Presentation on theme: "“IT TAKES A VILLAGE TO RAISE A CHILD” (UNKNOWN AFRICAN NATIVE) By Jennifer Cepeda."— Presentation transcript:
“IT TAKES A VILLAGE TO RAISE A CHILD” (UNKNOWN AFRICAN NATIVE) By Jennifer Cepeda
AN INTRODUCTION TO NYS COMMON CORE LEARNING STANDARDS The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (“the Standards”) are the culmination of an extended, broad-based effort to fulfill the charge issued by the states to create the next generation of K–12 standards in order to help ensure that all students are college and career ready in literacy no later than the end of high school.
A PORTRAIT OF STUDENTS WHO MEET THE STANDARDS As students advance through the grades and master the standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, they are able to exhibit with increasing fullness and regularity these capacities of the literate individual listed below. They demonstrate independence. They build strong content knowledge. They respond to the varying demands of audience, task, purpose, and discipline. They comprehend as well as critique. They value evidence. They use technology and digital media strategically and capably. They come to understand other perspectives and cultures.
NEW YORK STATE K-5 GRADE COMMON CORE READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE The k-5 reading standards for literature offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.
5 TH GRADE READING STANDARD FOR LITERACY Reading: Text complexity and the growth of comprehension The Reading standards place equal emphasis on the sophistication of what students read and the skill with which they read. Standard 10 defines a grade-by-grade “staircase” of increasing text complexity that rises from beginning reading to the college and career readiness level. CCLS.RL.10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Essential Questions: Thinking about the composition of your current class, what are the range of independent reading levels? What percentage of the readers in your current class are meeting CCLS #10 engaging in reading complex texts with independence and attaining comprehension?
READING ASSESSMENTS TOOLS AND DATA COLLECTION Teachers College Running Records: Fiction Reading Level Assessments The TCRWP offers a set of informal reading inventories for narrative texts which correlates to the Fountas and Pinnell system for leveling books. These assessments help teachers identify which level of texts students can read independently and will therefore be able to practice all the reading strategies they are learning during the Reading Workshop. The assessments provide an analysis of comprehension, miscues, and, fluency (fluency is only assessed for Levels J-Z).
INDEPENDENT READING LEVELS Fountas and Pinnell Leveling System: a system of reading levels developed by Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell to support their guided reading method. Reading text is classified according to various parameters, such as word count, number of different words, number of high frequency words, sentence length, sentence complexity, word repetitions, illustration support, etc.
MORE READING ASSESSMENT TOOLS Other tools we use in our school to gather data about our readers are listed below: Words their Way Spelling Inventories Scholastic Whole Book Assessments Department of Education Performance Task All the assessments listed above provide data about students ability as independent readers and their reading comprehension. Based on the way they perform on these assessments, their independent reading level is determined.
A CLOSER LOOK AT OUR DATA! Based on the data we have collected so far, we can determine the following: of readers in 5 th grade are currently reading below grade level and performing below reading standards. % of readers in 5 th grade are currently reading on grade level and performing according to reading standards. % of readers in 5 th grade are currently reading above grade level and performing above reading standards. This data indicates that the majority of 5 th graders in our school are not currently reading texts that are considered complex enough according to state standards.
Here are a list of suggested instructional practices that can assist in increasing the percentage of readers performing on and above 5 th grade level standards. The suggestions listed in the next slide have been proven to improve the quality of independent reading and comprehension of text to help students transition into reading texts with higher levels of complexity. Therefore, preparing more students to meet CCLS for Reading Literature and fulfilling the student portrait suggested by the NYSCCLS discussed previously. MOVING FORWARD!
INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES THAT WORK! Close Reading: Close, analytic reading stresses engaging with a text of sufficient complexity directly and examining meaning thoroughly and methodically, encouraging students to read and reread deliberately. Directing student attention on the text itself empowers students to understand the central ideas and key supporting details. It also enables students to reflect on the meanings of individual words and sentences; the order in which sentences unfold; and the development of ideas over the course of the text, which ultimately leads students to arrive at an understanding of the text as a whole. (PARCC, 2011, p. 7) A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text—whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced—to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness. (Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011, p. 7)
USE SHORT TEXTS Use Short Texts: The Common Core standards suggest several genres of short text, both literary and informational, that can work at the elementary level. Many kinds of traditional literature—folktales, legends, myths, fables, as well as short stories, poetry, and scenes from plays—enable and reward close reading. For informational works, try short articles, biographies, personal narratives, and even some easier primary-source materials, such as Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech or the preamble to the U.S. Constitution. Picture books can be used with readers performing below grade level because children's listening comprehension outpaces their reading comprehension in the early grades, it's important that your students build knowledge through being read to as well as through independent reading, with the balance gradually shifting to silent, independent reading.
AIM FOR INDEPENDENCE Aim for Independence: It's our responsibility as educators to build students' capacity for independently comprehending a text through close reading. One organization, Student Achievement Partners—until recently led by David Coleman, a lead author of the Common Core standards—suggests that we accomplish this through "text-dependent questions." Coleman and colleagues (Coleman & Pimentel, 2012) advocate asking a sequence of questions that will lead students more deeply into a text. These are decent questions, requiring both literal and inferential thinking, but they fall short in several ways because none of them will generate real discussion; they all have basically a right answer, they call for verbatim "facts" from the story.
WHY NOT “TEXT DEPENDENT” QUESTIONS Most of the text dependent questions align only with Common Core English Language Arts and Literacy Anchor Standards 1-3 defined as: CCLS.RL.1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. CCLS.RL.2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. CCLS.RL.3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact). But we didn't need the Common Core standards to push us to ask questions like these. We are already quite good at asking questions about what the author is saying. These questions do not challenge readers to interpret text not to think beyond the facts and details provided by the author.
RAISING THE QUALITY OF READING COMPREHENSION Based on the reading data we have collected thus far and the high percentage of students performing below standards, it is imperative that we stand together to raise the quality of reading comprehension. We need to shift our focus of having students answer questions geared to finding key details and ides that are directly in the text to challenging readers to begin thinking beyond the text. Incorporating a variety of the following: Questions that address Common Core Reading Standard related to craft and structure (Standards 4–6) Questions that address Common Core Reading Standard related to the integration of knowledge and ideas (Standards 7–9) Activities that address Common Core Reading Standards related to responding to literature (Standard 11)
COMMON CORE LEARNING STANDARDS FOR CRAFT AND STRUCTURE Questions that engage students in thinking beyond the text will be grounded in challenging students to notice authors craft and text structure as recommended by the following standards. CCLS.RL.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. CCLS.RL.5. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem. CCLS.RL.6. Describe how a narrator’ s or speaker’ s point of view influences how events are described. 6a. Recognize and describe how an author’s background and culture affect his or her perspective.
COMMON CORE READING STANDARDS FOR INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS To raise the level of reading comprehension students need to be engaged in answering questions about a text that allows them to integrate their knowledge and ideas about the text they are reading. Integration of knowledge and ideas will allow students to be more analytical and to think beyond the text. CCLS.RL.7. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem). CCLS.RL.9. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics. If students engage in questions that challenge them to think beyond the text, students will deepen comprehension and we will see an increase in reading levels which will raise the percentage of students who meet the criteria of the CCLS in Reading.
A LOOK INTO THE FUTURE! Together we can raise the quality of comprehension by putting these instructional practices and keeping the CCLS 4-11 at the forefront of our instruction. Lifting the level of reading comprehension in our 5 th graders will enable them to respond to literature in more sophisticated ways as described in CCLS #11 and in turn allowing them to reach the ultimate goal that By the end of the year, (they will) read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (CCLS #10) Concluding Message: You are not alone, TOGETHER we can tackle this task before us because “it takes a village to raise a child”.
WHY? I used this power point to perform a professional development session with fifth grade teachers regarding student’s reading performance. I discussed ways we can help children improve by making teachers aware of the NYS Common Core Learning Standards for Reading. Afterwards we made revisions to the current reading unit of study we were teaching based on student’s performance abilities.