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Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking By A.S. Hashim. MD.

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Presentation on theme: "Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking By A.S. Hashim. MD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking By A.S. Hashim. MD

2 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking Supplication بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

3 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah, a highly valued book, consists of: – 254 sermons, – 48 letters, and – 212 sayings of Imam Ali Nahjul Balaaghah is unique to Imam Ali None of the Sahaaba was ever able to produce anything like it: 1. neither in substance 2. nor in literary eloquence. No wonder Ali was referred to as: 1. Sayyid al-Bulaghaa' (Pinnacle of Literary Expression) and 2. Sayyid al-Fu'qahaa, (Pinnacle of the Jurisprudents)

4 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking References about Faculty of Thinking Nahjul Balaaghah contains 6 references about Faculty of Thinking The quotes appear in various sermons, –said at variable occasions and –about different subjects. 1. The Arabic quotes are from the book of Nahjul Balaaghah, by Dr. Subhi Al-Salih, and so is the numbering of the sermons and pages, 1st Edition, Beirut The Number of the sermons may differ by a factor of 1 in other volumes of Nahjul Balaaghah 3. The references are quotes by Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni in vols. I & IV of his work (see Al-Islam.org, internet)

5 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking Time Element The majority of Ali's sayings and speeches were stated: –During his Khilaafah when in Kufa, –At Different Places –At Different Occasions –Often at Khutba of Jumu’ah

6 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 155, Page 216 Ali: Admiration of God’s Works This is part of the Sermon in praise of Allah and the wonder about Allah’s Creation, Ali says in the following passage: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Yamani, al-Taraz, I, 334.

7 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 155, Ali: Admiration of God’s Works Let the praise be to Allah, whose essence overwhelms the mind, and His majesty restrains the intellect, and whose Realm is beyond reach. He is Allah, the True and the Manifest of Truth; more Manifest than insight can see. Intellect cannot comprehend Him by fixing limits for Him (since that would attribute shape to Him). Neither can Imagination reach Him through quantifying Him (for that would attribute body to Him). He created creatures without an example or counsel, nor assistance of a helper. His creation was accomplished by His Command, and it relinquished to His obedience, responding to Him with no defiance, obeying Him with no resistance. الْحَمْدُ للهِِ الَّذِي انْحَسَرَتِ الاَوْصَافُ عَنْ كُنْهِ مَعْرِفَتِهِ، وَرَدَعَتْ عَظَمَتُهُ الْعُقُولَ، فَلَمْ تَجِدْ مَسَاغاً إِلَى بُلُوغِ غَايَةِ مَلَكُوتِهِ! هَوَ اللهُ الْحَقُّ الْمُبِينُ، أَحَقُّ وَأَبْيَنُ مِمَّا تَرَى الْعُيُونُ، لَمْ تَبْلُغْهُ الْعُقُولُ بِتَحْدِيد فَيَكُونَ مُشَبَّهاً، وَلَمْ تَقَعْ عَلَيْهِ الاَْوْهَامُ بِتَقْدِير فَيَكُونَ مُمَثَّلاً. خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ عَلَى غَيْرِ تَمْثِيل، وَلاَ مَشُورَةِ مُشِير، وَلاَ مَعُونَةِ مُعِين، فَتَمَّ خَلْقُهُ بِأَمْرِهِ، وَأَذْعَنَ لِطَاعَتِهِ، فَأَجَابَ وَلَمْ يُدَافِعْ، وَانْقَادَ وَلَمْ يُنَازِعْ

8 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 160, Page 225 Ali: In Praise of Allah This is part of the Sermon in praise of Allah, appealing to the mind to think and wonder, Ali says in the following passage: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi', bab al-ya's wa al-qana`ah

9 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 160, Ali: In Praise of Allah Dear Lord! We know not the essence of Thy Majesty but we know that thou art Ever- living, Self-subsisting, neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Thee…….. What we see and wonder about Thy creation proves Thy Might and Dominion; And of greater wonder is what is hidden from us, (that our sight cannot reach, minds cannot comprehend, and barriers of the unknown have been cast). He who frees his heart and exerts his mind to know how Thou established Thy throne, created Thy creatures and Thy skies, and spread Thy earth on the waves of water: his eyes would return rebuffed, his mind defeated, his ears eager and his thinking in a loss, wandering. فَلَسْنَا نَعْلَمُ كُنْهَ عَظَمَتِكَ إِلاَّ أَنَّا نَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ: حَيٌّ قَيُّومٌ، لاَ تَأْخُذُكَ سِنَةٌ وَلاَ نَوْمٌ،……. وَمَا الَّذِي نَرَى مِنْ خَلْقِكَ، وَنَعْجَبُ لَهُ مِنْ قُدْرَتِكَ، وَنَصِفُهُ مِنْ عَظِيمِ سُلْطَانِكَ، وَمَا تَغَيَّبَ عَنَّا مِنْهُ، وَقَصُرَتْ أَبْصَارُنَا عَنْهُ، وَانْتَهَتْ عُقُولُنَا دُونَهُ، وَحَالَتْ سَوَاتِرُ الْغُيُوبِ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُ أَعْظَمُ. فَمَنْ فَرَّغَ قَلْبَهُ، وَأَعْمَلَ فِكْرَهُ، لِيَعْلَمَ كَيْفَ أَقَمْتَ عَرْشَكَ، وَكَيْفَ ذَرَأْتَ خَلْقَكَ، وَكَيْفَ عَلَّقْتَ فِي الْهَوَاءِ سمَـاوَاتِكَ، وَكَيْفَ مَدَدْتَ عَلى مَوْرِ الْمَاءِ أَرْضَكَ، رَجَعَ طَرْفُهُ حَسِيراً، وَعَقْلُهُ مَبْهُوراً، وَسَمْعُهُ وَالَهِاً، وَفِكْرُهُ حَائِراً.

