….’Semantic’  XML provides a standard framework for making agreements about communication, but XML does not make those agreements.  It’s flexibility, and widespread adoption can also be seen as its problem; eXtensible Markup Language is designed to provide a Syntax for computers to exchange and read data List a number of versions

13 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200412 UBL adds a Language for common processes OASIS has now worked for 2 years to try and unify the chaotic world of XML formats with the UBL effort (Universal Business Language). UBL now includes specifications (XML schemas) for the following transactions:  Order and responses (simple and complex)  Order cancellation  Shipping notice (Dispatch advice)  Receipt advice  Invoice Universal Business Language defines standard Book to Bill sequences to use XML data interchange

14 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200413 The technology integration requirement Complex Blend of Structured & Unstructured Data and processes Access Web services (SOAP, WSDL) COM (ASP, VB, etc.) JavaBean Java APIs JSP tag library XSLT Descriptors Query language Command line Web UI HP Jena API RDF/OWL editors/viewers via evolving industry APIs Data Sources RDF native Structured data sources (e.g. RDBMS) via importation Metadata from unstructured data sources via entity extractors XML or other tagged formats via XSLT Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds

15 Creating complex descriptions that can be understood Introducing the Semantic Wave

16 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200415 Defining ‘Semantic’ and ‘Ontology’ Some other ways to define;  What the Web did for Humans and Content for Machines  The ability to understand complex nuances & multiple values  ‘I want to buy a cheap car radio for a Mercedes’ definition Technologies that allow the meaning and associations to be known and processed at the time of execution Mercedes Car Radio Buy Cheap

17 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200416  RDF is a collaboration from multiple W3c streams PICSSPEC, PICSNG, XMLData, MCFXXML, WF, URI, URI2 etc  Therefore it emerged to handle the ‘new’ requirements  Its use is embedded in Web Services, WS, standards  Major vendors support it; Microsoft, IBM, etc Resource Description Framework, RDF Resource Description Framework, RDF, is a mechanism for the encoding, exchange and reuse of structural metadata built using XML, but imposing structural constraints to ensure that there is a full unambiguous method to express semantic meanings. Abstract;

18 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200417  RDF provides a model for constant descriptions using; Resources – any object uniquely identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier, URI Properties – are associated with resources through ‘property types’ to link to; Values – atomic expressions of details such as text strings or numbers Descriptions – are the name given to a collection of properties and values associated to a resource RDF; the structure explained Example; Description Resource 1 Resource 2 Resource 3 Value Property Types 1 2 3 4

19 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200418  OWL emerged for use with the Web building on; SHOE and DAML+OIL, but particularly Description Logic or DL  It is designed to be used with XML and RDF  OWL is specified in six major W3C documents Overview, Semantics/Abstracts, Use Cases & Requirements, Test Cases, Reference, & Guide  A formal release OWL version 1.0 made in 2003 Introducing Ontology Web Language, OWL OWL is designed to provide applications that need to interpret content in forms normally understood by humans with expressive details by using a formal language vocabulary with defined semantic meanings to the words and a grammatical structure. Abstract;

20 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200419  OWL offers flexibility in use through three sub languages; OWL Lite – a simple version providing classification hierarchy with simple constraints that provides a quick migration for existing Thesauri and Taxonomies OWL DL – providing maximum expressiveness but with computational success guarantee produced by ensuring all classes are complete and closed therefore computationally complete with in a defined time OWL Full – offering maximum expressiveness to provide a full ontology augmenting any RDF description but open to allowing computational extensions to run indefinitely and therefore currently only used for research purposes OWL; the structure explained

21 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200420 Summary; XML, RDF and OWL relationships  XML – provides a surface syntax for structured documents, but imposes no semantic control on the meaning of those documents  XML Schema – is a language for restricting the structure of XML documents and allows XML to be extended with data types  RDF – is a data model for objects categorised as resources and the relationships between them providing simple semantics that can be represented using XML syntax  RDF Schema – is a vocabulary for describing properties and classes of RDF resources with a semantic structure for general hierarchies of properties and classes  OWL – adds extensive vocabulary for enriching the descriptions of properties and classes in a highly specific manner

22 Using the Semantic Wave Complex data and complex queries become possible

23 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200422 A new capability for data/queries Object Model Directed Graph Relational Model Hierarchal Model Complexity Of Query Complexity Of Data Pre determined Relationships Query; all Mercedes C class serviced Can discover new undocumented Relationships Query; all cars serviced by john last week for Account customers Determined by the Application Query; car service Records by customer

24 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200423 What is Relationship Discovery?  “Find all organizations that have a relationship with Acme Corp.”  How would you “google” this?  It can only be found by exploring relationships Example XYZ Corp Acme Corp. RPQ Corp Acme Corp. S.E.C. Acme Corp. Berkshire Corp. Acme Corp. Acme Corp. US Manufacturers Association  This is achieved through using ‘Directed Graph’ tecniques

25 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200424 Introducing Directed Graphs  A series of RDF statements forms a data structure known as a directed graph  A directed graph is a collection of things and the relationships between them  A native directed graph data management model allows combine, analyze and query activities on RDF / OWL metadata  The data elements are constants but unlike a relational data model the threads are dynamically constructed in response to the requirement  Directed graphs allow Intelligence Agents to use all available data in optimization techniques

26 Summary plus some thoughts

27 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200426 Complex new requirements are emerging Compliance views are of external trading process not internal functions The same views should provide the basis for improving competitive performance d Data Warehouse Or Mart App Data App Current BI Historic Application Data ‘Back’ Office Application data is Transformed into a Data Warehouse or Mart optimised towards specific queries around past Application transactions not present Events Compliance Require Business Process Focussed ‘Front’ Office processes that relate to Business activities performed and regulated rather than back office transaction recording relating to internal functions and applications structure Process based Event Driven Activities b BI decision Support Event Driven Collaboration Interactions with other enterprises in the market place require ‘right time’ ability To make optimal decisions through interaction collaborative negotiations then to transact as a recorded process Market based Market Driven Activities BI queries Function based

28 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200427 b The Technology Zones Externally created Value through more efficient market interaction Internal Value created through process redesign Internal Cost Reduction by shared resources License cost savings Linux Platform R Rationalisation Storage Area Networks Server Virtualisation Grid Computing Security Web Services Business Intelligence Management tools Development Tools Service Orientated Architecture Mobility Event Driven Real Innovation ……………… etc

29 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200428 Internal Data Harvard Review – does IT matter? Transformation Improve existing Process Respond to external Pressure From the Market Create external Pressure in the Market Redesign to new Process Has IT lost the capability to differentiate a business? Or is it we are looking in the wrong way to use new technologies and capabilities@ External Early Adopter Late Adopter World Class Practitioner Mature Follower Lacking in Differentiation Creating Differentiation Traditional Approach Improvement

30 Andy Mulholland – Chief Technology Officer June 200429 Different Criteria for Purchase Low High Business Importance Change Low High Business Importance Change Low High Business Importance Business Change “Develop Breakthrough Business Models” Innovate/Lead “Gain ROI on Technology Investments” “Deliver Commodity Services” Buy on thought leadership andindividual skills; justify through competitive advantage Maintain Position Cost Manage Reduce Exposure Buy experience and method for risk management; justify through monetary gain Buy on tools, technique and Right Shore delivery; justify on cost & mgmt overheads Buy on investment in service centre and staff; justify on transactional costing “Maintain Existing Technology” Cost Benefit Driven Business Advantage Driven

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