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[ 網路科技融入語言課程之分類 ] 與 [ 英文學習網站評量準則 ] 劉繼仁 成功大學 外文系 與 外語中心.

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Presentation on theme: "[ 網路科技融入語言課程之分類 ] 與 [ 英文學習網站評量準則 ] 劉繼仁 成功大學 外文系 與 外語中心."— Presentation transcript:

1 [ 網路科技融入語言課程之分類 ] 與 [ 英文學習網站評量準則 ] 劉繼仁 成功大學 外文系 與 外語中心

2 網路科技應用到數位語言學習的三大類型 按照學習控制權所有人的不同,應用於語言課程的網路科技可 統分為三大類型 (Liu & Chen, 2007) : – 類型 A :整合了電腦媒介通訊工具 (CMC) 的語言課程 指那些並不指定教學內容、但可提供語言學習者輸入書面或是口語訊息以 進行溝通和語言學習的科技。可以是同步或非同步的形式。 – 類型 B :整合了學習管理系統 (LMS) 的語言課程 如同網路教學平台功能的虛擬教室,提供師生雙向即時和非即時的電腦媒 介通訊工具,讓教師能在線上放置教學資料、學生們在線上空間彼此交流 合作,更提供了學生們隨時隨地可使用的評量應用和資源。 – 類型 C :整合了電腦輔助語言學習軟體 (CALL) 的語言課程 指線上語言學習的各式課程和學習單元,如 BBC 英語學習網站和國內數所 大學共同開發的 CANDLE 網站,以及其他網路輔助語言學習單元(如聽力、 閱讀、單字、文法等)、線上家教、語言測驗系統、虛擬情境、語言遊戲 等。使用者可在此類課程內獨自完成學習任務。 2

3 劉繼仁與陳世威 (2007) 根據此分類法進一步說明如下: 分類的有效性和可能的問題 – 如何歸類如 YouTube 、部落格等所謂的「出版」工具? 網路科技應用到數位語言學習的三大類型 3

4 數位語言學習之現況 從理論 ( 學術領域 ) 來分析數位語言學習現況 ( 劉繼仁, 2007) : – 數位學習 政府的支持與鼓勵 全球教學的潮流 台灣學生的網路學習特性 – 電腦媒介溝通 (CMC) 電腦媒介溝通工具:同步 v.s. 非同步形式、單向影音播放 v.s. 雙向影音互動工具 網路上的語言技巧發展:聽力、口語、閱讀、寫作 – 網路教學-學習管理系統 – 電腦輔助語言學習 CALL 相關的國際期刊: Language Learning & Technology 、 Computer Assisted Language Learning Journal 、 ReCALL Journal 、 System 、 CALICO Journal CALL 的學術主流: CALL 相關的理論發展、 CMC 與語言學習的相關研究、語 料庫的研發、 CALL 的實效驗證 (Liou, 2006) 。 CALL 研究的廣度與深度:進行全面性、個別環境的人種誌 (ethnography) 調查; 對個別環境進行功能性研究 (Bax, 2003) 。 – 語料庫的發展與應用 4

5 數位語言學習之現況 從實務 ( 使用特色 ) 來分析數位語言學習現況 ( 劉繼仁, 2007) : – 結合網路科技的使用 – 無線與無所不在的學習( wireless and ubiquitous learning ) – 電子讀寫( electronic literacy ) – 文化探索學習( inquiry-based culture learning ) – 文法精緻化與情境化的發展 – 雙語( bilingual )或多語( multilingual )的使用與發展 – 單字的演變與新詞彙的形成 – 情緒符號( emoticon )的使用 – 合作學習( collaborative learning ) – 防抄襲( anti-plagiarism )觀念的推廣與反抄襲機制的建立 5

6 英文學習網站評量準則- Introduction (Liu, Liu, &Hwang, 2010) Most studies only focus on developing evaluation guidelines based on experts’ comments or theoretical knowledge, and the opinions of language learners are often neglected or undervalued. A multi-dimensional set of criteria is developed to help learners and teachers evaluate the quality of English learning websites. These evaluation guidelines are based on: – Web usability – Learning materials – Functionality of assisting language learning – Technology integration – Learner preferences Participants: university students and professors Research methodology: Design-based Research Fifty-eight evaluation criteria were refined and finalized. 6