10 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 165, Page 238 Ali: in awe of creation This is part of the Sermon about the wonders of creation, and praising Allah. Ali says in the following passage: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, I; 2. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, I, 27, II, 140 (d.w.r), III, 238 (`a.s.l.j).

11 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 165, Ali: in awe of creation Glory be to Allah when the minds are too feeble to explain the creation put before their eyes, and which they see bounded, shaped, arranged and colored. And He enfeebled the tongues from describing His attributes, or expanding enough in its praise of His qualities. Glory be to Allah who has assigned feet even to the ants and gnats, as well as to those above them of His creatures. And He made it incumbent on Himself that no creature in which He infuses the spirit, would move but that death is ahead of it, and cessation is its final end. فَسُبْحَانَ الَّذِي بَهَرَ الْعُقُولَ عَنْ وَصْفِ خَلْق جَلاَّهُ لِلْعُيُونِ، فَأَدْرَكَتْهُ مَحْدُوداً مُكَوَّناً، وَمُؤَلَّفاً مُلَوَّناً، وَأَعْجَزَ الاَْلْسُنَ عَنْ تَلْخِيصِ صِفَتِهِ، وَقَعَدَ بِهَا عَنْ تَأْدِيَةِ نَعْتِهِ! فَسُبْحَانَ مَنْ أَدْمَجَ قَوَائِمَ الذَّرَّةِ وَالْهَمَجَةِ إلَى مَا فَوْقَهُمَا مِنْ خَلْقِ الْحِيتَانِ وَالاَْفْيِلَةِ! وَوَأَى عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَلاَّ يَضْطَرِبَ شَبَحٌ مِمَّا أَوْلَجَ فِيهِ الرُّوحَ، إِلاَّ وَجَعَلَ الْحِمَامَ مَوْعِدَهُ، وَالْفَنَاءَ غَايَتَهُ.

12 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 182, Page 261 Ali: About Allah’s Attributes Ali delivered this sermon in praise of Allah's attributes, His creatures, and His being above physical limitations. See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Wasiti, `Uyun al-hikam, see al-Majlisi, vol. 77, 310; 2. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, II, 145, 198.

13 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 182, Ali: About Allah’s Attributes He wasn’t born, Glory be to Him, so no other could share with Him in Glory. Nor did Allah give birth to any, so as to be inherited. Time and period have not preceded Him. Increase and decrease do not occur to Him. But Allah has manifested Himself to our minds through observing His meticulous control and firm decree. Among the proofs of His creation is the creation of the heavens as fastened without pillars that stand without support. He called them and they responded obediently and in humility without being tardy nor contradictory. Were it not for the acknowledgement to His Godhead in obedience He would not have made them the place for His throne, the abode of His angels, and the objective of the pure utterances and the righteous deeds of His creatures. لَمْ يُولَدْ سُبْحَانَهُ فَيَكُونَ فِي الْعِزِّ مُشَارَكاً، وَلَمْ يَلِدْ فَيَكُونَ مُوْرُوثاً هَالِكاً، وَلَمْ يَتَقَدَّمْهُ وَقْتٌ وَلاَ زَمَانٌ، ولَمْ يَتَعَاوَرْهُ زِيَادَةٌ وَلاَ نُقْصَانٌ، بَلْ ظَهَرَ لِلْعُقُولِ بِمَا أَرَانَا مِنْ عَلاَمَاتِ التَّدْبِيرِ الْمُتْقَنِ، وَالْقَضَاءِ الْمُبْرَمِ. فَمِنْ شَوَاهِدِ خَلْقِهِ خَلْقُ السَّماوَاتِ مُوَطَّدَات بِلاَ عَمَد، قَائِمَات بِلاَ سَنَد، دَعَاهُنَّ فَأَجَبْنَ طَائِعَات مُذْعِنَات، غَيْرَ مُتَلَكِّئَات وَلاَ مُبْطِئَات، وَلَوْ لاَ إقْرَارُهُنَّ لَهُ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ وَإِذْعَانُهُنَّ بِالطَّوَاعِيَةِ، لَمَا جَعَلَهُنَّ مَوْضِعاً لِعَرْشِهِ، وَلاَ مَسْكَناً لِمَلائِكَتِهِ، وَلاَ مَصْعَداً لِلْكَلِمِ الطَّيِّبِ وَالْعَمَلِ الصَّالِحِ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ.