7 Multidimensional components for English learning website evaluation It is important to clarify certain items related to English learning: – Four language skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking – Major language areas: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and culture (Levy, 2009; Levy & Stockwell, 2006). – The ACTFL Standards for Foreign Language Learning (NSFLEP, 1996) mainly considers the concept of “the five Cs”, namely communications, cultures, connections, comparisons, and communities. Language learners’ preferences and satisfaction: – Pituch and Lee (2006) argue that if users do not use a learning system or a website based on learner preferences, they will not benefit from it. Web usability: – Web usability concerns how and what people will benefit from using the selected website, with a focus on allowing users to engage themselves in hypermedia- based, content-rich learning programs and contexts. 7

8 Multidimensional components for English learning website evaluation Learning materials of English learning websites: – Online learning materials refer to the learning and teaching resources supplied by an educational website, which could be in written, audio, or video form (Shield & Kukulska-Hulme, 2006). Website functionality of assisting language learning: – The various uses with or without dynamic materials in the different types of ICT- integrated online learning contexts need further investigation to identify their effectiveness, efficiency, and values with regard to facilitating the development of linguistic and communicative abilities (Chapelle, 2009; Levy, 2009; Levy & Stockwell, 2006; Liu & Chen, 2007). 8

9 Method The researchers used four-phase procedure and utilized both qualitative and quantitative research methods to construct and refine the evaluation criteria in 2008–2009. The researchers followed most of the guidelines developed by Collins et al. (2004). 9

10 Results 10 Regular evaluation criteria for web usability F-C-WU-1The website is free of charge. Users do not need to apply for membership to use it. F-C-WU-2 The website offers a sitemap and provides a FAQ section for users to see the structure of the site and find answers to common questions. F-C-WU-3The speed of page-loading should be as fast as possible. Generally, it only takes a couple of seconds to load pages of plain text. F-C-WU-4 The website provides loading speed information if it takes a while to load the pages. For instance, it will tell users that it still needs 20 s to load the remaining data. F-C-WU-5Users can browse any pages of the website without encountering any broken or faulty links. F-C-WU-6 The website regularly updates information, and this is clearly indicated, for example by an icon or the word NEW in front of the new material. F-C-WU-7 The speed of downloading information on the website is steady, and lets users how long it’s going to take. For instance, 56% of the file has downloaded, and 20 seconds are needed for the remaining data. F-C-WU-8The website has a search function. F-C-WU-9The website could be found easily from any well-known search engine. F-C-WU-10The website contains a forum for users to conduct discussions with each other. F-C-WU-11The website displays an address for users to send their questions or comments to the site’s managers. F-C-WU-12The website provides information on the sources, authors and difficulty levels of the learning materials presented. F-C-WU-13 There is level of consistency between the website’s theme and the arrangement of content, and the individual design elements (text font/color, background images, Flash/JavaScript, pictures and so on) have clear intentions. F-C-WU-14 The website has a bandwidth which is adequate for a reasonable amount of users to use this website at the same time without encountering any problems. F-C-WU-15 Every webpage of the website should be ad-free. If the website is not ad-free, then it should minimize the amount of ads and place them in a non-distracting way. F-C-WU-16 The layout of this website should be easy to learn and use. If the layout and design are too complicated, the website should provide online-help or a step-by-step demonstration. F-C-WU-17The website can operate on different kinds of systems, such as on Windows or Macintosh computers.

11 Results 11 Regular evaluation criteria for learning materials F-C-LM-1The website can provide learning materials that represent English in common usage in order to help learners make use of what they have learned in their daily lives. F-C-LM-2The website provides learners with supplementary information regarding the course contents. F-C-LM-3The website can provide learners with authentic learning materials so that they can learn the common expressions that native speakers actually use. F-C-LM-4 The website can provide transcriptions of the audio files of English conversations or narrations. Learners can thus further check and comprehend the vocabulary, sentences, and content that they have just heard. F-C-LM-5 The website can provide audio or video files for learners to familiarize themselves with the pronunciations of individual words, or sentences and thus improve their speaking. F-C-LM-6 With regard to the arrangement of the course content, the website can emphasize the key points of a lesson by using certain colors, fonts, font sizes, and locations. For instance, using boldface or italic type to highlight the key vocabulary. F-C-LM-7 The website offers authentic audio files so that learners know the real pronunciation of words, sentences and conversations. In addition, the website provides alternative pronunciations for reference. For instance, either can be pronounced/i □ ð □ r/or/a □ ð □ r/. F-C-LM-8 The website offers diverse course contents regarding listening, speaking, reading and writing. For instance, reading materials include different genres, such as essays, novels, dialogues and so on. F-C-LM-9 The website provides the necessary pictures, Flash animations, audio and video files to facilitate learning. For instance, presenting the word hotdog with a picture of the food. F-C-LM-10 The website can arrange lessons and tests according to the degree of difficulty, and learners can then choose lessons based on their current learning progress. For instance, the lessons can be arranged according to the different GEPT levels. F-C-LM-11 The website provides English learning materials related to different topics so that learners can learn other subjects through English. For instance, learners can choose an English lesson about advertising and promotional strategies if they are interested in business. F-C-LM-12The website provides learning materials about British and American cultures so that learners can recognize the differences between them. F-C-LM-13The website can teach learners grammar, using both direct instruction and examples. F-C-LM-14The website can categorize lessons and tests according to different features. For instance, Business English, Daily English, Oral English, Written English, and so on. F-C-LM-15 The website provides diverse listening, speaking, reading and writing tests for learners to take, so that they can engage in different learning modes. For instance, the listening skill training contains regular conversations, formal speeches, news reports, and so on. F-C-LM-16The website can offer or link to an online dictionary. Additional evaluation criteria which are more suitable for evaluating websites with a membership system, or requiring additional charge F-C-LM-17The website offers speech practice and recognition software so that learners can have opportunities to practice their speaking skills. F-C-LM-18 The website provides writing software so that learners can have opportunities to practice their writing skills. For instance, users can practice sentence combination or free writing on different topics. F-C-LM-19 The website provides learners with opportunities to interact with others. Learners can perform cooperative learning based on different learning tasks. For instance, learners can discuss a chosen topic in the chat room or forum.

12 Results 12 Regular Evaluation Criteria for Functionality of Assisting Language Learning F-C-F-1 The website provides various types of exam questions, and it will reveal the related score or achievement level after learners have finished each test. F-C-F-2 After learners have finished taking tests, the website can show their errors, explain the mistakes, and give the correct answers. F-C-F-3 The website provides a variety of examples in order to inform users that there are other correct expressions that could be used. For instance, the expressions ‘How are you?’ and ‘How’s everything?’ can both be used as greetings. F-C-F-4 The website can provide learners with learning tips on reading, writing, listening, and speaking learning skills, as well as the explanations of common mistakes. F-C-F-5The website offers details of its English teachers’ backgrounds and areas of specialization. Additional evaluation criteria which are more suitable for evaluating websites with a membership system, or requiring additional charge F-C-F-6 The website can inform learners of their current learning progress and the schedule they should be following. For example, the learner will receive regular progress-reminder s from the website. F-C-F-7 In order to give the learners’ more frequent opportunities to use English, the website offers opportunities for learners to interact and hold discussions in online groups. F-C-F-8 The website offers speech practice and recognition software to assess the learners’ oral skills, as well as give appropriate feedback, such as pronunciation correction. F-C-F-9 The website offers writing software to assess the users’ writing skills and gives appropriate feedback, such as alerts on misspellings. F-C-F-10 The website provides opportunities for learners to interact with native English speakers. For instance, one-to- one/one-to-many teaching with native teachers. F-C-F-11 If the website works with English teachers, it should provide learners with opportunities to communicate with them about their courses, tests and any difficulties or suggestions that they have. F-C-F-12The website has a reward system to encourage learners to keep learning English.

13 Results 13 Regular Evaluation Criteria for Technology Integration F-C-TI-1This technology is widely used. F-C-TI-2This technology is easy to install. F-C-TI-3Users already own this technology. F-C-TI-4It costs money to obtain this technology. F-C-TI-5The price is inexpensive if users need to purchase this technology. F-C-TI-6This technology is easy to operate. F-C-TI-7This technology is easy to acquire and use. F-C-TI-8This technology has regular upgrades. F-C-TI-9This technology enhances the efficiency of English learning. F-C-TI-10 This technology needs a certain bandwidth for broadband transmission. For instance, voice chat rooms need more than 2 MB bandwidth for smooth audio transmission. Thank you very much!


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