14 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 186, Page 275 Ali: in Sermon of Tawhid This is part of the Sermon about Tawhid (Oneness of God), and in praising Allah, Ali says in the following passage: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, I, 138; 2. al-Saduq, al-Tawhid, 96, 320, 324; 3. al-Saduq, al-'Amali, 205; 4. al-Mufid, al-'Irshad, 131; 5. al-Mufid, al-'Ikhtisas, 236; 6. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirah, 157; 7. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 299; 8. al-Murtada, al-'Amali, I, 103.

15 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 186, Ali: in Sermon of Tawhid But the extinction of the world after its creation is no stranger than its first formation and invention. How could it be, that even if all animals (birds, beasts, cattle and other species), its people and sagacious men -- all jointly try to create just a mosquito, they will not be able to do so, nor will they understand what way is to its creation. As such, their minds would be wandering, bewildered in its mechanics, their powers falling short and failing, returning disappointed and weary, knowing that they are defeated and admitting failure, and realizing that they are too feeble even to eradicate it. وَلَيْسَ فَنَاءُ الدُّنْيَا بَعْدَ ابْتِدَاعِهَا بِأَعْجَبَ مِنْ إنْشَائِهَا وَاخْتِرَاعِهَا، وَكَيفَ وَلَوْ اجْتَمَعَ جَمِيعُ حَيَوانِهَا مِنْ طَيْرِهَا وَبَهَائِمِهَا، ومَا كَانَ مِنْ مُرَاحِهَا وَسَائِمِهَا، وَأَصْنَافِ أَسْنَاخِهَا وَأَجْنَاسِهَا، وَمُتَبَلِّدَةِ أُمَمِهَا وَأَكْيَاسِهَا، عَلَى إِحْدَاثِ بَعُوضَة، مَا قَدَرَتْ عَلَى إِحْدَاثِهَا، وَلاَ عَرَفَتْ كَيْفَ السَّبِيلُ إِلَى إِيجَادِهَا، وَلَتَحَيَّرَتْ عُقُولُهَا فِي عِلْمِ ذلِكَ وَتاهَتْ، وَعَجِزَتْ قُوَاهَا وَتَنَاهَتْ، وَرَجَعَتْ خَاسِئَةً حَسِيرَةً، عَارِفَةً بِأَنَّهَا مَقْهُورَةٌ، مُقِرَّةً بِالْعَجْزِ عَنْ إِنْشَائِهَا، مُذْعِنَةً بِالضَّعْفِ عَنْ إفْنَائِهَا؟!

16 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 224, Page 347 Ali: oppression and misappropriation This is part of the Sermon about Oppression and misappropriation, and Ali’s stand in regard to these points. Ali says in the following passage: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Saduq, al-'Amali, 369; 2. Sibt, Tadhkirah, 155; 3. al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, bab al-khayr wa al-salah; 4. Ibn Shahr Ashub, al-Manaqib, II, 109.

17 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking In Sermon 224, Ali: oppression and misappropriation By Allah, I would rather lie on prickly thorn, or be in chains as a prisoner, than meet Allah and His Messenger on the Day of Judgment as an oppressor or a usurper of any worldly goods. And how can I oppress while life moves fast towards demolition, to remain under the earth for a long time. By Allah, I saw my brother Aqil fallen in destitution …… For me your world is lighter than the leaf in the mouth of a locust chewing it. What has Ali to do with bounties or pleasures that fade? We take refuge in Allah from the slumber of the mind and the evils of mistakes, and from Allah we seek His aid. وَاللهِ لاََنْ أَبِيتَ عَلَى حَسَكِ السَّعْدَانِ مُسَهَّداً، أَوْ أُجَرَّ فِي الاَْغْلاَلِ مُصَفَّداً، أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أَلْقَى اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ظَالِماً لِبَعْضِ الْعِبَادِ، وَغَاصِباً لِشَيْء مِنَ الْحُطَامِ، وَكَيْفَ أَظْلِمُ أَحَداً لِنَفْس يُسْرِعُ إِلَى الْبِلَى قُفُولُهَا، وَيَطُولُ فِي الثَّرَى حُلُولُهَا؟! وَاللهِ لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ عَقِيلاً وَقَدْ أمْلَقَ ……. وَإِنَّ دُنْيَاكُمْ عِنْدِي لاََهْوَنُ مِنْ وَرَقَة فِي فَمِ جَرَادَة تَقْضَمُهَا، مَا لِعَلِيّ وَلِنَعِيم يَفْنَى، وَلَذَّة لاَ تَبْقَى! نَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنْ سُبَاتِ الْعَقْلِ، وَقُبْحِ الزَّلَلِ، وَبِهِ نَسْتَعِينُ.

18 Nahjul Balaaghah about Faculty of Thinking Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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